A Comparative Analysis Of Systemic Vs. Topical Estrogen Treatment For Vaginal Atrophy


This comparative case study explores the treatment options for vaginal atrophy in a 57-year-Mrs. Anderson is a pseudo-name. Reduced estrogen levels in the body before and after menopause are the primary cause of vaginal shrinkage (Donders et al., 2019). Vaginal tissues rely heavily on estrogen to stay healthy and functional. Vaginal tissues become more fragile, less elastic, and more prone to dryness, inflammation, and irritation as estrogen levels fall (Donders et al., 2019). In this case, Mrs. Anderson, who presented with vaginal dryness, itching, and pain during intercourse best treatment option is explored. This will involve examining two treatment options, systemic and topical estrogen therapy, and evaluating their relative efficacy. Treatment is tailored to the individual patient based on their condition, goals, and clinical presentation.

Setting and Social Dynamics

Mrs. Anderson visits a community clinic for help. Her husband is very supportive, and they share a home. Her resolve to seek treatment for her problems indicates her desire to enhance her life and foster a satisfying sexual connection.

Subjective Information

Mrs. Anderson presented with chief complaints of vaginal dryness, itching, and pain during intercourse. Her symptoms began six months prior to the clinic visit and have progressively worsened. It all started with a persistent sensation of dryness in her vaginal area, which caused discomfort and irritation due to a lack of moisture. This dryness was accompanied by a history of pain during sexual intercourse, initially starting as discomfort and gradually progressing to a sharp, burning pain. As a result, Mrs. Anderson’s sexual relationship with her partner has been affected. Additionally, she has experienced persistent itching in her vaginal region, occurring at any time and causing constant discomfort. Although the itching episodes would come and go, they have been a constant source of discomfort for her. Mrs. Anderson denies any abnormal vaginal bleeding, unusual vaginal discharge, increased frequency of urination, burning sensation during urination, or lower abdominal pain.

The patient’s past medical history reveals a five-year diagnosis of hypertension, for which she has been prescribed nifedipine 20mg once daily and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 once daily. There are no known allergies to food, drugs, or environmental factors, and no history of blood transfusion or radiation exposure. Additionally, she has not been involved in any road traffic accidents. Regarding past surgical interventions, there have been none. Regarding family history, she is the firstborn of two siblings, with a living and healthy brother. The family has a history of chronic illness; her mother passed away at 78 years old and her father at 83 due to hypertension. In her social life, the patient is married and resides with her husband and two healthy children. She does not smoke and occasionally consumes alcohol. Her diet is balanced and regular. During the review of systems, the patient reports experiencing fatigue but denies any history of cough, difficulty breathing, abdominal pain, vomiting, lower abdominal pain, joint pain, or headaches.

Objective Information

On physical exam, the vital signs are within normal limits: HR 76bpm, BP 128/78 mmHg, Temp 98.7F, RR 16 breaths per minute, and SpO2 98%. The patient’s anthropometric measurements are Height 5.7ft, Weight 140lbs, and BMI 21.1 kg/m2 (Normal). Pelvic examination reveals thin, pale vaginal mucosa with loss of rugae and reduced elasticity. The vaginal pH is 6.5, and there is tenderness upon palpation of the posterior vaginal wall.

Medical Decision-Making and Clinical Impression

A definitive diagnosis of vaginal atrophy was made after ruling out the two other differentials. The differentials were vulvovaginal candidiasis and vulvar dermatitis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis was ruled out as while vaginal dryness can also be a symptom of a yeast infection, the absence of significant abnormal discharge, such as a thick, white, cottage cheese-like discharge, and the lack of urinary symptoms made it less likely. On the other hand, vulvar dermatitis was ruled out as the absence of abnormal discharge, urinary symptoms, or other associated signs of dermatitis (such as redness, swelling, or rash) made this differential less likely.

The diagnosis of vaginal atrophy was chosen as the symptoms described by Mrs. Anderson, including vaginal dryness, itching, and pain during intercourse, are classic features of vaginal atrophy. The gradual onset and progressive worsening of symptoms over six months, along with the absence of abnormal vaginal bleeding, unusual discharge, or urinary symptoms, further support this diagnosis.

