Introduction to the Movie
A Beautiful Mind is a 2001 drama film directed by Ron Howard and produced by Brian Grazer. The film revolves around the life of John Forbes Nash Jr, a mathematician. Nash made a unique discovery when he was still young in his career, which propelled him to international standards. Handsome and arrogant, he later finds himself in a distressing and painful journey of self-discovery. He later overcomes the devastations and receives a Noble Price.
The film’s characters are real because they correspond to actual people. Nash has Schizophrenia, a psychological disorder that affects his career as a mathematician as well as his relationship with his wife Alicia (Fani, 2018). In the scene where Alicia is desperate to help his husband, she goes to the mailbox and retrieves top-secret documents that were delivered by Nash. She confronts Nash with this truth, and he realizes that he was hallucinating, which is a Schizophrenia symptom.
The actors’ performance in the film is fair and transmits what the character wants to share well. The movie shows the symptoms and the issues associated with Nash’s disorder through how he behaves and responds to his wife. The psychological disorder could be depicted in a better way by showing the actual thoughts of Nash in the form of an action (Howard, 2001). Whatever occurs in his mind before leaving the child in the bath tab and taking the letters to the mails can be shown to affirm the effect of the disorder.
The film gives the audience important messages, both positive and negative. The fact that Nash was able to get the Nobel Prize despite his mental disorder supports the principles of recovering from mental illness. In Princeton University, where Nash is pressured by his colleagues and faculty to quickly submit his papers for publication, he refuses and focuses on writing his original idea (Howard, 2001). This is a positive message of focus, originality and making your own.
A substantial relationship between the course and the film is evident. The young genius Nash, struggling to rebuild his career and marriage, is quite entertaining, and most of the audience will love it. The movie also has a fair choice of actors that represent the characters well, making the story real. Such productions are important in film studies as they show the reality of theoretical work in action.
Even though the movie is based on a true story, not everything is true. In the film, Nash struggles with a psychological disorder, and he is encouraged by his wife Alicia, whom he thanks in his Nobel prize speech (Fani, 2018). In reality, Nash’s wife divorced him during his illness, and they remarried later. Young Mr. Lincoln, a character in the movie, saves his law customer from a mob and proves that the prosecution witness is the real killer (Howard, 2001). In reality, Lincoln doesn’t save anyone; he only provides proof that the witness is unreliable.
A Beautiful Mind could have been made more entertaining by showing the reality of Schizophrenia disorder in a more detailed way. Some scenes in the movie, such as how Alicia struggles to support her husband, could have been made better by using the real story. Being alone after divorce could have portrayed too much suffering that people with mental illness face without caregivers.
Fan, S. (2018). The Schizophrenia in the main character of A Beautiful Mind movie directed by Ron Howard. Wanastra: Jurnal Bahasa Dan Sastra, 10(1), 9-16. Web.
Howard, R. (2001). A Beautiful Mind [Film]. Hollywood; Universal pictures. Web.
Effect Of Individualized Care Of Adolescents Living With Down Syndrome
Down syndrome is a common disorder that is affiliated with people born with a copy of the 21st chromosomal pair. The disorder is a chromosomal abnormality that often leads to a challenge in the development and health of children. The research proposal is therefore engaged with the developmental needs of the adolescents living with Down syndrome. The developmental needs in question focus on minimizing challenging behavior such as disruptiveness and wandering in adolescents with Down Syndrome. The challenge with the intervention in question is the research aims to determine whether the allocation of an individual caregiver for half of the study subjects will promote a more rapid pace of improvement. The social skills and reduction in challenging behavior are related to the aspect of a form of all-around development that may prompt them to live normal adult lives in the foreseeable future. The study aims at making use of two forms of research, the primary and secondary techniques. These will involve references to several journals, all affiliated with the behavioral improvement of the persons living with Down syndrome.
Down syndrome is a form of genetic disorder that comes about due to the chromosome disjunction whereby the addition of a copy of the 21st chromosome pair occurs in the person’s DNA. People with this disorder are plagued by intellectual disability and learning challenges; they also tend to have a weaker immune system and increased risk and susceptibility to a barrage of physical ailments. Therefore, the nursing interventions and heart disease journals have focused on this group intently while overlooking their mental development needs and challenges. The challenge of making these adolescents and children acceptable members of society is constantly dismissed in a quest to alleviate suffering and prolong life (Hadad et al., 2018). Therefore, this paper shall be intently focused on the quality of life and probability of social integration, and acceptable behaviors in adolescents living with down-syndrome.
