A Care Plan For Pediatric Patient With Cystic Fibrosis Essay Example

As a person involved in caring for patients and promoting the best possible health outcomes, I regard the proper use of evidence as a cornerstone for high-quality care that is compatible with patients’ interests and needs. In this paper, I will discuss the case of Caitlynn, a pediatric patient with cystic fibrosis, and propose a care plan that will be aimed at improving this patient’s safety and reducing the risks of unfavorable events and further complications. Caring for patients living far from their providers can be challenging and may require remote collaboration, which can be observed in the case of Caitlynn.

To begin with, let me introduce relevant details about the patient. Caitlynn Bergan, a 2-year old girl, was admitted for pneumonia and a previous history of issues with breathing. Patient care during hospitalization involved different measures to normalize breathing.

Eventually, as per the results of sweat chloride tests, the young patient was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis – a potentially life-threatening condition. Currently, there is no known cure for cystic fibrosis, and what such patients actually require is proper measures to manage and minimize the symptoms of this condition. The key problem is that the risks of complications still exist despite the provided effective care. Significantly, Caitlynn lives far from Valley City Regional Hospital, and unnecessary trips to the hospital would be an extra financial burden on the family.

The proposed care plan for Caitlynn involves keeping to a diet, the use of equipment for vest therapy, and interprofessional collaboration via telehealth. After receiving patient education and getting acquainted with credible publications and manuals related to cystic fibrosis and the signs of complications, the patient’s parents are to take the girl home to closely monitor her condition. To promote the child’s safety, the parents are to implement recommendations related to nutrition (more high-calorie foods to support development and growth). Providing them with a vest device for safe and effective chest physical therapy is another critical measure to promote positive outcomes.

Next, it will be important to establish telemedicine communication between the patient’s local pediatrician and the respiratory therapist from Valley City Regional Hospital. The pediatrician is to be provided with assistance and education regarding equipment and software for telehealth spirometry. Spirometry assessments will be conducted at a mutually convenient time, and the pediatrician will be able to send the results to the respiratory therapist in case of warning symptoms and evaluate the necessity of admission to Valley City Regional Hospital.

Now, I am going to discuss the ways how an EBP model has helped to develop a care plan proposed earlier. The John Hopkins EBP Model is aimed at facilitating and accelerating decision-making due to three steps, such as developing a practice question, evaluating evidence, and translating evidence into practice. Given the lack of adequate cystic fibrosis resources in McHenry, the practice question relates to the best ways to enable the local pediatrician and the family to manage the condition’s symptoms and evaluate the need for specialized services.

As for step two, I analyzed evidence from the case in combination with evidence from professional sources researching patients with cystic fibrosis. As for the first component, putting the child on an age-appropriate diet is necessary to normalize Caitlynn’s BMI, and it is an evidence-based measure that helps with digestive symptoms in cystic fibrosis and is critical to support young patients’ healthy development. Next, chest physiotherapy must be performed regularly and correctly to facilitate breathing and avoid hurting Caitlynn.

However, as the conversation with Janice has revealed, it is difficult for her to perform chest percussion without putting too much pressure on the child’s chest, which contributes to the risks of rib injuries or ineffective mucus management. Evidence from the review article by Hansen (2019) suggests that HFCWO therapy, also known as vest therapy, is superior or at least equal to other airway clearance techniques in terms of positive health effects in cystic fibrosis patients. The benefits of vest therapy include the promotion of self-care (most patients can use it without therapists’ help) and its effectiveness compared to chest physiotherapy conducted by inexperienced individuals (Hansen, 2019).

Next, during evidence analysis and translation, the need for telehealth communication was revealed. Despite her professional education and awareness of cystic fibrosis protocols, Caitlynn’s pediatrician does not specialize in respiratory care and, therefore, is not able to manage all symptoms or complications that may occur. To prevent unnecessary and costly trips to Valley City Regional Hospital, the pediatrician should be able to contact the respiratory therapist and other members of the care team and analyze the situation together. There is solid evidence to support the effectiveness of HIPAA-compliant telemedicine programs in remote health monitoring and consultative visits (Baker & Stanley, 2018).

Also, it is known that telehealth spirometry facilitates patient health monitoring and supports cystic fibrosis teams’ ability to provide effective remote care and reduce the risks of infections in children with this disease (Logie, Welsh, & Ranganathan, 2019). Both the pediatrician and the patient’s mother have demonstrated their readiness to collaborate with the team from Valley City, which increases the chances of success in implementing remote counseling. However, specialized telemedicine software will be required – the use of Skype can compromise patient safety, which is why it is not recommended for use.

