A Comparison Of Research Methods Sample College Essay

The study of human relationships and institutions is known as sociology (UNC, 2013). Sociologists gather and analyze evidence about social life to enhance our understanding of important social processes. Field work, a common research practice in sociology, aims to accurately represent population characteristics (UNC, 2013). This involves using various research methods such as conducting surveys, observing social interactions, interpreting historical data, and analyzing videotaped interactions. In this paper, we will explore two specific research methods employed in sociology.

The text explores correlation research, which analyzes the link between two variables. These variables can be behaviors, events, characteristics, or attitudes. The main aim of this kind of research is to determine if there is a relationship between the variables and to quantify its extent. Sociologists use different methods to establish correlations. Correlations are classified as positive (up to +1.0), negative (up to -1.0), or nonexistent (0.0). A positive correlation indicates that both variables increase or decrease together, while a negative correlation suggests they move in opposite directions. Nonexistent correlations indicate no relationship between the variables.

It’s important to note that correlation data does not prove cause and effect relationships; it merely demonstrates an interconnectedness between both variables. Changes in one variable will lead to corresponding changes in the other variable.

A1: Philosophical Justifications for Sociological Methods

The second research method we will explore is survey research. Survey research involves conducting interviews or administering questionnaires to a large number of individuals through various means such as in-person, mail, or telephone. Sociologists tailor the survey questions to match the specific focus of their study. The collected data is then analyzed to identify patterns, differences, and trends which allow sociologists to make predictions about the population under study.

One advantage of this method is its ability to gather data from a large sample size within a relatively short time frame. It is also cost-effective and provides respondents with the convenience of completing surveys at their own pace if conducted by mail. Furthermore, mail surveys ensure anonymity which may lead to more truthful responses.

However, there are drawbacks associated with this method. The reliability of responses may vary, deciphering results can be time-consuming, and not all potential participants may choose to take part in the survey.

According to Jones (2013), the survey method is considered highly effective and affordable for gathering a large amount of information quickly. Pearson (2013) supports this, stating that surveys allow for a wider range of study with greater efficiency. The use of anonymity in surveys encourages participants to provide more truthful responses and helps eliminate bias in result interpretation (Jones, 2013). Additionally, Pearson (2013) mentions that the ease of coding and analyzing data makes surveys highly reliable. Surveys also complement other research methods and confirm qualitative findings by identifying areas that require further research and uncovering broad patterns that may be overlooked through solely relying on qualitative methods (Pearson, 2013). Ultimately, survey methods make significant contributions to anthropological research (B. Anthropological Research Methods).

Anthropology, which comes from the Greek, literally means “the study of the human” (Malinowski, 2013). Cultural anthropology delves into the study of human cultures, encompassing their practices, beliefs, and values. Anthropologists employ diverse research methods to conduct these studies, such as participant observation, cross-cultural comparison, survey research, interviews, and historical analysis. This paper will closely examine two distinct research forms employed in the realm of cultural anthropology.

The first method of anthropological research that we will examine is participant observation, which involves researchers immersing themselves in the culture being studied. These researchers live within the society during the study and gain first-hand experience by observing and participating in various aspects of the culture such as ceremonies, rituals, storytelling, language, and meals. They document their findings using voice recordings, photos, videos, and journals. The success of participant observation depends on the willingness of the culture being studied to accept the researcher into their society.

The second method of research we will discuss is cross-cultural comparison, where comparable culture patterns among multiple societies are searched for. Testable hypotheses are used to try to establish statistical correlations among cultures (Gillies and Kinzer, 2009). George Peter Murdock greatly facilitated this methodology with his comparative studies. He developed the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF), an index containing many known societies worldwide (Gillies and Kinzer, 2009). This research method has two goals: 1) to describe the distribution and range of cultural variation between recorded ethnographies and 2) to test the theories and hypotheses proposed to explain the variations among cultures (Gillies and Kinzer, 2009). B1. Philosophical Justifications for Anthropological Methods

Participant observation is a valuable research technique that offers an inside look into the workings of a culture. By fully immersing themselves in a culture over an extended period, researchers gain extensive knowledge of the society and establish trust with its members. This trust enables them to gather more accurate information and create a comprehensive ethnography. Ethnographies not only facilitate understanding of a specific culture and appropriate interaction with it but also serve as historical records for endangered or extinct cultures.