Concerning the challenge at hand, the study shall explore whether individualized care or group care is better for adolescents living with Down syndrome. The primary focal point and the assessment points in this study shall rely on what can best be termed as challenging behaviors (Foley et al., 2015). Challenging behaviors can best be defined as behavior that is likely to cause damage to the individual and other people in their environment. In people with down syndrome, the challenges may include; disruptive behavior, stubborn behavior, poor socialization skills, and a propensity to wanderlust.
The proposed intervention, in this case, patients with Down syndrome, should have one on one (individual caregivers for each adolescent) care to minimize their challenging behaviors. As opposed to one caregiver serving more than one individual with special needs.
The objectives of the study include;
- The research to acknowledge and list expected behavior in persons with Down syndrome
- The evaluation of the challenges faced by caregivers.
- The possibility of improving socialization skills and behavior of adolescents living with Down syndrome using personal caregivers for each individual.
- One on one care for patients with Down Syndrome is likely to elicit better outcomes for the patients’
- Behavior modification and training are essential for persons who have Down syndrome.
- People with Down syndrome are capable of living their whole lives if their needs are met.
The evaluation of the health challenges related to the down syndrome as a disorder is consistently reported in the global scientific landscape; however, many scientists and researchers ignore the behavioral and social difficulties people face with down syndrome. The likelihood of aggressive behavior is almost unheard of, whereas the groups are likely to ignore people and social norms. People living with down syndrome often tend to involve themselves with disregard for policies and fail to follow instructions issued by their caregivers. This form of behavior is not applicable for social situations as it may jeopardize interactions among the afflicted parties and other members of their communities. The parents and other caregivers often focus on instilling basic skills and therefore overlook the socialization of these afflicted groups.
Evaluating the propensity of the children and teenagers living with down syndrome to engage in problematic or challenging behaviors is relatively high. The activities geared towards lengthening the lives of these persons are the primary focal points of the communities in question, and this may lead to failure in focusing on behavior that is geared towards a holistic life. The educators and communities charged with raising such children are therefore oriented towards establishing good behavior in learners living with down syndrome.
There is a likelihood that children living with down syndrome will engage in behavior that may challenge their caregivers and parents. These behaviors are often seen in children and adolescents and can be remedied in these early stages. The behavior in question may lead to bodily harm in the professional who is caring for them. The behaviors most commonly noted include non-compliance, insufficient attention, social withdrawal, stubborn behavior, and a disregard for authority (Gandy et al., 2020). The research was carried out in forty children with down syndrome and a group of respondents with no disorders. The children with no disorders were found to have a 12.5% prevalence rate for disruptive behavior, while those living with down syndrome displayed a 55% rate of disruptive behavior. Therefore, this stance sets the floor for intervention in this form of behavior challenges in adolescents who have attained the most basic home training and now need social skills.
Down syndrome makes it difficult for adolescents to live normal lives with social interaction and good health. According to Haddad et al. (2018), youths with Down syndrome encounter differing capabilities in daily living activities, behavior, cognitive functioning, and social skills. They conducted a study to examine the aspects that influenced these youths’ quality of life from the perspective of a caregiver. It was illustrated that more interaction promotes fewer social challenges. Shields et al. (2020) also carried out a study to examine modifiable caregiver and child aspects persuading community involvement amongst kids with Down syndrome. The study results showed that augmented caregiver time accessibility is related to higher attendance frequency. Besides, the higher attendance frequency is related to greater child engagement (Huirachocha et al., 2017). Less child engagement was related to having less communication ability and sleep breathing disorder. It can be summed up that people with Down syndrome who actively engaged in the community more regularly enjoyed larger engagement.
Influence of Family members and society
Social groupings easily influence people with Down syndrome to learn specific social skills. Family members may therefore prove instrumental in the acquisition of these skills (Cuskelly, 2020). The influences that siblings can have on the children with Down syndrome developmental outcomes are associated with language, cognitive, social-emotional functioning, self-regulation, and identity development (Shields et al., 2020). The author noted that there is little research that addresses siblings’ effects on people with Down syndrome. The author asserts that siblings play an influential role to PDS that can comprise teacher; social referent and model; foe and friend; contrast; and protector, advocate, and caregiver. Besides, sibling relationship quality can influence developmental outcomes of PDS.
The essence of the community’s involvement in the upbringing of these individuals was essential to better outcomes. It was found that some teenagers with Down syndrome were brought up within a comprehensive society. The adolescents with Down syndrome demonstrated that their social life was varied and rich, happening in many contexts with various companions if a more comprehensive array of interactions were availed (Cuskelly, 2020). Their thoughts of relationships were expansive, besides comprising fewer close associations (Dolva et al., 2019). The study depicted three contextual social participation patterns: the peer group design, family at home pattern, and the arranged company pattern. Thus, a one-on-one relationship with a family member or a peer friend, or an organized company friend will influence the PDS behavior positively.
