A Beneficial Plan For The Chinese Society Free Writing Sample

One could argue that prohibiting the search that Ruche was performing could inhibit future Chinese patients from receiving a drug that could be necessary to sustain life. Roach’s Cell Kept had a beneficial plan for the Chinese society in creating a drug to help sustain life or fight the disease for their specific ethnicity. As a utilitarian, finding a resolution for the good is the most ethical and just decision. The utilitarian should argue that Ruche had no control over how the organs were harvested.

Knowing or not knowing where the organs were originating from wouldn’t be as important, as Eng as their end goal of saving lives would be completed. Rights are defined as individual entitlements to freedom of choice and well-being This may lead a rights based ethic to say that the prisoners from which the organs were being harvested could not be accepted because they were being held against their free will. An ethical person may also argue that there is no way to know under what conditions the organs were being removed from such prisoners.

However since rights are up to the individual, it cannot be determined if the individual is recently dead. The conditions of this study are questionable since there is no way of knowing if the prisoner declined to be a part of this study. More so, if the organs are being sold for a profit instead of research, then this decision would be defined unethical by moral standards. Now, which approach is stronger and reasonable? We see the reference to which viewpoint being the strongest and most reasonable, this is an extremely controversial issue.

Lives are on the line in both situations. Views differ from person to person and different arguments can be made for both utilitarianism and rights-based. When it comes to the right-based ethic, Ruche was in violation of the prisoner’s basic human rights. The company knew that up to ninety percent of organs came from executed prisoners. The company should have looked into why the prisoner was executed because some of the them were there because of their religious belief and the different opinions between them and the governments.

One view is that of the rights based ethic. A utilitarian measures utility of the benefits produced by an action. Ethics could prove that many prisoners being held were not criminals. They could also prove that many organs were being harvested only for money. The ethic has a strong and more reasonable case in this situation. Even though most people in China would have benefited by keeping the drug, the process of testing the drug was polluted by the violation of basic human rights that even the people using the drug would have hated.

However, on the other hand, utilitarianism provides a defense for Ruche because the company was looking to benefit the country of China as a whole given that they were in favor of the medicine that prevented patients from ( post-transplant organ rejection ). This view would have been a strong decision for society even though if you would only threat the prisoners. Question # 2 : Is it ethical to continue testing Cell Kept on its Chinese transplant patients? Answer # 2 : Both sides of the argument are made in this case as well.

In business we must evaluate decisions along ethical lines and we must address whether it is worth something ethically questionable for the sake of good. Cell Kept is a drug designed to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs. In order to market Cell Kept in China, Ruche needed regulatory approval that would only be given after the completion of drug trials in China Ruche made a judgment call based on a utilitarian viewpoint of the situation. He was aware that the patients he was testing Cell Kept on were possibly living with these harvested organs.

However, it is not Roach’s concern to understand whether these were innocent or punishable people were killed for an unjust reason. If the drug was not tested on the Chinese people, it could not be used on anyone of this country, even those receiving organs from family. Chinese prevents pharmaceutical companies from determining the origin of the transplant organ as in many countries. Even though a percentage of the organs of its test patients had to have been harvested from prisoners, it was not possible for the company to find out the source of its Chinese patients’ organs.

The issue lies among the Chinese who are murdering for money. The ethical standard of Ruche being considered is almost insignificant considering the ethical behavior of those who were harvesting organs from innocent people. On the other side, Ruche was “concerned” of the controversy because of their involvement with transplants operations. Beside this, it was not ethical for Ruche to continue testing. Because Dry. Ashcan stated that Cell Kept was a medicine that had save thousands of patients’ lives, they should continue using it?

The fact that the company was violating peoples’ rights was and still is an unethical practice according to the definition we studied . Ethics is genuinely a subject that has everything to do with the opinion of the person in charge or the majority vote. We can all give and let our viewpoints be considered. It seems sometimes the outcome is not always being matched with our own personal view. The best thing is to hold on to your morals standards and make choices to the best of your own ability.