Despite the potential invasion of privacy, participant observation is conducted carefully and respectfully towards all members of these cultures. Researchers seek permission from cultural leaders before undertaking this form of research.

C. Compare and Contrast Approaches

Sociology and anthropology are two fields of study that examine human behavior, group dynamics, and social relations. Sociology concentrates on the establishment, arrangement, and interaction of human groups, while anthropology investigates the physical characteristics, culture, environment, and social connections of humans and their predecessors throughout time. Despite slight variations in their focal points, both disciplines utilize secondary analysis as a research approach and depend on comparable sources of material and information. Additionally, they employ similar techniques for gathering this data. The primary distinction lies in how they apply and present the gathered information.

Traditionally, sociology and anthropology focused on different types of societies. Sociology studied modern, civilized, and complex societies (Bhatt, 2012), while anthropology traditionally studied simple, more primitive, non-literate societies (Bhatt, 2013). While sociology examined both large and small societies, anthropology tended to focus more on smaller ones. Additionally, their research styles differed: anthropology emphasized immersion in native life, whereas sociology stressed distance from the object of study (Dilipchandra, 2012). Furthermore, the two disciplines treated data differently; sociology approached data quantitatively while anthropology approached it qualitatively. Sociology believed that human behavior could be measured reliably (Dilipchandra, 2012), while anthropology asserted that a significant portion of human behavior was beyond measurement (Dilipchandra, 2012).

In recent years though societal changes have led to a convergence between sociology and anthropology. Sociologists now conduct research in developing countries while anthropologists explore industrialized societies due to industrialization itself (McGraw-Hill, 2013).

References
Bhatt, A. (2013).What is the difference between sociology and anthropology?Retrieved from
www.preservearticles.com/201101173442/difference-between-sociology-and-
anthropology.html

Cliffsnotes.(2013).Sociological research: design methods.Retrieved from www.cliffsnotes.
com/sciences/dociology/sociological-research-methods/sociological-research-design-
methods

Diffen.(2012).Anthropology vs.sociology.Retrieved from www.diffen.com/difference/
Anthropology_vs_Sociology

Dilipchandra.(2012, December).Difference between sociology and anthropology.Retrieved
from dilipchandra12.hubpages.com

Gillies and Kinzer.(2009).Cross-cultural analysis.Retrieved from anthropology.ua.edu/
cultures/cultures.php?culture=Cross-CulturalAnalysis

Jones, S. (2013).Research methods sociology vs.anthropology.Retrieved from voices.yahoo.
com/research-methosa-6521504.html

Malinowski, B. (2013).What is cultural anthropology?Retrieved from culturalanthropology.
duke.edu/undergraduate/what-is-cultural-anthropology

McGraw-Hill.(2013).Cultural anthropology and sociology.Retrieved from highered.mcgraw-
hill.com/sites/dl/free/0078116996/832678/SampleChapter01.pdf

Pearson.(2013).Sociological research.Retrieved from catalogue.pearsoned.co.uk/assets/hip/gb/_personhighered

UNC. (2013).What is sociology?The webpage sociology.unc.edu/undergraduate-program/sociology-major/what-is-sociology contains information about what sociology is.

The Experiment Of Qualitative Analysis Of Cations

Part I: Separate a mixture of known cations: Pb2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Cu2+, and Ca2+ into individual ions. Perform a series of tests to become familiar with reactions characteristic of each cation.