It is also speculated that the social skill training programs may be helpful in the adolescents living with Down syndrome. The study by Kumalasari and Kurniawati (2018) revealed that examining such practices was essential to the development of interpersonal skills in the learners while promoting intellect in these participants. Therefore, social normalcy can be achieved if the learners are exposed to valuable influences in their socialization and training.
The proposed research will investigate if people with down syndrome are less likely to have aggressive or anti-social behaviors if they are provided with one-on-one care. Typically, people having Down syndrome without assistance tend to demonstrate aggressive conduct towards other people (Valentini et al., 2021). Therefore, it is crucial to research if one-on-one care can make any changes.
Twenty individuals present the sample with down syndrome aged between 16 and 21. Ten of them receive one-on-one care, and the rest has regular treatment and assistance from medical staff. All participants in the study had moderate to significant mental retardation. Since the purpose of the study is to investigate if one on one therapy affects the conduct of people with down syndrome, it can be claimed as an independent variable.
The data collection will focus on secondary data collection methods that are both primary and secondary data collection techniques. The data collected will focus on the already found interventions concerning the behavioral analysis and challenging behavior in persons with Down syndrome. All the study participants will be adolescents, and the studies used will be no more than seven years old. The study will therefore make use of the existing resources already documented by researchers and the research organizations. The research shall consequently be based on already published works and reading to attain the required information. The primary data collection will focus on gathering appropriate persons for the research to be carried out in three to four sessions. The sessions are to be widely spaced for the study participants to latch onto a method of interaction that best suits the intervention in question.
The collection of theoretical data will be gathered first. The meaning of academic data encompasses the data attained due to the written or other secondary data sources. The sources in question will use the libraries and other public areas where one can source journals on mental health (Johnson et al., 2016). This means the secondary data sources will be essential in outlining the already found information in behavioral studies of the condition. The journal sources shall be supplemented by the government sources on mental development and aggressive behavior in people with Down syndrome. It will be especially partial to studies on adolescents.
The primary data collection shall make use of 10 study participants who will use individualized care. One-on-one care will entail the use of individual assistance for a caregiver at all times of the day and night. The caregiver has not been specified whether it includes a sibling or a parent at certain times and a paid nurse or teacher during daytime or learning hours. The 30-day period will focus on the changes in behavior and the probability that dependent variables such as communal interaction shall aid in assessing the patient outcomes.
The research shall be primarily focused on the mental development of people with Down-Syndrome. The physical attributes and development shall be irrelevant as long as the study focuses on adolescents’ responses. The respondents’ behavior toward people in their direct environment shall be essential to the success of this study. The intervention is based on understanding the effects of personal caregivers for teens and how they may impact their descent into inappropriate behavior. The use of secondary sources will give the study the footing it requires, while the primary data collection will allow researchers to set the conditions they are interested in assessing.
The assessment may have certain discrepancies with specific other findings in that the study fails to acknowledge certain aspects of behavioral interventions. The male participants are likely to display more instances of aggression and wanderlust. The task might not have a deep pool of secondary studies to borrow from as it is very age-specific. The study may also fail to regard more common challenges as persons with down syndrome are predominantly good-natured and less prone to fits of rage and tantrums. Nonetheless, the study is valid and shall use persons in the prime of their behavior development cycle.
The study procedures shall involve the use of online resources in the university library, public libraries, and other online journal sources. Additionally, researchers shall view the YouTube channels of the behavioral scientists to assess specific aspects of behavior that are likely to be viewed and their different meanings. The use of these resources shall familiarize the researcher with the possible observations and already known scientific revelations. The searches shall employ critical terms that include; Down syndrome, anti-social behavior, challenging behaviors in Down syndrome patients, common behaviors in Down syndrome patients, and the adolescents with down syndrome behavior inventory.
Rationale The proposed research will provide an understanding of how one on one care affects people with down syndrome. By investigating the effects of Down syndrome, scientists can help improve the lives of those who live them on a daily basis. This will help with previous treatment, which can lead to changes in children’s development, and find ways to help people with Down syndrome live healthier, happier, more productive, and independent lives. The study, therefore, aims at the improvement of the quality of life of the study participants and that of the future generations, too, as it makes them more functional members of society.