We The Living By Ayn Rand, And The Porcupine By Julian Barnes

Communism has failed in Europe because of its lack of care for the individual, its corrupt leaders and also because it went against human nature. Two novels that demonstrate this statement are the semi-autobiographical We the Living by Ayn Rand, and Julian Barnes’ The Porcupine.

According to Ayn Rand, Communists were pitiless. When Kira, the protagonist of the story, begged for help to save her lover’s life, the only answer she received from the general was “Why – in the face of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics- can’t one aristocrat die?” (216). Communists say that they want everyone to be equal and have a good life, yet they contradict themselves in that they don’t acknowledge each individual, which is the make-up of their so-called “collect.” Since individuals didn’t matter, people lived poorly. In Maria Petrovna’s words, “‘These are hard times, God have pity on us, these are hard times’” (27). Communism crushed people’s hopes and it also broke them down. ” ‘We have no future,’” (27) said Simon.

Barnes showed how people didn’t matter in a Communist society by showing how people were exhausted. “People had been too busy, or too tired, to make love; that was another thing that had broken down…During the last statistical year, the number of live births had been exceeded both by the number of abortions and by the number of deaths” (63). Individual lives just didn’t matter. Because people were so unhappy, they did not support the government. To maintain its standing, the government had to make sure that everyone lived in fear. This would decrease the chance of rebellion. In one of his articles, Steven Morewood talks about Gorbachev, a Communist leader. “Gorbachev concedes ‘The totalitarian model had relied on dictatorship and violence, and I can see that this was not acceptable to the people’” (33)

Neglect of the individual was not Communism’s only fault. Corruption among its leaders was also very common. In We the Living, Pavel Syerov, a high ranking Communist, gets involved in a corrupt business. This was the kind of business that he himself might have to seize and break up. The Communist party itself, especially its high members, became the new-hated bourgeois class. “The system was so corrupt and decayed as to be unreformable,” explains Morewood (33). They lived well off while the rest of the people suffered. “Pavel Syerov bought a new pair of boots” (134), while “Vasili sold the last shade off the lamp in the drawing room” (135). Andrei Taganov, a “Commie,” had more money than he knew what to do with, while Kira’s family could barely get food because they were once bourgeois.

Corruption among Communist leaders is the major issue in The Porcupine. The novel’s main character, Stoyo Petkanov, was the President of a Communist Balkan state. His government was overthrown and Petkanov was on trial for various things, including

Theft. Embezzlement of state funds. Corruption. Speculation. Currency offenses. Profiteering. Complicity in the murder of Simeon Popov….Complicity in torture. Complicity in attempted genocide. Innumerable conspiracies to pervert the course of justice. (15)

His corruption was so great that his own people hated him immensely. Atanas and Vera, common people, accuse him of “mass murder” and “genocide.” They also refer to him as “the bastard.” This ironic thing about the trial is that Stoyo Petkanov was not the only guilty of the crimes. Almost everyone in the courtroom was guilty of one thing or another. The Presidents of the Court and the attorneys had nice cars and apartments while the common people were jobless and starving. Everyone was a hypocrite. Communists wanted everyone to live equally, yet they didn’t mind being above the people.

Another reason that Communism failed in Europe was that people couldn’t automatically change. It is very hard to change one’s instincts and the ideas that have governed our society for hundreds of years. Our instincts are selfish, one may say, because we’d do anything to ensure our survival. In a life and death situation, the “collect” is the last thing that we have on our minds. Everyone works for himself or his family, not for the rest of the people. This is not necessarily wrong. The strong and able should be able to rise to the top. That’s the surest way a person can perform to their fullest potential; if they know that there’s something rewarding for them. Kira says

Don’t you know that there are things, in the best of us, which no outside hand should dare to touch? This sacred because, and only because, one can say: This is mine? Don’t you know that there is something in us which must not be touched by any state, by any collective, by any number of million? (Rand, 80)

Andrei, the Communist, said ” ‘No.’” (80). At the end of the novel, however, he finally understands why people do things. Even the “Reds” do the things that they do because they believe in their cause. The bottom line is that it is their cause.