Part II: Separate and identify individual cations in an unknown solution containing a mixture of up to five cations. Use information gathered in part I to identify the cations. Introduction

Qualitative analysis is a general name for the process of determining the identity rather than the amount of chemical species. The qualitative process utilizes reaction(s) characteristic of a given chemical species and interprets the obtained results using a deductive thought process. Qualitative analysis of cations requires an extensive knowledge of various aspects of chemistry including acid-base equilibria, complex ion equilibria, solubility, etc. However, in the deductive process, common sense and logic can be as helpful as a knowledge of the chemistry involved.

In this lab you will be working with a solution containing a mixture of cations. Before individual components of the mixture can be successfully identified, they have to be separated. The individual cations, once separated, can then be identified in ensuing confirmatory reactions (see the flowchart below). Knowing the actual results of the reactions characteristic for a given cation (or a group of cations) makes it easier to identify the ion in an unknown sample. Therefore, it is useful to perform all of the characteristic reactions first on a mixture of ions of known identity, and then proceed to the unknown sample.

Reactions Characteristic for Pb+2

Separation of Pb+2 from Fe+3, Al+3, Cu+2, and Ca+2

Out the five cations in the mixture, only lead ion will precipitate, as PbCl2, when hydrochloric acid is added to the solution.

Pb2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq)

PbCl2 (s,white)

Equation 1

The solid PbCl2 is separated from the solution containing the other four ions by centrifuging the reaction mixture.

Confirmation for Pb+2

If the separated solid dissolves to form a colorless solution of a lead(II) complex when treated with NaOH, the presence of Pb+2 in the mixture is confirmed: PbCl2 (s, white) + 4OH- (aq)

[Pb(OH)4]2- (aq, colorless) + 2Cl- (aq)

Reactions Characteristic for Fe+3 and Al+3

Separation of Fe+3 and Al+3 from Cu+2 and Ca+2

Equation 2

The supernatant solution from the previous test now contains only four ions. Iron(III) ions and aluminum ions are precipitated together as hydroxides upon addition of aqueous ammonia:

Fe+3 (aq, yellow) + 3OH- (aq)

Al+3(aq, colorless) + 3OH- (aq)

Fe(OH)3 (s, orange-brown)

Al(OH)3 (s, gelatinous white)

Equation 3

Equation 4

Remember that aqueous ammonia is a weak base that is only partially ionized by water to form OH- ions and NH4+ ions. A strong hydroxide such as NaOH would precipitate copper(II) hydroxide while keeping aluminum ions in solution as a complex ion (equation 5).

Separation of Fe+3 and Al+3

Before each ion can be identified, the Fe+3 and Al+3 must be separated from each other. This is achieved by adding a strong base, NaOH. Because aluminum ion is amphoteric, Al(OH)3 will dissolve in a strong base while Fe(OH)3 will not: Al(OH)3 (s, gelatinous white) + OH- (aq)

[Al(OH)4]- (aq, colorless)

Equation 5

The orange solid, Fe(OH)3, is separated by centrifugation from the colorless supernatant solution containing [Al(OH)4]- ions and the pellet is washed with water to ensure that any adhering Al(OH)3 is washed away.

Confirmation of Fe+3

Since Fe+3 ion is in a solid at this point it has to be dissolved by hydrochloric acid before it can undergo a confirmation reaction. The resulting solution contains aqueous iron (III) chloride.

Fe(OH)3 (s, orange-brown) + 3 H +(aq)

Fe3+ (aq, yellow) + 3H2O(l)

Equation 6

The confirmation reaction for Fe+3 ions involves addition of aqueous potassium thiocyanate, KSCN, to form dark red FeSCN+2.

Fe3+ (aq, yellow) + SCN- (aq)

[FeSCN]2+ (aq, dark red)

Equation 7

Confirmation of Al+3

Aluminum ion is confirmed by the formation of a light-red, gelatinous, almost transparent solid upon addition of a solution of an organic compound, aluminon, in a moderately basic environment.