The data analyzed shall help complete the study in that it shall be substantive in the description and assessment of behaviors displayed by teens with down syndrome. The data shall provide parents and guardians and other educators with a footing to decide what form of care will be essential for persons living with down-syndrome. The data shall explain whether group caregivers designated to an entire class or a small group of learners with a disability will suffice to socialize persons with Down syndrome or whether it will be necessary for each learner to have a caregiver. The evaluation shall thus focus on the aspect of individualized care over group care. Additionally, the study shall evaluate social and anti-social behaviors displayed by the participants concerning the mode of care. The overall evaluation shall be based on the family data collected, social skills noted, and other observations made by the researcher.
The evaluation of the research proposal is focused on improving outcomes for persons living with disorders such as down syndrome. The assessment of the consequences for the adolescent’s socialization and interpersonal skills was the essential focal point of this study. The primary matter of debate concerning eliminating or reducing challenging behaviors in adolescents was centered around whether the learners would gain from the use of group interventions or individual interventions to promote good socialization and interaction for the learners. The study expects to use secondary and primary research to conclude what form of intervention would suit the adolescents. Therefore, the analysis will be instrumental in promoting positive behavioral traits and promoting good interactive skills.
Cuskelly, M. (2020). Siblings’ influence on the development of individuals with Down syndrome. The Oxford Handbook of Down Syndrome and Development. Web.
Dolva, A., Kollstad, M., & Kleiven, J. (2019). Friendships and patterns of social leisure participation among Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. Web.
Foley, K., Bourke, J., Einfeld, S. L., Tonge, B. J., Jacoby, P., & Leonard, H. (2015). Patterns of depressive symptoms and social relating behaviors differ over time from other behavioral domains for young people with Down syndrome. Medicine, 94(19), e710. Web.
Gandy, K. C., Castillo, H. A., Ouellette, L., Castillo, J., Lupo, P. J., Jacola, L. M., Rabin, K. R., Raghubar, K. P., & Gramatges, M. M. (2020). The relationship between chronic health conditions and cognitive deficits in children, adolescents, and young adults with Down syndrome: A systematic review. PLOS ONE, 15(9), e0239040. Web.
Haddad, F., Bourke, J., Wong, K., & Leonard, H. (2018). An investigation of the determinants of quality of life in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. PLOS ONE, 13(6), e0197394. Web.
Huiracocha, L., Almeida, C., Huiracocha, K., Arteaga, J., Arteaga, A., & Blume, S. (2017). Parenting children with Down syndrome: Societal influences. Journal of Child Health Care, 21(4), 488-497. Web.
Johnson, R., Jarvaid, A., Narayran, M., & Michael, D. (2016). Aggression in Down’s syndrome. Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry, 20(5), 16-17. Web.
Kumalasari, D., & Kurniawati, F. (2018). The effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) program to improve personal safety skills for Down syndrome adolescent with mild intellectual disability. Psychological Research on Urban Society, 1(2), 81. Web.
Shields, N., Epstein, A., Jacoby, P., Kim, R., Leonard, H., Reddihough, D., Whitehouse, A., Murphy, N., & Downs, J. (2020). Modifiable child and caregiver factors that influence community participation among children with Down syndrome. Disability and Rehabilitation, 1-8. Web.
Valentini, D., Di Camillo, C., Mirante, N., Vallogini, G., Olivini, N., Baban, A., Buzzonetti, L., Galeotti, A., Raponi, M., & Villani, A. (2021). Medical conditions of children and young people with Down syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 65, 199– 209. Web.
Exposure To Violent Media And Violence In Real Life
The debate regarding the relationship between the portrayal of violence within media and real-life cases of violent crimes is ongoing and unlikely to reach a definitive conclusion. However, staggering evidence has become more prevalent in recent years to indicate that while individual cases of violent crimes may be influenced by media, the more influential factors that inhibit such behavior are socioeconomic background, upbringing, and community culture.
While both mental illness and exposure to violent media are paraded as the obvious causes of many violent crimes, they are seldom cited as the most common causes. In fact, gender is more likely to play a role in the likelihood of an individual’s ability to commit a crime than both mental wellbeing and exposure to violent media. In the majority of cases concerning violent crime, exposure to violence via media is almost never the sole or primary cause.
Despite the rising prevalence of graphic violence in a number of media throughout the 21st century, there has actually been a noticeable decrease in violent crimes among youths since the middle of the 1990s. Peaking in 1995, and once again on a smaller scale again in 2008, violent felonies among juveniles have dropped consistently across a number of states in the U.S. (Tucker & Palomino, 2019). Despite the significant growth in population, California has noticed a drop of 83 percent in 2017, a stark difference from 1995. This data is often overlooked, especially in times when media is often attributed to cases of violent crimes among youths.