Now, let me briefly summarize the most relevant and important evidence used to formulate the plan. Basically, telemedicine practices are needed due to the risks of unnecessary trips to Valley City Regional Hospital and the absence of local professionals specializing in cystic fibrosis and related complications. Next, the use of equipment for vest therapy is necessary due to its high effectiveness for airway clearance and independence that it offers to patients (Hansen, 2019). This measure is also critical since it will prevent Janice’s mistakes and knowledge gaps regarding physiotherapy from impacting the child’s health.

Finally, I would like to reflect on the benefits of remote interdisciplinary collaboration in the case of Caitlynn and touch upon the challenges. Most importantly, the collaboration significantly reduces the amount of time needed to coordinate different specialists’ efforts and share the results of patient evaluations. Next, in the given case, remote collaboration is what helps the patient’s family to prevent spending time and money on unnecessary trips, thus enabling them to use their resources in a wise manner.

An important challenge observed in the scenario is that the collaborating parties, including patients, may struggle with getting an answer from each other due to being busy and other factors. A helpful strategy to reduce this issue is planning teleconsultations between a few specialists beforehand (Baker & Stanley, 2018). Moreover, aside from telemedicine software, it is helpful to increase the number of communication channels and use phone calls and text messages to elicit a reply as soon as possible.


Baker, J., & Stanley, A. (2018). Telemedicine technology: A review of services, equipment, and other aspects. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 18(11), 1-8.

Hansen, G. (2019). HFCWO therapy: Weighing the evidence. Respiratory Therapy, 14(2), 45-50.

Logie, K., Welsh, L., & Ranganathan, S. C. (2019). Telehealth spirometry for children with cystic fibrosis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1-3.

E-Business Systems And Customer Needs

The internet is an avenue that comes with immense opportunities for growth. Essentially, the internet is a business platform that enhances efficiency in terms of operations and market presence. Doing business on the internet presents vast opportunities for expansion. Rapid spread of information on the internet is beneficial to online businesses (Goymer, 2004). For instance, a business can monitor what is happening within markets and respond to the information in time. The ability to respond to vital information increases adaptability and creates room for dynamic growth (Goymer, 2004). Internet connectedness enables a business to understand customer preferences, prevailing trends and market patterns. Upon this realization, the company creates a path towards growth. The content herein evaluates how to use the e-business platform to determine what to sell, how to sell, and how to reach out to customers. Recommendations for considerations

The first step when determining how to use e-commerce is in understanding the general operation of this system. Clear understanding of e-commerce creates ground for realizing benefits that come with electronic transactions. E-business is a broad term that describes technologies and applications that enable business processes to take place electronically (Gangopadhyay, 2002). The concept behind e-business will enable the business to interact with customers electronically without direct physical contact. How can this business organization utilize the concept of e-business? In order to benefit from e-business technology, it is important to understand the existing business entity. The process will allow the organization to take advantage of prevailing strengths and mold them into customer needs. In order to achieve this, the business will have to follow the right steps. These measures include understanding the e-commerce strategy, having the right people, following a certain process, and embracing technology (Cassidy, 2001). Application of the strategy needs to match the updated plan. Such a plan will consider changes in the market and align them to customer expectations. The management will have to put in place an effective strategy that requires new information systems alongside skilled personnel. In order to meet the expected standards, the business will need good e-commerce applications (Cassidy, 2001; Gangopadhyay, 2002). As such, it will be important to identify the right hardware and software technologies to meet the electronic business operations. When aligning the e-business strategy, the management team should look at it from the customer’s vantage point. Customer-centric e-business model will enable the business organization to identify the selling points and approaches that attract customers.

When executing the e-business concept, an organization must start with developing a website. The website is an online entity that provides business information (Gangopadhyay, 2002). Creating a website with graphics that match the target market will be a great way to start. The goal of creating a website should be to provide features that attract customers and help them in selecting goods and services. Achieving this goal requires a website that creates a platform that mimics the business environment. Such a site will enable buyers and sellers to find it easy in embracing the site. As a result, the management team will get a deeper insight into the type of products to make and buy.

