A Connection Between Nutritional Choices And Health University Essay Example

Introduction

It is easy to imagine that a usual healthy groceries cart would contain a pound of potatoes, some meat, an adequate amount of dairy, and plenty of greens on the side. Whatever your dietary preferences may be, I have a hard time imagining a person who would include a bag of candy into that list. I think it is reasonable to assume that we have an inherent sense of what healthy foods are. This sense is critical to developing because a healthy diet directly affects our physical and emotional wellness. Adjusting one’s nutrition to conform with the commonly understood standards of healthy eating inevitably results in improved physical and mental conditions for most of the populace.

Discussion

A nutritional adjustment might seem difficult until we start to implement small changes in our lifestyles. A decision is so simple as adding more plant-based foods into a diet can make a whole lot of a difference. As Martin and Li (2017) note in their study, plant-based foods provide us with a wide array of macro and micronutrients, including “carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and vitamins A, B, C, D, E, and K, as well as essential minerals and fiber” (p. 699). In sufficient amounts, these nutrients promote hormonal production, muscle development, and digestive health and supply all sorts of visceral systems in our bodies.

On the contrary, junk foods such as burgers, pizza, sweets, and heavily processed items are commonly associated with different health issues. For example, Hafizurrachman and Hartono (2021), claim that hat the caloric density of such foods is a widespread cause of obesity, which in turn often causes cardiovascular diseases and decreases life expectancy. Besides direct health impairments, junk food consumption is also associated with mental issues (Hafizurrachman & Hartono, 2021). The problems that might occur from junk food consumption include anxiety, sleep dissatisfaction, and concentration difficulties in school children.

Conclusion

In conclusion, I believe it is fair to say that adding natural, popularly healthy foods into one’s diet effectively improves well-being. Such food items as vegetables and fruits provide a wide range of essential nutrients that enhance the functionality of a whole organism. Compared to fast and heavily processed counterparts, conventional green food items come out as superior for physical and mental health. Focusing on foods with rich nutritional profiles is a great way to improve all facets of health in one’s organism.

References

Hafizurrachman, M., & Hartono, K. (2021). Junk food consumption and symptoms of mental health problems: A meta-analysis for public health awareness. Kesmas: Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional (National Public Health Journal), 16(1), 1-8.

Martin, C., & Li, J. (2017). Medicine is not health care, food is health care: Plant metabolic engineering, diet and human health. New Phytologist, 216, 699-719.

Literary Analysis Of Fences By August Wilson

The play Fences by August Wilson covers a variety of complex themes, such as race, family relationships, history, identity, change, morality, culture, dreams, duty, and others. Written in 1986, this literary work “clearly displayed the tensions among blacks who wanted to clutch their African legacy” (Ali 1). One of the main symbols used by the author is a fence, which is reflected not only in the title but also throughout the play. The significance of this concept is not overly obvious, and a better understanding of this literary work is required to determine how fences relate to different characters and themes. This essay aims to discuss the idea behind Wilson’s play that physical and metaphorical fences that are built by characters negatively impact their lives by dividing them and creating barriers.

At first sight, it appears that the only fence present in the play and significant to the plot is the one that Troy and Cory are building. It symbolizes the separation of the Maxson family from the outer world. However, there are multiple perspectives on the importance and meaning of this symbol. Indeed, Rose believes in the need to protect her family from external threats and asks her husband to build a fence. She thinks that doing so would be beneficial for her loved ones. As noted by Ali, “Rose needs Troy to build the fence as methods for securing what was her own, keeping what is needed inside her family, and keeping out what should stay out” (7). Her desire is justified because white supremacy and racism affect society, and the woman feels the need to distance herself from the danger and preserve privacy.

In turn, Troy finds his wife’s belief unjustified and neglects this task. He sees no purpose in Rose’s wish to keep something out with a fence (Wilson 64). Moreover, he accuses his son Cory of not helping him and being “scared of work” (Wilson 26). This conflict between the characters’ points of view is central to the play. As Troy neglects his family and Rose’s wish for an actual fence, he builds emotional barriers between himself and his son and wife. In this regard, the main character’s lack of commitment to building a fence reflects the negligence of his duties as a father and a husband. The escalation of the conflict occurs when Troy banishes Cory from his territory. In other words, a border between the main character and his son marks the emotional and spiritual distance between them. Not only a physical but also a metaphorical fence is crucial to the play’s plot and relationships among the characters. It is evident that Troy’s emotional barriers sharpen the conflict and eventually destroy his family.

