5G Networks And V2x Communications In The Car Industry Writing Sample

Introduction

The Internet of Vehicles, or IoV, is the established use case for 5G in the car industry. The key growth drivers for the globally connected vehicle market are the increasing demand for autonomous driving technology and the spread of data-driven decision-making. The introduction of connectivity in car systems, such as solutions for accessing smartphone functions, easy and fast internet access, music-on-demand, as well as vehicle infotainment systems is a technological breakthrough that expands traditional mobility. Called Vehicle to Everything, or V2X, this trend is gaining momentum, and UW should consider the range of possibilities that today’s high-speed networks provide. The functionality of cars connected to 5G and using V2X communications is characterized by safety and reliability. However, to identify weaknesses and risks of applying these technologies, this report aims at assessing the characteristics of such innovations comprehensively in the context of the car industry. The V2X technology is closely related to the concept of collaborative mobility, which allows vehicles to exchange information with one another. Due to lower connection latency, 5G will make V2X communications safer and help create a stable environment for uninterrupted connection to the necessary functions.

Potential Opportunities and Threats of Adopting 5G Networks and V2X Communications in the Car Industry

Connecting vehicles to high-speed data networks is state-of-the-art and the result of continuous progress in the IT industry. The implementation of these advances in the automotive sphere has allowed addressing not only topical issues related to safety and reliability but also additional options, including autopilot functions (Pisarov and Mester, 2020). Arena, Pau, and Severino (2020a) suggest considering smart cars as a phenomenon in mechanical engineering made possible by advanced Internet connection algorithms and remote vehicle control functions. These cars have many options that make driving easier and more convenient. V2X communications, in turn, include numerous systems that interact at different levels and aim at covering various factors affecting driving. Yogarayan et al. (2021, p. 534) review such intelligent systems “in the context of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P), and vehicle-to-network (V2N)”. As Arena, Pau, and Severino (2020b) argue, various detection systems simplify the driving process and contribute to both drivers’ and pedestrians’ safety. Therefore, opportunities for introducing high-speed networks as a basis for the advancement of smart technologies in the automotive sector explain the increased interest in this topic, despite some fears and potential risks.

Opportunities for Introducing Advanced Wireless Networks

A connected car supports internet access and wireless connection, and drivers can attach other devices to it, both from the vehicle’s interior and outside. According to Trend Micro (2021), by 2023, the car industry will be the main field for implementing 5G networks. To ensure customer convenience and adequate protection, engineers have developed safety-oriented technologies. Security systems support different communication standards and cover various devices. In addition, such systems are equipped with tracking, interaction, and control functions that are not limited to one vehicle but fit into an extensive transport complex, including adapting to traffic control systems. Such networks are parts of V2X communications designed to control the safety and reliability of driving from different perspectives.

The opportunities that 5G networks and V2X communications open up to vehicle owners are increased wireless speed, lower latency, and high reliability without interruptions in Internet access. Moreover, such networks download data approximately a hundred times faster than those of the previous generation of wireless communications, which makes them comfortable for users (Trend Micro, 2021). Zhang (2020) also mentions vehicle teleoperation as one of the options provided due to sustainable internet connections. Satellite tracking systems and cloud technologies make it possible to ensure a stable connection of vehicles with various devices and infrastructure, thereby eliminating safety risks and storing travel history (Trend Micro, 2021). Remote control and full and safe automation are the real prospects for the development of this IT field in the car industry.

Potential Threats of Adopting Innovative Networks and Communications

Despite the range of opportunities that modern 5G networks open up for the automotive industry, this innovation is sometimes discussed in the context of potential risks related to safety and reliability. Kim et al. (2020) review this technology and note the threat of failure of AI-based programs that control various devices, as well as accompanying emergencies. Risks can also be associated with the involvement of people committing illegal actions and hacking the algorithms of 5G networks to access vehicle owners’ personal data (Kim et al., 2020). Huq et al. (2021) analyze these cybersecurity threats in detail and argue that, by gaining access through the phone of car owners, attackers can get hold of important information and even disable the vehicle. Nevertheless, in the context of the continuously evolving IT sphere, such risks have arisen regularly, and the constant strengthening of network protection is an approach to increase the security of their use, including in smart cars. Therefore, despite the aforementioned threats, comprehensive digital protection is an adequate tool to secure 5G networks and exclude disruptions in V2X communications caused by third parties’ criminal activities.