Introduction of Two Treatment Options

Vaginal atrophy can be treated with systemic or topical estrogen therapy, both of which have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Rashidi Fakari et al. (2020) found that treatment with systemic estrogen effectively reduced vaginal atrophy symptoms. Women who had experienced menopause and were experiencing moderate-to-severe symptoms were enrolled in the trial and given oral or transdermal estrogen treatment. Vaginal dryness, itching, and dyspareunia were significantly reduced, and the results were met with a favorable safety profile.

Potter & Panay (2020) conducted a comprehensive study to assess the efficacy of topical estrogen treatment for vaginal atrophy. Vaginal estrogen was studied in various forms (cream, tablet, and ring) and compared to placebo or non-hormonal therapy in the reviewed randomized controlled studies. Topical estrogen therapy was associated with a significant reduction in vaginal symptoms and improvement in vaginal health without significant systemic absorption, according to the results (Potter & Panay, 2020).

Comparison and Contrast of Treatment Options:

Treatment of vaginal atrophy with systemic estrogen therapy has the added benefit of alleviating other menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes and night sweats (Ghorbani & Mirghafourvand, 2020). The likelihood of systemic adverse effects, such as breast soreness, nausea, and thromboembolic events, is slightly higher (Ghorbani & Mirghafourvand, 2020). However, topical estrogen therapy is less likely to cause systemic side effects because of its more localized action and lower systemic absorption. It is excellent for relieving vaginal discomfort but may not help with other menopausal issues (Hirschberg et al., 2021).

Analysis of Research Merit and Soundness:

Studies on systemic estrogen therapy generally demonstrate research merit and soundness. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are commonly used, providing robust evidence. Adequate sample sizes, validated measures, and monitoring of adverse effects contribute to research quality (Rashidi Fakari et al., 2020). However, concerns exist regarding long-term use and associated risks. Research on topical estrogen therapy also shows research merit and soundness. RCTs and observational studies are utilized, with larger sample sizes improving reliability (Potter & Panay, 2020). Validated measures and standardized protocols enhance the validity of findings. Variability in techniques may impact research quality, necessitating further investigation.

Chosen Treatment Option and Justification

Topical estrogen therapy is the preferred method for Mrs. Anderson because it offers targeted treatment by directly addressing the vaginal tissues affected by atrophy. Topical estrogen therapy minimizes systemic absorption, reducing the risk of experiencing systemic side effects associated with estrogen use (Laing et al., 2022). This approach provides a favorable safety profile, mitigating potential risks such as an increased risk of blood clots or breast cancer. The estrogen cream replenishes moisture, improves vaginal health, and enhances comfort during sexual intercourse (Minkin, 2019). This tailored approach addresses Mrs. Anderson’s distressing symptoms, improving her quality of life and maintaining a satisfying sexual relationship with her spouse.

Specific Plans and Interventions:

Mrs. Anderson will apply a vaginal estrogen cream with a low dose intravaginally twice weekly for the first three to four weeks (Crandall et al., 2020). After that, she will apply the cream once or twice weekly for maintenance. To ensure proper administration and maximize the effectiveness of the treatment (Palacios et al., 2019), Mrs. Anderson will receive detailed instructions on how to apply the cream intravaginally. This will include guidance on the appropriate amount to use, insertion technique, and hygiene practices to follow (Palacios et al., 2019). Regular check-ins will be organized to facilitate the tracking of progress and the implementation of any necessary modifications to the treatment plan (Arthur et al., 2021).

Cultural and Socioeconomic Considerations:

Cultural and socioeconomic considerations are crucial in providing equitable and inclusive care for patients (Sindhuja Giritharan, 2020). Mrs. Anderson’s cultural background and preferences will be respected throughout treatment, understanding that cultural beliefs, practices, and values may influence a patient’s perception of illness and treatment options (Sindhuja Giritharan, 2020). In addition to cultural considerations, the socioeconomic aspect of Mrs. Anderson’s case will be considered. Affordability and accessibility of the prescribed medication, such as topical estrogen therapy, will be carefully evaluated. Ensuring that the recommended treatment option is financially feasible for Mrs. Anderson and aligns with her resources (Higgins et al., 2022). In case of financial challenges, alternative options, such as lower-cost formulations and assistance programs, can help. Also, proximity to a pharmacy, transportation limitations, and mobility issues will be considered to ensure that Mrs. Anderson can conveniently obtain the medication and adhere to the treatment regimen (Higgins et al., 2022). By incorporating cultural and socioeconomic considerations into Mrs. Anderson’s treatment plan, the healthcare team aims to provide personalized and patient-centered care (Higgins et al., 2022).