Another perspective on the fence symbol in Wilson’s play should be discussed with regard to Troy’s inner issues and challenges in life. He faced various problems as an African-American and a son of an abusive father, such as poverty, homelessness, inequality, and cruelty. Troy’s dream of being a successful baseball player was destroyed because of racism and his lack of control of disparities in society. In other words, the main character faces numerous barriers throughout his life, which affect his fate and relationship with others and the world as a whole. In this regard, Ali notes that “Fences is a play on the conflict between the authorities of the other with the autonomy of the self” (9). Troy’s connection to his family, African-American culture, and heritage is affected by various metaphorical fences. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the impact of societal barriers on the protagonist’s life and family.

Furthermore, another perspective on the role of fences in Wilson’s literary work is with regard to the concept of death. After Alberta’s death during childbirth, Troy attempts to separate himself from what he fears. His perspective changes as he decides to build “a fence around what belongs to” him (Wilson 80). In this regard, there is a significant difference in how Troy and Rose view the meaning behind creating that barrier between the inner and outer worlds. The woman asks her husband to build a fence to keep her family together as she can feel the growing distance between them.

In turn, the man does not realize that it is possible to create a border to keep something within rather than push something away. In his view, a fence can make death “stay on the other side” (Wilson 80). According to Ali, “when Troy finally manages to put up the fence, he completely isolates himself from society,” which is a sign of antisocial behavior rather than the wish to protect his family (2). Therefore, while Rose hoped that a barrier would make her loved once feel safer, Troy makes a mistake and dies of a heart attack after challenging death.

To conclude, Wilson’s play Fences demonstrates how physical and metaphorical fences symbolize various barriers that negatively impact character’s lives. It is impossible to isolate oneself from society and numerous challenges. As can be seen, a virtual fence did not protect Troy and his family from tragic outcomes. It only contributed to creating the emotional barriers between the protagonist and his wife and son, as well as resulted in Troy’s death. Furthermore, Wilson portrayed how societal issues and inequalities build metaphorical fences for African-Americans affecting their lives.

Works Cited

Ali, Hasan Hadi. “The Culture Heritage Protection: Suggestive Themes and Views of August Wilson’s Fences.” Litinfinite Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, 2022, pp. 1-12. Litinfinite.

Wilson, August. Fences. Plume, 1986.

Researching Of Cervical Cancer

Definition

It is essential to mention that the cervix is the lower part of the uterus, the main organ of a woman’s reproductive system, and the walls of the cervix are formed by muscular and connective tissue (Cohen et al., 2019). In addition, the upper part of the cervix opens into the uterus and the lower part into the vagina, and the cervix has a vaginal and a supravaginal part. The inner surface of the vaginal part is lined with multi-layered squamous epithelium, which ends at the external pharynx. A single-layer glandular epithelium covers the inner part of the cervical canal (Cohen et al., 2019). The cervical canal is normally closed; during menstruation, it opens slightly so as not to obstruct the discharge. The condition of the cervical epithelium is crucial in diagnosing precancerous conditions and cancer (Cohen et al., 2019). Therefore, cervical cancer is a malignant tumor of the mucous membrane of the vaginal portion and or cervical canal.

Statistics

Significantly, cervical cancer ranks fourth in the world in terms of prevalence among all malignant tumors in women. In 2017, almost thirteen thousand new cases of cervical cancer were diagnosed in the United States alone, and more than four thousand women died from this tumor (Cohen et al., 2019). According to statistics from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, in 2020, 604,000 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer. Approximately 341,000 cases of the disease were fatal. Moreover, the disease is most often diagnosed in patients aged 30-65 (Cohen et al., 2019). Furthermore, the average age at diagnosis is 50, and the disease rarely affects girls in their early twenties or older women.

Causes of the Disease

The development of cervical cancer is not associated with the presence of known hereditary syndromes. Clinicians consider the human papillomavirus (HPV) of oncogenic genotypes to be the leading cause of the disease (Vu et al., 2018). HPV introduces its genes into the structure of DNA cells; they stop maturing and can actively divide. As a result, a malignant tumor appears in place of the mutated cell, and over time it enlarges and metastasizes. In addition, early sexual debut, promiscuity of sexual partners, and refusal of barrier contraceptives are considered risk factors for developing this pathology (Vu et al., 2018). Furthermore, long-term use of hormonal contraception and immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune conditions are reasons for the disease. Additionally, the highest infection rate is observed among young women through sexual activity.

Symptoms of the Disease

In its initial stages, the cancer process is asymptomatic and is only detected during an extensive gynecological examination. Symptoms that a cancerous tumor has grown through the upper layer of the mucosa into the underlying tissue include bloody discharge or vaginal bleeding, leukorrhea, and prolonged menstruation (Vu et al., 2018). It is also essential to mention vaginal bleeding during menopause, pain during intercourse, and painful urination. However, there may also be general symptoms, such as sudden weight loss, the presence of blood in the urine, and increased frequency of urination (Vu et al., 2018). In addition, patients with advanced malignancy complain of dysuria and difficulty in defecation.