V2X Solutions in the Car Industry

In the car industry, V2X communications are represented by several solutions designed to create an efficient and safe connection between vehicles and various objects and devices via high-speed 5G networks. Yang et al. (2017, p. 260) consider different types of connections and, in addition to common Vehicle to Network options, they mention “Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V), Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I), Vehicle to Pedestrian (V2P)” as advanced solutions. Assessing each of these types from security, reliability, and privacy protection perspectives can reveal the inherent strengths and weaknesses of these technologies.

Vehicle to Network

This form of communication involves connecting the car with a high-speed Internet network. The safety factors addressed with its help are to create conditions for the prevention of emergencies. Gyawali et al. (2020) see finding parking spaces and changing lanes while driving as valuable options to make driving more comfortable and safer. However, communication with the network can also be associated with vulnerabilities since the aforementioned cybersecurity risks arise (Trend Micro, 2021). A vehicle connected to the network can be attacked by intruders to steal the driver’s personal data. This threat explains the increased interest in establishing a stable, protected base, excluding third parties’ access to the same connection channel.

Vehicle to Vehicle

This solution is convenient from a safety perspective due to the prevention of road accidents. Chen et al. (2017) note that 5G connectivity to nearby vehicles minimizes the risk of collisions and warns drivers of potential threats. At the same time, risks arise associated with fully trusting artificial intelligence to control a car. Along with V2N, V2V is characterized by convenience due to lower latency, but, according to Alnasser, Sun, and Jiang (2019), this latency has limits. As a result, due to too a sharp approach, the system may not react to the risk of collision in time, which can lead to an emergency.

Vehicle to Infrastructure

V2I communications help maintain a driving environment in which the driver communicates with surrounding objects to obtain comprehensive information about the traffic situation. Special devices, for instance, traffic lights, transmit data to the interior of the car, and all this information allows avoiding accidents and serves as algorithms to protect drivers (Gyawali et al., 2020). Like V2N and V2V, V2I protects vehicles from unforeseen road situations by creating safe driving conditions from an individual perspective. However, unlike 5G networks, which are actively promoted in the car industry, not all infrastructure facilities are equipped with appropriate access points, such as pedestrian devices (Alnasser, Sun, and Jiang, 2019). As a result, the driver may not receive the necessary information from the road equipment, which reduces the value of such communication and does not improve safety.

Vehicle to Pedestrian

One of the main advantages of V2P communications is the connection to pedestrian devices, usually smartphones. Information about their movement is transmitted through 5G networks, and drivers have an opportunity to avoid collisions, which is particularly important in conditions of poor visibility or traffic congestion (Chen et al., 2017). Nevertheless, such communications can also be associated with risks since, as Alnasser, Sun, and Jiang (2019, p. 54) argue, both V2P and V2V links provide “useful information for neighborhood area only”. Moreover, according to Huang et al. (2020), any network problem, be it a cyberattack or a sudden connection failure, is fraught with an emergency and a threat to pedestrians because drivers rely entirely on digital data. As a result, despite minimizing threats, risks to safety remain.

The analysis of V2X communications proves that when combining such options and providing stable access to 5G networks, these solutions are valuable in improving road safety for both drivers and pedestrians. At the same time, this is crucial to take existing cybersecurity risks into account as threats that can disrupt the uninterrupted operation of such systems, entail the leakage of private data, and cause emergency situations. Therefore, optimizing the wireless connection through actionable steps is an important aspect in enhancing the reliability and security of V2X communications.