In conclusion, after analyzing the treatment options for vaginal atrophy, topical estrogen therapy emerged as the preferred method for Mrs. Anderson. It offers targeted treatment with minimal systemic side effects, effectively addressing her distressing symptoms. Detailed instructions will be provided for proper administration, and regular check-ins will be scheduled to monitor progress and make any necessary adjustments. Cultural and socioeconomic factors will be considered to ensure personalized and inclusive care. By choosing topical estrogen therapy, Mrs. Anderson’s quality of life will improve, and her sexual relationship will be maintained.


Arthur, S. S., Dorfman, C. S., Massa, L. A., & Shelby, R. A. (2021). Managing female sexual dysfunction. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.06.006

Crandall, C. J., Diamant, A., & Santoro, N. (2020). Safety of vaginal estrogens. Menopause27(3), 339–360. https://doi.org/10.1097/gme.0000000000001468

Donders, G. G. G., Ruban, K., Bellen, G., & Grinceviciene, S. (2019). Pharmacotherapy for the treatment of vaginal atrophy. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy20(7), 821–835. https://doi.org/10.1080/14656566.2019.1574752

Ghorbani, Z., & Mirghafourvand, M. (2020). The efficacy and safety of intravaginal oxytocin on vaginal atrophy: A systematic review. Post Reproductive Health, 205336912094664. https://doi.org/10.1177/2053369120946645

Higgins, J. A., Lands, M., Ufot, M., & McClelland, S. I. (2022). Socioeconomics and Erotic Inequity: A Theoretical Overview and Narrative Review of Associations Between Poverty, Socioeconomic Conditions, and Sexual well-being. The Journal of Sex Research59(8), 940–956. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2022.2044990

Hirschberg, A. L., Bitzer, J., Cano, A., Ceausu, I., Chedraui, P., Durmusoglu, F., Erkkola, R., Goulis, D. G., Kiesel, L., Lopes, P., Pines, A., van Trotsenburg, M., Lambrinoudaki, I., & Rees, M. (2021). Topical estrogens and non-hormonal preparations for postmenopausal vulvovaginal atrophy: An EMAS clinical guide. Maturitas148, 55–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2021.04.005

Laing, A. J., Newson, L., & Simon, J. A. (2022). Individual Benefits and Risks of Intravaginal Estrogen and Systemic Testosterone in the Management of Women in the Menopause, With a Discussion of Any Associated Risks for Cancer Development. The Cancer Journal28(3), 196–203. https://doi.org/10.1097/ppo.0000000000000598

Minkin, M. J. (2019). Menopause. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America46(3), 501–514. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ogc.2019.04.008

Palacios, S., Nappi, R. E., Shapiro, M., de Melo, N. R., Wender, M. C. O., Fernandes, C. E., Pardini, D., Machado, R. B., Kulak, J. J., Celis-González, C., Martino, M. T., Pizzi, R. R., Villaseca, P., Storch, E., Danckers, L. F., & Hernández-Bueno, J. A. (2019). An individualized approach to the management of vaginal atrophy in Latin America. Menopause26(8), 919. https://doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001368

Potter, N., & Panay, N. (2020). Vaginal lubricants and moisturizers: a review into use, efficacy, and safety. Climacteric24(1), 19–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/13697137.2020.1820478

Rashidi Fakari, F., Simbar, M., Nasab, M. B., Ghazanfarpour, M., & Rashidi Fakari, F. (2020). A Review of Pharmacological Treatments for Vaginal Atrophy in Postmenopausal Women in Iran. Journal of Menopausal Medicine26(2), 104–111. https://doi.org/10.6118/jmm.19021

Sindhuja Giritharan. (2020). Socio-cultural Perspectives, Challenges, and Approaches to Sexual Health in the Indian Subcontinent. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36222-5_3

Absorb Software Inc.

Target Market Segment

Over the last couple of years, Absorb Software Inc. has become one of the market’s leading cloud-based technology company due to the adoption of innovative technology services that has led to the development of eLearning platforms providing learners with the best search results based on behavior and allowing administrators the ability to effectively monitor day-to-day activities and reporting. The company has continued to expand its global reach, a movement driven by continued innovation, product development, and partnership with other players in the market.