Stages

At the null stage, cancer cells are only on the surface of the cervical canal. At this stage, they do not form a tumor and do not penetrate deep into the tissues. The next step is the first phase, when the cancer is localized in the cervix and can grow into the uterus and nearby lymph nodes. The tumor does not extend beyond the organ or spread to other internal organs (Cohen et al., 2019). After that, in the second stage, the neoplasm penetrates the body of the uterus or extends beyond it and spreads to the upper parts of the vagina. Moreover, the tumor process does not involve the pelvic wall and the lower third of the vagina, but the surrounding organs and lymph nodes are not affected.

In addition, at the third stage, the tumor affects the lower third of the vagina and the pelvic wall, can block the ureters, reach a large size, and affect the nearest lymph nodes. Even at stage four, the tumor is widespread around the cervix, affecting lymph nodes, the bladder, the rectum, and other distant organs. Also, each stage has several substages, and doctors use the A1, A2, B1, and others to make an accurate diagnosis (Cohen et al., 2019). It is important to note that histologically, there are 2 main groups of cervical cancer: squamous cell cancer (70-80%) and glandular cancer (10-20%). Approximately 10% of cases have low-differentiated cancer (Cohen et al., 2019). Furthermore, the most malignant and extremely rare type is sarcoma.

Cervical Cancer Diagnosis

Regular gynecological examinations are one of the essential methods of early detection of any woman’s disease. Since the clinical manifestations of precancerous and background conditions are not pronounced, the differential diagnosis of cervical cancer can help detect changes. It includes cytological screening, a study of smears, which helps detect the onset of a pathological process (Bedell et al., 2020). Colposcopy is also a primary diagnostic method. If appropriate, it is supplemented by manipulations, such as biopsies, smear cytology, cervical cervix treatment with acetic acid to detect squamous condylomas, and cervical canal scraping (Bedell et al., 2020). Precancerous lesions in the cervix can be treated with cryosurgery, cauterization, or laser surgery.

It is also significant to consider cervical biopsy, a primary diagnostics method. Thus, it is a surgical procedure in which a small amount of epithelium is taken from the cervix (Bedell et al., 2020). This method of tissue sampling is usually carried out after a gynecologist detects an abnormality during a routine examination. Moreover, a biopsy can detect the presence of human papillomavirus or precancerous cells, or cervical cancer. In addition, cervical epithelial monitoring also uses diagnostic methods such as optical coherence tomography, ultrasound, fluorescence spectroscopy, rectoscopy, and MRI (Bedell et al., 2020). However, the physician decides which tests are appropriate on a personal basis.

Cancer Treatment

Treatment depends on many factors, including the stage of the malignancy. At stages 0 and 1 of oncology, surgery is usually used as the only independent therapeutic approach. Additionally, precancerous cells are removed under local anesthesia. Treatment for stage 2 cervical cancer is combined: radiation with surgery. In addition, radiation therapy is used after surgery if the doctor believes that cancer cells may be present in the body (Bedell et al., 2020). Surgery is usually no longer used if cancer has spread beyond the cervix. Treatment of stage 3 cervical cancer requires more extensive treatment, which usually includes radiation therapy or a combination of it and chemotherapy (Bedell et al., 2020). For stage 4 cancers, radiation and palliative therapies are used.

Prognosis of the Disease

Early diagnosis, a vaccine to prevent HPV infection, screening tests, and treatment of cervical cancer in women is crucial to reducing mortality rates. If the neoplasm is detected at stages 0 and 1, the cure rate ranges from 80 to 100 percent (Prognosis, n.d). Five-year survival rate by stage of cervical cancer can be expressed as follows: 80-90% at stage 1. The other 65-70% and the third 40% are survival rates. In the fourth stage of cervical cancer, the survival rate is also 20% (Prognosis, n.d). However, other factors, such as general health and how cancer responds to treatment, can affect the prognosis for a particular patient.

References

Bedell, S. L., Goldstein, L. S., Goldstein, A. R., & Goldstein, A. T. (2020). Cervical cancer screening: Past, present, and future. Sexual Medicine Reviews, 8(1), 28-37.

Cervical Cancer, Cleveland Clinic, n.d., Web.

Cervical Screening, Cervical Screening Programme, n.d., Web.

Cohen, P. A., Jhingran, A., Oaknin, A., & Denny, L. (2019). Cervical cancer. The Lancet, 393(10167), 169-182.

Diagnosis, American Society of Clinical Oncology, n.d., Web.

Prognosis for Invasive Cervical Cancer, Mortakis, n.d., Web.

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer, Renown Health, n.d., Web.

The Stages of Cervical Cancer, Live Long Lyndhurst, n.d., Web.

Vu, M., Yu, J., Awolude, O. A., & Chuang, L. (2018). Cervical cancer worldwide. Current Problems in Cancer, 42(5), 457-465.