Safe Practices in Applying the 5G and V2X Technologies to UW’s Vehicles

In order for UW to be able to offer its customers safe and high-tech vehicles equipped with 5G access and V2X communications, relevant service guidelines and application practices should be followed. The criteria that are to be considered are security, the reliability of the connection, and the privacy of personal data. Simple ways to optimize 5G networks and related technologies include functional solutions, for instance, the correct placement of antennas and setting up access points (Fallgren et al., 2018). However, to avoid operational risks and external security threats posed by hacker attacks, more advanced practices in applying 5G and V2X technologies should be promoted.

Safety and Security

To increase the security of the use of high-speed networks and related technologies, UW should utilize appropriate trust management strategies. According to Lu et al. (2019), security largely depends on how effectively the process of interaction between Internet providers and users is built. Corresponding verification procedures and authentication algorithms are important factors in determining the security of 5G in vehicles. Another valuable element of improving safety is the introduction of blockchain as a technology that improves the performance of V2X communications by integrating data and creating security protocols that prevent digital hardware failures (Shrestha et al., 2019). These solutions can help avoid the risks of breakdown or sudden interruption of connection with 5G networks, which, in turn, is fraught with accidents on the roads and a threat to both drivers and pedestrians.

Reliability

Optimizing driving reliability with advanced high-speed network access technologies is possible through the implementation of relevant improvement initiatives. One of them is the use of physical-layer security as a practice based on the use of cryptographic techniques designed to control the stability of the connection (ElHalawany, El-Banna, and Wu, 2019). In addition, specific performance metrics should be utilized to assess the reliability of the connection and alert drivers in advance in the event of interruptions or other technical failures. Hakeem, Hady, and Kim (2020, p. 338) state that “using efficient congestion control to enhance message reliability” contributes to making V2X communications reliable and improving the driver-provider interaction. Advanced algorithms for data processing allow establishing a stable mechanism for accessing the capabilities of 5G networks. As a result, all systems operate reliably, and UW should pay attention to the aforementioned tools to improve the robustness of all components in the links of V2X communications.

Privacy

The privacy factor, which is often discussed in the context of connecting vehicles to high-speed networks and remote control algorithms, is relevant to UW’s operations. Moreover, the activity of cybercriminals who hack user devices and steal personal data may not be the only cause for alarm. Banal equipment failures can also lead to the fact that drivers’ information may be publicly available, which is unacceptable in the context of maintaining customer secrecy and privacy principles promoted in the digital space. Therefore, UW should look at the edge-based computing strategy as a concept that aims at creating a safe network architecture without security holes (Rasheed, Zhang, and Hu, 2020). Privacy requirements that are to be met are also mentioned by the 5GAA Automotive Association (2020): minimum disclosure, unlinkability, conditional anonymity, and forward and backward privacy. Meeting these conditions when implementing 5G and V2X solutions in modern vehicles can help UW address privacy concerns and gain customer trust due to the comprehensive protection of drivers’ personal data.

Conclusion

Introducing 5G and V2X communications is an emerging trend in the automotive industry, and UW should look at the specific opportunities and risks associated with them. The involvement of appropriate technologies should be accompanied by the analysis of their compatibility and functionality since, despite such advantages as lower latency, increased speed, and high reliability, some problems and risks may arise. The main concerns relate to the aspects of privacy due to cybercriminals’ activities and security. To offer customers high-quality products, UW should consider the best practices for optimizing the use of 5G and V2X in their cars. The suggested guidelines can help avoid errors and disruptions in digital equipment and ensure uninterrupted access to high-speed networks, which, in turn, allows for a wide range of functions and improves driving comfort.

Reference List

5GAA Automotive Association (2020) Privacy by design aspects of C-V2X

Alnasser, A., Sun, H. and Jiang, J. (2019) ‘Cyber security challenges and solutions for V2X communications: a survey’, Computer Networks, 151, pp. 52-67.