Al(OH)4- (aq) + aluminon (aq, colorless)

Al(aluminon) (s, red)

Reactions Characteristic for Cu+2 and Ca+2

Separation and Confirmation of Ca+2

Equation 8

The reaction used to separate the Ca2+ ion, at the same time provides the confirmation for the presence of that ion. A precipitate of calcium oxalate is formed after the supernatant remaining after separating iron (III) and aluminum ions is treated with ammonium oxalate solution. This precipitate is separated from the solution containing copper(II) ion by centrifuging, rinsing, and verifying that the precipitate is white. Ca2+ (aq, colorless) + C2O42- (aq, colorless)

CaC2O4 (s, white)

Equation 9

Confirmation of Cu+2

The deep blue color of the remaining supernatant solution confirms the presence of Cu2+ ion in the form of the copper(II) tetraammine complex ion, [Cu(NH3)4]+2. [Cu(H2O)6]+2(aq, light blue) + 4NH3(aq)

[Cu(NH3)4]+2 (aq, deep blue) Equation 10

Strategy for identifiying the unknown

To identify the cations (up to five) in the unknown sample, one has to separate the ions first. Therefore, the unknown is subject to the same separation procedures as the known. The logic followed here, however, is slightly different than for the known. You have to make decisions as you go, and should not blindly follow the procedure outlined for the known mixture. For example, let’s say that upon addition of HCl to the unknown solution, there was no white precipitate observed. Would you still do the centrifuging step since there is no solid to remove? In the second step, what if addition of ammonia yields a white, gelatinous precipitate rather than a red-brown precipitate? Will it be necessary to separate and identify both iron and aluminum ions? Do you need to add 6 M NaOH? What does it mean when the addition of ammonia in the second step yields a colorless solution rather than a deep-blue solution? Do you still need to test for the presence of calcium?

Report

Your report should clearly identify the results seen with each reaction for your known solution and state the identity of all cations present in the unknown. Clearly state the reasoning behind your identification of the unknown cations. Use a flowchart format if needed to provide evidence for the presence of the identified cations. PROCEDURE

General notes:

1. Solutions must be mixed well after addition of each reagent this can be done by tapping the bottom of the tube with your finger while securely holding the top of the tube, or by tapping the tube on the bench top.

2. Precipitates must be separated from the supernatant solution by centrifugation. 3. The supernatant solution is separated from the precipitate by decanting (pouring) the liquid into another tube. Make sure that the solid stays behind in the original tube. 4. All precipitates, after they have been separated from the supernatant solution, must be rinsed thoroughly with distilled water before proceeding to the identification of the cation present. To rinse a supernatant you should add one mL of water to the tube containing the solid pellet, mix well, centrifuge, and then decant the water into a waste beaker. Repeat

this step 1-2 times.

5. Carefully checking the pH is crucial in obtaining good results in this experiment. 6. 1 M NaOH and 6M acetic acid (weak acid) may be used to fine tune the pH if a small change of pH needed.

Terms and techniques used in this experiment

Centrifugation

The process of separating more dense solid particles from less dense liquid (solution) is done by spinning the solution at high velocity. The apparatus used is called a centrifuge. It must be balanced and the lid must be closed tightly to function properly. Balancing is done by putting the centrifuge tube containing the tightly capped reaction mixture in a centrifuge slot, then placing a centrifuge tube with an equal volume of tap water in a slot across from the first tube. You can also balance the solution against that of another student if the two solutions are of the same volume. Make sure you note the centrifuge slot of your solution.