This may be a result of the overall uncertainty as to the reason for the continuous drop in crime. However, if media violence is inherently tied to real-life manifestations of violence, rates would only increase. This is because the youth is exposed to media with violence and crime more so than ever before, through both free and paid content. As such, the argument that supports the notion that media and real-life violence are consequential cannot ascertain the current decrease in juvenile felonies.
Criminal and violent behavior within any population cannot be attributed to a single factor. Similarly, exposure to violent media is unlikely to be the only cause of such behavior in juveniles. In fact, a number of studies have extensive data that illustrate ways in which mental illness, background, and most importantly, gender, affect the likelihood of such outcomes. While mental illness is a popular scapegoat for incidents of a violent nature, such as shootings, which are often promoted by politicians, it only accounts for 14.8 percent of mass shootings and 4 percent of interpersonal violence (Kiesel, 2018).
On the other hand, of the 96 mass shootings committed since 1992, the majority have had a common component with 94 of the perpetrators being male. 86 percent of felons that commit domestic violence are also men. There are factors that are much more likely to influence an individual’s likelihood to commit crime than exposure to violent media or even mental illness, including binge drinking, childhood trauma, residence in a crime-high neighborhood, and being a male.
Both critics of news reporting and researchers have noted that the popularization of perpetrators of violent crime through media exposure hosts a myriad of negative consequences. These can range from copycat acts, the nurturing of similar ideology, and lack of support for victims or survivors of these incidents. The 1999 Columbine is a well-known example during which news outlets let the identities of the attacks be widely known.
This led to the ideology, actions, and identities of these individuals gaining popularity and a following. They would be referenced in letters and messages by 17 school shooters and 36 students responsible for threatening to commit violence 14 years after the Columbine shooting (Schildkraut, 2018). While the connection between news outlets popularizing such perpetrators and a myriad of negative effects are certain, they cannot be compared to fictional violence in artistic media. The two differ tremendously and have been noted to have different effects, with some studies even citing that extensive reporting on real-life violence does not often equate with a copycat crime.
It is also important to acknowledge the potential effects of violent media not only on possible perpetrators but on the general public as well. Analysis of George Grebner’s extensive research revealed that the consumption of media with violence is more likely to instill fear of being a victim of such crimes in the viewers than inspire such behavior in potential offenders (Morgan, 2010). In fact, Grebner’s perspective is not the quantity of violence in media, but the act of normalizing it not only in fiction but also in the real world has more consequences for the average viewer than for any demographic more prone to violence.
Grebner himself states that the connection between television and real-life violence is trivial, as other factors such as poverty and subculture effects are much more significant contributors with proven links to rates of violence. While television violence may stir imitation acts of crime in individual cases, it is not the root of the majority of violent felonies that are committed on a daily basis.
Despite this, individual cases persist and are often directly cited as being influenced by violence viewed within the media. In the same way, copycat crimes propagated after the exposure of certain felons via news outlets do not account for the majority of committed crimes of a similar nature, media violence influences only a few. Regardless, even the few crimes committed directly as a result of media violence are still tremendously harmful and an essential counterargument.
Studies have shown that children are especially vulnerable to interpreting media violence in ways that can manifest in their real lives. With studies as early as 1956, children more exposed to violence in the media were more likely to express aggressive, violent, and destructive behaviors (Stossel, 1997). While some of these studies ignore other factors such as upbringing, socioeconomic background, and mental illness, the impact of media cannot be denied. As such, while the argument that media and real-life violence are connected cannot be completely disproven, the evidence argues that the quality of the media and life factors of the viewer is more influential.
The causes of most crimes, especially those of a significantly violent nature, are usually uncertain or made up of a number of factors. The attribution of such acts to media or mental illness is often a scapegoat target that undermines serious economic, social, and political issues that are more likely to influence such behavior. While certain individuals may act violently by following an example of violent scenes seen in the media, their behavior is primarily motivated and formulated by their socioeconomic, cultural, and ideological background.
Kiesel, Laura. “Don’t Blame Mental Illness for Mass Shootings; Blame Men.” Politico. 2018. Web.
Morgan, Michael. Mean World Syndrome, interview by Sut Jhally. 2010. Web.
Schildkraut, Jaclyn. “The media should stop making school shooters famous”. Vox. 2018. Web.
Stossel, Scott. “The Man Who Counts the Killings”. The Atlantic, 1997. Web.
Tucker, Jill, & Palomino, Joaquin. “Vanishing Violence”. San Francisco Chronicle. 2019. Web.