The two major market segments of Absorb Software Inc. are corporate training and professional education. The company caters to the corporate training market by providing learning management solutions to businesses across various industries. Generally, administrators must continuously train their employees to improve their skills and competencies, factors that go along a way in improving productivity and overall efficiency. Since the company has a global reach, its client base is global, but most of its clientele is in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, Germany, and France, among other European nations. (Absorb LMS, 2023) Looking at Absorb Software Inc.’s customer base, it is clear that companies of all sizes ranging from small businesses to large corporations across diverse sectors such as finance, retail, healthcare, and marketing, among others, continuously use the company’s innovative services to meet their enterprise learning management needs.

Over the years, Absorb Software Inc. has developed innovative learning solutions that have proven effective in providing employees and managers with high-quality and interactive learning experiences. The psychographics of these consumers includes the need for scalable and customizable learning management solutions that can be used to train employees and administrators to enhance skills and overall performance. (Absorb LMS, 2023) These services go a long way in meeting the common behavior among these consumers, which is the ability to actively seek modern learning management systems that facilitate seamless content delivery, assessment, and collaboration.

Consumer Behavior

Generally, Absorb Software Inc. clients exhibit unique consumer behavior, including adopting online and blended learning management systems that can be customized to meet learning outcomes. These consumers are driven by a specific set of motivations which include the need for effective, up scalable, and customizable learning management solutions to improve the overall performance of the workforce or learners. (PR Newswire, 2021) Absorb Software Inc. has created innovative solutions that have made learning management easy to navigate while offering a user-friendly interface that allows seamless content delivery to meet the client’s needs. Over the years, the continued success of Absorb Software Inc. has been widely attributed to the increased desire among clients for a learning management system that meets administrators’ requirements to enhance employee productivity while maintaining compliance with industry regulations.

The learning experience preferences among learners have changed drastically over the last decade. Currently, learners desire an interactive learning platform that incorporates features such as gamification of content, multi-media content, and other social learning functionalities beyond the traditional classroom environment. (PR Newswire, 2021) These factors, coupled with the desire among learners and administrators to personalize the learning experience among learners and employees, have made Absorb Software Inc. successful in the market. In this case, the Company’s consumer base has unique behavioral patterns and decision-making factors that have led to the adoption of long-term partnerships and working relationships with many organizations across the globe. Further, the flexibility of the learning management services has led to regular updates and ongoing support to ensure that the company continues to meet the evolving needs of the consumer, factors that will go a long way in creating long-term patterns ships and working relationships.


To ensure a customizable and unique learning management solution for organizations, Absorb Software Inc. has empowered human resource (HR) managers like Stevens with the right skills to ensure their firms remain competitive in the market by adopting a culture of continuous employee education to increase productivity and efficiency. Stevens is a 36-year-old family man with two kids working in a mid-sized ICT company in the United States. Stevens understands the need to foster employee performance, a concept that has made him seek the contractual services of Absorb Software Inc.

The decision to prefer Absorb Software Inc. to other players in the market was driven by the company’s ability to provide tailor-made training solutions that could align with the organization’s goals and values. After extensive research, the decision to adopt Absorb Software Inc. was further informed by the unique needs of the organization’s employee training program and other behaviorists, such as Steven’s desire for a partner who offers ongoing support, an innovative user interface platform, regular updates, and good customer relations.

Positioning or Perceptual Map

Positioning or Perceptual Map

The above figure shows that Absorb Software Inc.’s learning management solutions are affordable and highly customizable compared to competitors in meeting the ever-changing needs of an organization’s training and employee improvement programs. These solutions appeal to Stevens, who seeks innovative, highly up-gradable, cutting-edge learning solutions to meet the organization’s corporate training and professional educational needs.


Firstly, considering the fact that increased uptake by corporates and managers has been driven by the ability of software’s personalization and customization abilities, Absorb Software Inc. should provide advanced options that administrators can use to meet the evolving needs of the organizations. The software should demonstrate increased flexibility for branding and innovative user experience options. In this case, the company will retain the current customer base and attract other organizations that value customization and tailor-made learning management solutions. (Calgary, 2018)

Secondly, the company must dedicate substantial resources to marketing and through specific content advertisement, as this will go a long way in attracting new audiences into the customer bracket. (Calgary, 2018) This can be achieved through conventional and innovative marketing strategies such as blog posts, webinars, and case studies demonstrating an organization’s potential benefits from using Absorb learning management solutions. Specifically, webinars and case studies are crucial hunting grounds for new clients since they provide a platform where Absorb Inc. can demonstrate mastery of common challenges faced by human resource managers, and this will go a long way in attracting leads.