Decanting

After centrifugation, the two phases can be separated by carefully decanting or pouring the supernatant liquid out of the tube leaving the solid behind. Rinsing precipitates

Precipitates must be rinsed to remove any cations that are present in the supernatant solution but that are adhering to the solid. The presence of these ions may cause confusing results in the process of further identification or separation. The solid remaining after the supernatant solution has been removed is mixed with one mL of distilled water and the tube is tapped to thoroughly mix the contents. The tube is then centrifuged, the rinse water is decanted, and the process repeated one to two more times. Testing pH

Never test the pH by dropping the pH paper into the solution. Instead, wash a watch-glass and rinse it well with tap water, then with distilled water. Leave it wet, but not excessively wet. Place several small pieces of pH paper around the perimeter of the watch glass (they will soak up some of the distilled water). Have a clean, dry glass stirring rod handy. After addition of acid or base to the solution whose pH is being adjusted, shake the tube to mix then dip the end of the stirring rod in the solution being tested and touch it to one the pieces of pH paper. Compare the color of the paper with the color chart on the pH paper box.

Procedure

Follow the procedure on the flow chart below.

Discussion:

Chemistry 1225 experiment 8 Prelab Questions

Name ________________________

1. Why is it important to mix the solutions after adding the reagents? How is mixing done in this experiment?

2. What is the reason for rinsing the precipitates before further testing?

3. What two things are extremely important to remember when centrifuging?

4. Why is it possible to separate Cu+2 from Al+3 and Fe+3 with NH4OH but not with NaOH? (Hint, consider solubility properties.)

Chemistry 1225 experiment 8 Post Lab Questions Name ________________________ 1. A student analyzing an unknown mixture of cations obtained the results listed in the table below. For each test draw a conclusion concerning what ions were proven present or possibly present and what ions were proven absent.

Cation proven

Cation

present or

proven

Test

Result

possibly present absent ( if

( if any)

any)

A) 5 drops of 6M HCl are added

No precipitate forms

to the mixture

B) The solution from (A) is

adjusted to pH 9.5 with 6 M

NH3 (aq)

cloudy, orange-brown

mixture is formed

C) The solution from (B) is centrifuged and the colorless supernatant liquid is decanted. The precipitate is rinsed and 6 M NaOH added.

An orange precipitate and colorless supernatant solution results

D)The precipitate from (C) is rinsed and dissolved in 6 M HCl (aq), then 6 drops 0.2 M KSCN is added

Dark red solution

E) 0.5 M (NH4)2C2O4 (aq) is

a clear, colorless

added to supernatant liquid from

solution

(C)

Transnational IT Operations Paper

This paper will provide overview of transnational IT operations and consider various factors associated with transnational IT operations. This paper will also address the advantages, disadvantages, and issues related to transnational IT operations. Language, cultural diversity, local customs, and control issues will be considered in this paper related to transnational IT operations. This paper will also focus on transfer of work, global network, service levels, and quality issues associated with transnational IT operations. Transnational Organization

Capstone Encyclopedia of Business (2003) defines, “the transnational firm is a network of specialized or differentiated units, with attention paid to managing integrative linkages between local firms as well as with the centre. The subsidiary becomes a distinctive asset rather than simply an arm of the parent company. Manufacturing and technology development are located wherever it makes sense, but there is an explicit focus on leveraging local know-how to exploit worldwide opportunities” (Para. 7). Transnational IT Operations

Transnational organization requires the integrated IT operation to manage the operation spread across different countries. A transnational IT operation is a necessity of organization for success of business and organization integrate the global business activities using global information systems. Transnational IT operations help organization to exchange information consistently to its locations, and provide collaboration platform. This also allows flexibility to individual location for customizations according to local market demand as well (Linton, 2013). Transnational IT Operations Advantages

Transnational IT operation provides benefits of business continuity because business can continue even if IT resources of one place go down because of any natural calamity or technical issues. This provides a collaborative platform for all location to interchange information and learn from experiences. Transnational IT operation creates a virtual community between local and global business locations that helps in sharing knowledge, collaboratively work to improve productivity, and bring innovative ideas together. Transnational IT operations help organization to build an efficient supply chain for raw materials and products distributions and consumptions. Transnational IT Operations Challenges

