A Modest Proposal By J. Swift And Candide By F. M. Arouet Literature Analysis Homework Essay Sample

Based on the evident mistreatment that women get in society, feminists have devoted themselves to making hefty campaigns to end gender segregation. However, the role of women in society has not received its due attention. As a result, the paper sheds light on the roles of women as portrayed by Jonathan Swift and Francois Marie Arouet in their respective works A Modest Proposal and Candide. According to them, women are nothing more than sexual tools that men use, not only to satisfy their sexual desires but also for pleasure.

Perhaps, one of the ways that portray the real character of Swift, the author of the play A Modest Proposal, as a feminist, is evident in the manner he portrays the role of women in the play as sexual tools. Even though Irish women may have different roles that perhaps other cultures might not have been a comforting or even unfamiliar with, the anticipations and parts of women are reflective of the disrespect and disdained status in the society. Swift makes it look like women are the chief cause of malnutrition in Ireland.

He says, “Crowded with beggars of the female-sex, followed by three, four or six children all importuning every passenger for alms” (Swift 298). This extremity in generalization tends to infer that every woman and child is a beggar. The position of a woman in society is a narrow one. She has no occupation that can help her meet her daily needs.

Therefore, women are a liability and or dependants rather than providers. This fact implies that women are subjects of men’s manipulation. Swift’s proposal for people to resulting in cannibalism, consequently, discourages the less advantaged in terms of gender, class, and age. Unfortunately, women belong to the helm of the gender-discriminated people.

On the other hand, Francois Marie Arouet’s play Candide presents women as no more than sexual equipment designated for men to satisfy their sexual desires. They are sites from which men please their souls. The main women characters namely Cunegonde, Paquette and the old woman, have a rape story to tell out of the experience. They are slaves of sex. The attitude of the characters and the narrator towards acts that disregard women’s sexual rights is widely nonchalant.

In the play, peculiar dangers always have a woman character in the mix. The male characters in the play have an exceptional value of chastity in women when it comes to sexual matters. Unfortunately, women lack such an opportunity. They have no right to criticize male counterparts. “Catholic authorities burn heretics alive, priests and governors extort sexual favors from their female subjects, businessmen mistreat slaves” (Voltaire 23).

This depicts women as tools for satisfying men’s needs. Women’s rights encounter a fair deal of prejudice when it comes to issues of sex. In fact, the pope, of all people, can afford to keep a mistress. The mistress agrees to indulge the secretly maintained relationship. This implies that women are subjects of control by men since they must respect the popes’ intentions of maintaining the relationship in secret, never blow the whistle.

In A Modest Proposal and Candide, the theme of women’s roles in the society is essential. As the plays reveal, women are the chief sources of troubles that afflict people in Ireland, as the case stands in A Modest Proposal. Cannibalizing them would mean a reduction in the number of children beggars since few births would ensue.

On the other hand, Candide presents them as species lacking an opportunity to make their own decisions. They are even forced into sexual slavery. In the two works, women are merely tools for gratifying the desires of men and hence subject to their manipulations.

Works Cited

Swift, Jonathan. A Modest Proposal. New York, NY: Plain Label Books, 2010.

Voltaire, Francois. Candide. New Jersey, NJ: Echo library, 2010.

Literature: The Cricket In Times Square By George Selden

The name of the author of the story is George Selden. He is an American writer; he was born in Connecticut. George Selden is an author of several books about Chester Cricket and his friends.

The main characters of the story are Chester Cricket, Mario Bellini, Tucker Mouse, Harry Cat, Mama Bellini, and Papa Bellini.

The story is happening in various locations of New York such as Times Square, Chinatown, and Grand Central Terminal. Some of the scenes are happening at the Bellini’s home and at the newsstand where Mario helps his family’s business to work.

The book begins when Chester Cricket arrives in Times Square in a picnic basket. At the subway station, he moves to Mario Bellini’s newsstand and stays there. After a while, Mario notices the unusual sound the cricket makes and finds Chester on his newsstand. This is how Chester Cricket becomes Mario’s pet.

The main problem of the story is the difficulty of Chester’s choice between his new friends and musical career, and his desire to go back home to Connecticut. During his visit to New York Chester discovers his excellent musical memory, he can play various classical melodies. Chester enjoys performing and he is close with his new friends, but he misses his home in Connecticut.

Chester’s friends Harry and Tucker try to solve the problem discussing it. Chester is unhappy at the newsstand. Mario says that he does not have to come to the newsstand if it does not make him happy. Chester decides to go back to Connecticut. Tucker wants Chester to stay in New York, but Harry says that Cricket should be free to do whatever he wants and follow his heart.