The business can also use interactive websites that offer the customers the opportunity to interact. Such interaction will enable the business to identify what products to produce and key attributes for the perfect marketing strategy. An example of such a site should help buyers to specify and suggest the aspects that please them. Furthermore, it should also target shedding light on security features that promote customer confidence.

E-commerce sites can link the website to social sites and other affiliate online businesses that help in understanding consumer trends. Such interconnectedness enhances visibility. Visible sites monitor prevailing market trends hence creating a platform that understands consumer needs. Therefore, ensuring that a website has a good optimization rate in major search engines is critical (Cassidy, 2001). Optimization is a technique that ensures that the website has high rankings in major search engines. Conclusion

Creating efficient e-business platforms should be the primary consideration for the management team. In essence, for a business to navigate the 21st century, it should invest in e-business technology. E-businesses approach will give the organization an opportunity to record growth. High growth potential will come because of the global image created through the internet. Thus, it is important to establish e-business systems in order to match the dynamic business trends in the global market.


Cassidy, A. (2001). A Practical Guide to Planning for E-Business Success:How to E enable Your Enterprise. Florida: CRC Press. Gangopadhyay, A. (2002). Managing Business with Electronic Commerce: Issues and Trends. Pennsylvania: Idea Group Inc. Goymer, J. (2004). BTEC National E-Business. Portsmouth,NH: Heinemann

Big Data Fraud Management


The growth of eCommerce systems has led to an increase in online transactions using credit cards and other methods of payment services. These transactions mainly require that a user provide their personally identifiable information, which significantly increases risks associated with credit card frauds and identity theft. The article by Chen et al. (2015) introduced the concept of big data fraud and the strategies employed by Alibaba to curb cases of online fraud. The study explored different mechanisms employed in fraud risk monitoring and management systems, such as statistical and engineering techniques. More specifically, Chen et al. (2015) study described the Counter-Terrorism Unit (CTU), AntBuckler, and RAIN score models used to monitor, identify, and block online fraudsters.

Possibility of Implementing Alibaba Style of Fraud Management in U.S. based Institutions

Cases of online fraud affect all the people who use the Internet worldwide. A study by Mahmoudi and Duman (2015) revealed that in the United States, 70% of people who perform online transactions have security and identity fraud concerns. Additionally, Mahmoudi and Duman (2015) reported that, in 2012, cases of online fraud in the U.S. led to a loss of $3.5 billion. Therefore, the US-based institutions would benefit from Alibaba’s style of fraud management.

Online activities usually leave a digital footprint of their activities. Fraud detection systems use various algorithms to monitor and classify these activities as normal or malicious. For instance, the CTU system described in Chen et al. (2015) emphasizes the assessment of historical cases and user behaviors to identify patterns that would classify an online user as a fraudster. Examples of techniques used in fraud detection include the Naïve Bayes method and the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) technique (Zareapoor & Shamsolmoali, 2015). The fraud management systems monitor the activities of online users to identify patterns, which are then used to predict the possibility of fraudsters. The systems would then report or block the user from accessing online systems, subsequently saving companies from experiencing losses associated with online fraud.

Aspects of Framework to be impacted

Alibaba’s fraud risk system has five layers essential in the identification and prevention of attacks. The five layers as described in the Chen et al. (2015) study are account check, deice check, activity check, risk strategy, and manual review. Therefore, implementation of the system in the U.S. based company will result in changes as to how customers and transactions are processed. In the account check, the details of the customers will be checked against those existing in database to identify if a customer is listed as fraudulent. If the customer passes this layer, then the details of the device (computer/phone/tablet) are analyzed to assess their online activities. Devices with a bad history are blocked. The third layer assesses the users’ online behaviors, including linked accounts and device history. Users with historical patterns or behaviors that suggest fraud are also blocked. The fourth layer is concerned with judgment of these activities and making necessary actions (Chen et al., 2015). Depending on the severity of the violations, users are blocked, or cases are sent to manual review where the customer service manually review the customers’ activities.


Chen, J., Tao, Y., Wang, H., & Chen, T. (2015). Big data based fraud risk management at Alibaba. The Journal of Finance and Data Science, 1(1), 1-10. Web.

Mahmoudi, N., & Duman, E. (2015). Detecting credit card fraud by modified Fisher discriminant analysis. Expert Systems with Applications, 42(5), 2510-2516. Web.

Zareapoor, M., & Shamsolmoali, P. (2015). Application of credit card fraud detection: Based on bagging ensemble classifier. Procedia Computer Science, 48, 679-685. Web.

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