Arena, F., Pau, G. and Severino, A. (2020a) ‘An overview on the current status and future perspectives of smart cars’, Infrastructures, 5(7), p. 53.

Arena, F., Pau, G. and Severino, A. (2020b) ‘V2X communications applied to safety of pedestrians and vehicles’, Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, 9(1), p. 3.

Chen, S. et al. (2017) ‘Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) services supported by LTE-based systems and 5G’, IEEE Communications Standards Magazine, 1(2), pp. 70-76.

ElHalawany, B. M., El-Banna, A. A. A. and Wu, K. (2019) ‘Physical-layer security and privacy for vehicle-to-everything’, IEEE Communications Magazine, 57(10), pp. 84-90.

Fallgren, M. et al. (2018) ‘Fifth-generation technologies for the connected car: capable systems for vehicle-to-anything communications’, IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, 13(3), pp. 28-38.

Hakeem, S. A. A., Hady, A. A. and Kim, H. (2020) ‘Current and future developments to improve 5G-NewRadio performance in vehicle-to-everything communications’, Telecommunication Systems, 75(3), pp. 331-353.

Huang, J. et al. (2020) ‘Recent advances and challenges in security and privacy for V2X communications’, IEEE Open Journal of Vehicular Technology, 1, pp. 244-266.

Huq, N. et al. (2021) Cybersecurity for connected cars: exploring risks in 5G, cloud, and other connected technologies

Gyawali, S. et al. (2020) ‘Challenges and solutions for cellular based V2X communications’, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 23(1), pp. 1-34.

Kim, H. et al. (2020) ‘Research challenges and security threats to AI-driven 5G virtual emotion applications using autonomous vehicles, drones, and smart devices’, IEEE Network, 34(6), pp. 288-294.

Lu, R. et al. (2019) ‘5G vehicle-to-everything services: gearing up for security and privacy’, Proceedings of the IEEE, 108(2), pp. 373-389.

Pisarov, J. and Mester, G. (2020) ‘The impact of 5G technology on life in 21st century’, IPSI BgD Transactions on Advanced Research (TAR), 16(2), pp. 11-14.

Rasheed, I., Zhang, L. and Hu, F. (2020) ‘A privacy preserving scheme for vehicle-to-everything communications using 5G mobile edge computing’, Computer Networks, 176, p. 107283.

Shrestha, R. et al. (2019) ‘Evolution of V2X communication and integration of blockchain for security enhancements’, Electronics, 9(9), p. 1338.

Trend Micro (2021) Connected cars, 5G, the cloud: opportunities and risks

Yang, Y. et al. (2017) ‘V2X security: a case study of anonymous authentication’, Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 41, pp. 259-269.

Yogarayan, S. et al. (2021) ‘Vehicle to everything (V2X) communications technology for smart mobility in Malaysia: a comprehensive review’, Journal of Southwest Jiaotong University, 56(4), pp. 534-563.

Zhang, T. (2020) ‘Toward automated vehicle teleoperation: vision, opportunities, and challenges’, IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 7(12), pp. 11347-11354.

Importance Of Oxygen In Respiration

Oxygen is a factor of respiration that generates energy in the body. Body activities require energy, including moving, stretching muscles, and relaxing muscles. Through the lungs as well as respiration systems, humans are able to breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide (Daniel et al. 35). The process through which the two gases get exchanged is called respiration. The energy is released from the food taken in our body after the oxygen has been used to facilitate the process. Oxygen gets into the body through the nose, following the respiratory channels. It gets supplied to the bloodstream and to the cells. Energy gets released onto the system through a process called aerobic respiration. After the food has been taken, oxygen is needed to produce ATP. During the process, the waste products formed, such as carbon dioxide, get exhaled out, and excess water is excreted. The energy produced is then supplied to the body to keep the normal functioning of the body in place (Daniel et al. 15). The body moves with the help of muscled that are attached to the bone and for the muscles to move, they require energy.