Lastly, Absorb Software Inc. can benefit largely from forming partnerships and collaborations with other market players and technology providers. By ensuring the learning management system remains flexible and customizable, Absorb Software Inc. can partner with other service providers who offer complimentary services such as innovative human resource software. This can increase the value of the organization’s learning management system. This concept can put them ahead of their competitors and go a long way in widening the customer reach.


Absorb LMS. (2023). Learning Technology. Retrieved from Absorb LMS: https://www.absorblms.com/company

CALGARY, A. (2018, August 14). Absorb software Capitalizing on e-Learning Market Growth with International Investments & Office Expansions. Retrieved from Business Wire : https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20180814005095/en/Absorb-Software-Capitalizing-on-e-Learning-Market-Growth-with-International-Investments-Office-Expansions

PR Newswire. (2021, November 30 ). Absorb Software Recognized Among Top Learning Management Systems and Experience Platforms by Independent Research Firm. Retrieved from PR Newswire : https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/absorb-software-recognized-among-top-learning-management-systems-and-experience-platforms-by-independent-research-firm-301433709.html

Achieving Social Responsibility In Human Service Organizations Reflective Essay


Community well-being depends on human service groups. Experts must understand these organizations’ ideologies, ideas, and procedures. This semester, we studied management theory, philosophy, organizational structure, human resources planning, motivation, and incentive systems. In my reflective essay, I will use my social duty in a possible organizational job to promote social health and well-being. I would emphasize the well-being of our clients and communities. I would establish an inclusive, supportive workplace where everyone feels appreciated, heard, and respected. Open communication, diversity, and cultural awareness, and removing obstacles to equitable service access are needed. I also promote internal and external cooperation. We can optimize our influence by partnering with government agencies, community groups, and nonprofits. The collaborative approach would help us address structural concerns and promote social health and wellness programs. I would also focus on organizational, professional growth, and learning. We can improve our services by following new research, best practices, and creative methods. The dedication to development and improvement ensures we deliver the most relevant and meaningful help to people and communities. I want to encourage people and communities to take charge of their health. Self-determination, resilience, and skill-building help individuals overcome obstacles and live satisfying lives. Preventive approaches and early intervention to address concerns before they escalate promote long-term social health and well-being.

Learning Outcomes

I learned much about social responsibility from the course. We have discussed company culture, diversity, and employee well-being in social and human services via class discussions and readings. The systematic review by Sethi, Vito, and Ongbanouekeni (2021) was memorable. The review showed how much corporate culture and diversity affect employee well-being. The project helped me understand how an inclusive and supportive workplace may improve community social health. The complex relationship between business culture, diversity, and employee well-being showed how they foster success (Sethi, Vito, & Ongbanouekeni, 2021). The new insight enhanced my conviction in social responsibility and the significance of creating diverse, equitable, and inclusive workplaces. Doing so may have good ripple effects beyond an organization and benefit the community.

Professional Growth

My understanding of social responsibility increased through course readings and activities. I’ve learned the importance of overcoming biases, creating empathy, and supporting fairness. The new perspective has shown the importance of appreciating people’s different origins and experiences. Thus, I now see how crucial cultural sensitivity and diversity are in organizational operations. The empathy-based, inclusive worldview gives me the skills to serve the community better and reduce socioeconomic inequities. I can create an inclusive atmosphere by being aware of and actively confronting my prejudices. Diversifying viewpoints, ideas, and techniques leads to richer and more imaginative solutions to social concerns (Webb, 2023). By supporting equality, I can remove structural obstacles and create a fairer and more equitable society. My improved sense of social responsibility guides my attempts to improve the community and reduce social inequities.


Using my course knowledge, I want to address social concerns and promote fairness in my community. Effective H.R. procedures, particularly in planning, recruiting, selection, and employment, may help accomplish this. By doing so, I can guarantee that my organization represents the community’s diversity and ideals. H.R. planning helps determine the company’s existing and future requirements. Understanding the organization’s aims helps me attract and choose people with the talents, expertise, and values to solve the community’s social issues. To guarantee diversity, the company aggressively recruits people from varied backgrounds.