Barnes expresses the absurdity of the Communist regime through the questions of an innocent child. Angelina, a little girl, asks her father “Why were there so many soldiers when there wasn’t a war? Why were there so many apricot trees in the countryside but never apricots in the shops? ” (26). If this little girl had enough logic to question the conditions of her environment, then there was definitely something wrong in the society. The little girl’s curiosity represents our nature, and Communism clearly went against it.

Communism did not give people equality and justice. It only gave them “instability and hopelessness” (Barnes, 69). Ye Albatz states “The use of cruelty and violence by Communists to establish equality and justice really justifies its extinction” (7). There are still countries today that have a Communist government. North Korea and Communist China have virtually no relations with other countries. The Korean government wants to “To spur the people to harbor the spirit of self- reliance in coping with the economic difficulties after the suspension of aid from the Soviet Union.” (

http://www.koreascope.org/english/sub/2/1/nk1_4.htm). Their people are imprisoned and unhappy. Communism will probably fail there for the same reasons it failed in Russia. The ideals of this regime might have the people’s good in mind, but people are people and they get carried away. The leaders became corrupt, they didn’t care about the individual people, and the whole idea of Communism goes against human nature. It was virtually impossibly for Communism to survive.

Albatz, Ye. “The CPSU was a totalitarian ruler.” Moscow News July 12, 1992: v28 n3535 p.7(1)

Bernard, Julian. The Porcupine. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Morewood, Steven. “Gorbachev and the Collapse of Communism. ” History Review September 1998: n 31-p.33 (6)

Rand, Ayn. We the Living. New York, NY: Penguin Group, 1959.


Works cited

Albatz, Ye. “The CPSU was a totalitarian ruler.” Moscow News July 12, 1992: v28 n3535 p.7(1)

Bernard, Julian. The Porcupine. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Morewood, Steven. “Gorbachev and the Collapse of Communism. “ History Review September 1998: n 31-p.33 (6)

Rand, Ayn. We the Living. New York, NY: Penguin Group, 1959.


Martin Luther: Wholeness Is Not Perfection

This chapter’s focus is on wholeness, and our journey toward strength, beauty, and happiness. Everyone, specifically teens, must journey through their path to wholeness; we all struggle with problems such as finding ourselves lovable and freeing ourselves of “hooks” that seem to grab and control us. One must remember however that wholeness is not perfection.

It is the balancing of all the parts of self to create a dynamic and harmonious order. This virtue is also known as temperance. When one tries to be perfect one wages a war against another aspect of oneself. Instead we must realize that we are complex creatures that have many different aspects; we are physical, rational, emotional, social, and spiritual.

During our journey to wholeness, we will fall but through perseverance and God’s help, we can balance our lives. After, reading the chapter, I realized that self-consciousness caused all of the problems that made us stumble on our road to wholeness. Many Americans believe that they must fit into a mold. For example, many teens are motivated to drink alcohol, smoke, and take drugs because it is “cool” thing to do.

Yet others, who see past such misconceptions, still give in because they feel that they help them “relax” during parties. People who suffer from eating disorder believe that society calls them to fit the perfect dress or waist size. Young teens feel pressured into premarital sex either because their partner or peers pressure them, or because our “culture” condones it. In all situations people choose to unbalance their lives for the sake of others.

We all seem to be caught up with our reputation, what others think about us. The most compelling example is the story of Doug’s death. His body told him that he had had enough yet his struggle to please his peers ultimately led to his death. Why do we waste our lives for people who really do not care for us? It is a viscous circle.

One person pressures others to make wrong choices because another has done the same to them. For such reasons, I have resolved to rebuke such calls to unnecessary pride. I will try to love myself first before thinking of how others think of me!

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