Bones are important components of the body since they give a framework called the skeleton, which supports and offers protection to some of the delicate body organs. The skeleton supports the body against gravitational force, thereby allowing the animals to stand upright, sit upright and also support the squatting animals (Daniel et al. 30). The vertebrae protect the spinal code and the rib cage prevents the heart from injury and lungs. All in all, the most significant role of the bone is its ability to work together with the muscles to support animals in movement.

Work Cited

Kluger, Daniel S., and Joachim Gross. “Depth and phase of respiration modulate cortico-muscular communication.” NeuroImage, vol. 222, 2020. 117272.

Data Mining As Powerful Tool In Business

Technological advancements make enterprises more efficient in different aspects, allowing them to reduce their costs and improve their operations. At the same time, technology entails numerous risks, including those concerning the security of employees’ information which in turn give rise to different ethical problems. For instance, when using data mining, companies can face ethical concerns related to confidentiality and consent, while when utilizing smartphone apps, companies can encounter security risks of data exposure and insecure communication.

Data mining is a powerful tool which allows to analyze large arrays of information and thus enhance certain operations and other aspects of businesses. Data mining of employee medical records involves conducting an analysis of patient information such as laboratory test results, demographics, medications, and diagnoses (Yadav et al., 2018). Such data is extremely sensitive and cannot be utilized without the consent of individuals to whom it belongs. As a result, an ethical problem may emerge if the employer refuses to ask for employees’ approval of their medical data sharing and does it at their own discretion. Moreover, there is also an ethical problem of confidentiality which may arise if the data used for mining is stored in a poorly secured way. Essentially, the medical records of employees can be obtained by a third party illegally. A similar security problem is inherent to the use of smartphone apps in the workplace where employees can share their content. Such apps often utilize cloud storage which may be penetrated and employees’ information exposed. Smartphone apps also cannot guarantee the security of communication which can lead to leaks or exposure of the company’s trade secrets.

Technology in the workplace is important, yet it must be managed in a proper manner to avoid different security and ethical issues. For instance, data mining of medical records must be conducted only after receiving the consent of employees. Before using smartphone apps, it is vital to check whether they can guarantee the security of communication and data.

The management course was extremely important for me because it provided me with knowledge which I am planning to apply in my workplace. The course itself had a solid structure which enabled me to gain a comprehensive insight into both basic and advanced aspects of management. While there were many interesting concepts mentioned in the course, the most essential were the SWOT Analysis and the Deming Cycle, which I will utilize extensively.

The SWOT analysis is a tool which I discovered to be both simple to apply and helpful for analyzing every company’s competitive position in the industry. The SWOT Analysis involves an assessment of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of businesses (Bright et al., 2019). The SWOT framework is important because it enables managers to perform a basic analysis of the company quickly and to gain a perspective on the possible future developments. The Deming Cycle is another essential tool for every manager which allows them to enhance the efficiency of any company’s operations. The Deming Cycle involves performing four steps which contribute to continuous improvement of organizational performance (Bright et al., 2019). The Deming Cycle is important because it provides an easy framework for refining operations and internal procedures in an organization, thus increasing the quality of work and products or services and reducing expenses. The management course certainly helped me to expand my knowledge and to become a better professional. The concepts and tools explored in the course ultimately contributed to my ability to make correct decisions in various scenarios while considering different factors at play.

The management course was one of the most beneficial ones for me because it enabled me to discover essential techniques and frameworks which improved my professional skills. Tools such as the SWOT Analysis and the Deming Cycle enhanced my understanding of management. Thus, the course overall refined my decision-making ability and effectiveness as a leader and manager.

References

Bright, D., Cortes, A., Hartmann, E., Parboteeah, K., & Pierce, J. (2019). Principles of management. OpenStax.

Yadav, P., Steinbach, M., Kumar, V., & Simon, G. (2018). Mining electronic health records (EHRs): A survey. ACM Computing Surveys, 50(6), 1–40.

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