I will use inclusive recruiting and selection processes to promote equal opportunity. It requires eliminating prejudices and discrimination throughout the process. I can evaluate candidates fairly through blind hirings, such as deleting identifying information from applications. I also understand the value of tailoring work roles and responsibilities around employee requirements and skills. Creating a friendly workplace that appreciates individual contributions is necessary. Respect, cooperation, and inclusion allow workers to give their best, improving service delivery. Data and performance management solutions will help me increase performance (Kettner, 2013). I can enhance service delivery by gathering and evaluating relevant data. Employee training and development, performance feedback, and process optimization may be needed.

Social Responsibility

Successful social responsibility requires abilities, skills, and cultural sensitivity. Active listening, effective communication, and conflict resolution help communities manage varied needs and opinions. Organizations may better understand community needs by listening to their problems and ambitions. Clear, courteous communication promotes understanding and collaboration. Conflict resolution abilities assist in resolving conflicts and promote communal cohesion (Carrillo, 2023). Socially responsible companies need cultural competence. It involves understanding and respecting diverse cultures and origins and appreciating the distinct values, practices, and beliefs that define people’s identities. Organizational cultural competency fosters trust and rapport with support seekers. Organizations may foster diversity and inclusion by showing cultural awareness. Social responsibility also requires inclusive language and conduct. Organizations must use inclusive, courteous, stereotype-free language to shape attitudes and views. Organizations may promote equality and inclusion by removing insulting, stereotyped, and judgemental language. Inclusive conduct, such as treating everyone with decency and respect, creates a welcoming atmosphere.

Organizations may need help to be socially responsible in societies with socioeconomic disparities and inequities. Diversity and inclusion activities must be implemented to prevent these issues. Diversity committees or task forces, diversity and inclusion training, and fair treatment policies are examples of these activities. Organizations may improve communication, understanding, and cooperation by interacting with the community and stakeholders (Primec & Belak, 2022). Social responsibility requires constant training and education. Organizations may better manage social disparities by educating personnel on diversity, inclusiveness, and cultural competency. The training should be customized to community needs and difficulties to ensure staff have the skills and knowledge to interact respectfully and successfully with various groups.

Additionally, the organization must provide a safe platform for open debates regarding social injustices and systematic inequities (Primec & Belak, 2022). Employees may discuss their opinions and experiences via forums, seminars, or monthly meetings. Encourage discourse and actively listen to varied views to better understand disadvantaged groups’ concerns and work together to overcome them.


The course offered invaluable knowledge in managing human service companies. It gave me the academic and practical knowledge to help me in an organization. I value social responsibility. I will use this approach to promote social health and well-being in the community. I know professional progress is crucial to achieving these objectives. I will aggressively pursue learning and development opportunities and remain current on field research, trends, and best practices. By defining clear and quantifiable objectives, I can guide my career toward eradicating socioeconomic gaps and building a more fair society. I will lead by example using management abilities (Kettner, 2013). Creating a welcoming and inclusive workplace is essential for all team members to flourish and share their unique viewpoints. I will appreciate diversity and support polite conduct because varied viewpoints and experiences help us give excellent service. I want to help our clients. I believe I can improve society by using the information and insights from this course and a dedication to social responsibility, ongoing development, goal planning, and an inclusive work environment. We can create a fairer, more just society where everyone may enjoy a meaningful life by working together.


Carrillo, R. A. (2023). Health and safety leadership strategy: How authentically inclusive leaders inspire employees to achieve extraordinary results. Taylor & Francis.

Kettner, P. M. (2013). Excellence in human service organization management. Boston, Mass. [U.A.] Pearson.

Primec, A., & Belak, J. (2022). Sustainable CSR: Legal and Managerial Demands of the New E.U. Legislation (CSRD) for the Future Corporate Governance Practices. Sustainability, 14(24), 16648.

Sethi, B., Vito, R., & Ongbanouekeni, V. (2021). Organizational culture, diversity, and employees’ health in Social/Human Services: a systematic review. International Health Trends and Perspectives, 1(1), 74-95.

Webb, E. (2023). Burnout: Examining how human services’ cultures impact person-centered care and job satisfaction.