The turning point of the story is the fire the friends accidentally start while having a party at the newsstand. This accident makes Mama Bellini very angry. She tells Mario to get rid of Chester. To make her feel better, Chester starts to chirp her favorite melody, Mama sings along. The cricket’s talent makes her change her mind about Chester and lets him stay. This is the moment when everyone starts to realize that Chester Cricket is very talented.

The problem of the story is solved when fall comes. Chester decides to go back to his home in Connecticut. He performs for the last time at Times Square; people are very impressed by his talent; they stop and listen to his music. Chester spends some time with Mario playing and having fun, and hen after Mario is asleep, the cricket quietly leaves the newsstand with one last chirp.

His friends Harry Cat and Tucker Mouse take him to the Grand Central Station where he can get on a train to Connecticut. Mario says he is glad that Chester went home because he wanted his friend to be happy and do what he wished for the most.

At the end of the story, we see Tucker and Harry talking to each other. They are going to miss their friend Chester Cricket. This is why they decide that one day, they will go to Connecticut and visit him (Selden 2008).

If I could change one thing about the story, I would change the part where Mama Bellini does not want Chester to be Mario’s pet. To my mind, people and animals should be good friends.

Reference List

Selden, G. (2008). The Cricket in Times Square. New York: Square Fish.

“Social Anxiety Disorder” By Schneier Franklin

The article, “Social Anxiety Disorder,” by Schneier Franklin, was published in 2006, in the New England Journal of Medicine. The writer outlines what he considers the main causes of social anxiety disorder and proposes two solutions, namely, therapy and medication.

He deconstructs the condition using an anecdotal example of a 28-year-old man, who finds it impossible to feel comfortable around other people. Schneier uses this case study as a basis from which to study the condition starting from its origin in adolescence. He examines its development over the years as it gradually worsens, reinforced by the patient’s inability to confront it due to fear and shame.

The problems facing people suffering from the condition are briefly examined, after which he moves to possible solutions. He proposes cognitive behavior therapy to be the most effective method, citing empirical studies that have shown improvement rates of over 80% (Schneier, 2006). He also discusses several pharmacological solutions such as Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitors, which he claims are highly effective if administered consistently.

The challenges of treating the conditions, such as resistance to treatment, are also discussed, and finally, the writer concludes by recommending either therapy or medication. However, he suggests that therapy should come first in view of its projected long-term benefits. He also admits that the condition is markedly difficult to diagnose and treat in children and teens because its symptoms can be easily mistaken for age-related awkwardness (Schneier, 2006).

The topic addressed is especially important since, social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is reportedly one of the most common anxiety disorders in the United States (Andrade, Sandarsh, Chethan & Nagesh, 2010). According to Hofmann and Smit (2008), Cognitive Behaviour therapy is indeed one of the most effective ways of treating the condition. Many other experts in the field have echoed this inference, although there appears to be a consensus in that medication is also relatively effective.

However, in most cases, a doctor will only prescribe a pharmacological intervention, either to supplement therapy or if the patient is unwilling or unable to commit to it (Hofmann & Smits, 2008). Despite the fact that they are a major reason why patients fail to adhere to their regimens, Schneier does not address the possible side effects of the drugs he proposes.

For instance, Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitors have been reported to cause a broad range of symptoms such as nausea, dizziness, agitation, and even sexual dysfunction, especially among men (Andrade et al., 2010). Consequently, even when patients opt for this, many end up not completing the prescribed dosage because of the side effects.

In as far as diagnosing and treating children is concerned, the writer raises a crucial issue, but one needs to be extensively researched before a reliable solution can be determined. In many cases, social awkwardness is a common characteristic among teens, especially in the early years, and it can be confused for social phobia (Schneier, 2006).

Consequently, this creates a paradox since it is during this time that the phobia emerges, yet it is sometimes almost impossible to isolate the symptoms from normal teen behavior. Nevertheless, although his recommendations are clinically sound according to the existing literature on the subject, they can be contested on the basis that they do not provide practitioners or patients with concrete directions. In addition, critics will note that, even with knowledge of the side effects of pharmacological interventions, he neither addresses them nor suggests how they can be mitigated.


Andrade, C., Sandarsh, S., Chethan, K. B., & Nagesh, K. S. (2010). Serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants and abnormal bleeding: a review for clinicians and a reconsideration of mechanisms. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, (71), 1565-75.

Hofmann, S. G., & Smits, J. A. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 69(4), 621.

Schneier, F. R., M.D. (2006). Social anxiety disorder. The New England Journal of Medicine, 355(10), 1029-1036. Web.

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