Transnational IT operation requires to handle challenges occurred because of languages of different nationals, cultural diversity, local customs, and control issues. There are challenges associated with transfer for work, work quality, and service level. Transnational IT operation needs to address the issues of local business, and provide customizable solution based on requirement of local business. Technological infrastructure

Transnational IT operations require technology infrastructure to provide platform for information exchange and collaboration. This infrastructure should be able to support various local business systems and integrate them to make one global information system. Global networking

Transnational IT operations require global network to connect the local businesses situated across globe. Work Service levels

Success of transnational IT services depends on the well defined work service levels and standard for work because there is dependency on IT infrastructure including communication network. My team has service level agreement (SLA) for availability of services provided by vendors, and we also had interdepartmental SLA for the turnaround time of a work request. Work service level help to manage the transnational It operations by provide the baseline for service availability, and it also enforce the accountability of the teams involved in operations. Transfer of work

Transnational IT operations require that work get transferred from one team to other location team. My project was using “follow the sun” model for transfer of work, and we used to transfer work to team in US and Mexico when our shift completed or vice-versa. Each shift was handover to the next shift in different country through shift handover e-mail and handover call to ensure that all issues have been discussed that occurred in shift. It is essential to have open communication bridge open between different offices

so that work can be transferred from one IT office to other office. Work Quality issues

Transnational IT operations requires quality standards and practices to ensure that same quality of work be delivered from different location. Work quality issues can be avoided by implementing quality standardized processes and practices in transnational IT operations. Language

Language plays an important role in success of transnational IT operations because this is the base of communication and al communication medium requires a common language between transnational IT operational team. My project everyone we communicating in English but team had some problem in understanding the context that other team was referring. American English, Indian English, and Mexican English accents are different from each other, and it requires extra effort to understand. Davison (2003) provide a good example of communication between different transnational teams as, “although English is one official language in India, pronunciation and accents can vary tremendously. Many vendors put call center employees through accent training. In addition, cultural differences include religions, modes of dress, social activities, and even the way a question is answered. Most leading vendors have cultural education programs, but executives should not assume that cultural alignment will be insignificant or trivial” (Culture). Cultural diversity and Local customs

It is important to overcome the cultural differences barrier for success of transnational IT operations. Wasieleski (2007, Apr) provides information about how cultural difference creates issues at work in her article communicating with cross-cultural Crews, “Zerah’s research has found about 35 percent of workplace problems are caused by language barriers while 65 percent are caused by cultural differences” (cultural differences). Team located in different country will perform better when they have understanding of culture of people they are dealing with, and this will create virtual community based on individual culture respect. Local Government Regulations

Transnational IT operation face challenge of meeting government regulations of all countries in which organization has operations. My Team was required to meet Indian labor law for human resources and American laws for information security as well as privacy. Following double regulation makes it difficult to have offices in every country for transnational IT operations, which is why organization chose strategic locations to have few offices for supporting global IT operations. Control Issues

Transnational IT operation requires the delegated chain of control for effective management of local team, and they need global management as well to oversee the local team. My team has one manager for each location, and there was project manager, who was responsible for controlling and monitoring the global operations altogether. There was some situation when local team manager and global manager had conflict, and it required conflict resolution skill along with open communication channel to resolve the issue. Conclusion

This paper has provided the overview of advantages and challenges associated with transnational IT operation. Transnational IT operations is required to support the globalized business and market demand but brings challenges of language, cultural difference, and control issues. It is important for success of this operational model that there are standards and process defined for transfer of work, work quality, and global infrastructure network.

Reference

Davison, D. (2003, December 9). Top 10 Risks of Offshore Outsourcing. Retrieved from http://www.zdnet.com/news/top-10-risks-of-offshore-outsourcing/299274 Linton, I. (2013). Transnational IT Operations as a Strategy. Retrieved from http://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/transnational-operations-strategy-4238.html Lovelock, C. H. (1999). Developing marketing strategies for transnational service operations. The Journal of Services Marketing, 13(4), 278-289. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/212604937?accountid=458

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