A Proposal For A Reporting And Mobile Health Data Collection System For Developing Countries University Essay Example

One of the crucial parts of public health systems is data collection. For the purpose of raising the standard of their services, decision-makers, policy-makers, and providers of health services all require accurate and timely data. The demand for mobile-based data-gathering solutions to close information gaps in the developing world’s health sector has expanded due to the fast-expanding use of mobile technologies. This proposal examines the existing methods for gathering health data and the open-source technologies that might be used to enhance them. It also suggests a prototype employing open-source data-collecting frameworks to see if they may be used to improve health data collection in underdeveloped countries. The goal is to comprehend the issues and suggest technological solutions that can enhance the flow of information between various tiers of the healthcare system. The proposal goes over data collection technology in more detail and assesses how well they work for collecting health data in underdeveloped countries.

Socioeconomic limitations and geographic constraints have limited the availability of potential health data in developing countries. These obstacles have an impact on the primarily manual and paper-based data collection techniques. These manual approaches don’t produce consistent data, which makes them challenging to handle for analytical and data mining applications (Mechael, 2010).

Data Collection Plan

There are various methods for collecting data, including the qualitative approach, the quantitative approach, the design science approach, and the hybrid strategy (which combines qualitative and quantitative methodologies). Due to the nature of our research issues, which call for various techniques to be employed to address them, a combination of three methods has been used in this proposal. Combining methodologies offers considerable potential for flexibility in the project. It draws advantages from several approaches, allowing the proposal to address broader concerns that are not limited to a single method (Yawson, 2021). The plan is to conduct a literature review, design and create, and then conduct a qualitative study to gauge how well our work turned out.

Connecting the research methodologies to the research questions.

Connecting the research methodologies to the research questions.

Figure 1: Connecting the research methodologies to the research questions.

This proposal aims to create a mobile health data gathering and reporting prototype for underdeveloped regions. This employs a design and creation methodology to produce items that serve human needs; it is technological in nature. Makri has developed a research framework to model research processes in studies that use a design and creation methodology (Makri, 2020). The four primary actions in this framework are matched to the four main artifacts. Constructs, models, methods, and instantiation are the artifacts (Sanders, 2018). Build, Assess, theorize, and justify are the tasks. To correctly understand and portray all of the strategies used to solve the problem in this study, it was necessary to adhere to the framework.

The activities are building and testing the prototype for mobile health data gathering in underdeveloped countries. The process of creating a prototype began with researching the open data kit structure, which was then followed by the design of unique features for collecting mobile health data.

Summary of the activities undertaken in this proposal

Figure 2: Summary of the activities undertaken in this proposal

The proposed prototype was designed using a four-step prototyping method (Fusco Girard, 2014). Through a scenario of the data collection and reporting systems in the poor world and a literature review, it was necessary first to identify the stakeholders (users). By examining the literature and applying the author’s knowledge of the health systems in developing nations, it was possible to determine the users’ needs. The prototype was subsequently created by modifying, testing, and debugging the source code to accommodate health data collection. Due to time constraints, it was not possible to test the prototype in its intended setting (health systems in developing countries). Assessed the prototype using a questionnaire, asking experts in health information systems from the developing world about its usability and viability in respective nations.

Procedure for Prototype Development

Figure 3: Procedure for Prototype Development

To help respondents understand the prototype before responding to the questions, a questionnaire was made that included a prototype description. The questionnaire was broken into three pieces. The introduction and a brief description of the proposed prototype were contained in section one to help the respondents become familiar with the prototype’s principal goal and capabilities. The generic questions in the second section were intended to help comprehend health data systems’ difficulties and gauge the viability of mobile data collection applications. The procedure of gathering health data and the suggested prototype were subjected to a series of evaluation questions in the third section.

Data Security Plan

A validity threat could limit a qualitative study’s ability to understand its data and draw conclusions. At least three major types of validity need to be protected from these dangers. Three kinds of validity exist: construct, internal, and external (Perry et al., 2000). By adding descriptions and screenshots of the proposed prototype in the evaluation of the proposed prototype, threats have been minimized to construct validity and reduced ambiguity in the formulation of questionnaire questions to aid participants in understanding the purpose of the study. The bulk of the participants in the evaluation study had no prior direct experience or involvement with health information systems in developing nations, posing an external danger to the validity of our evaluation results. Due to time restrictions, it was necessary to accept this threat to perform this proposal with actual stakeholders in a real scenario. More work is required to test the prototype with genuine stakeholders in the future.

Benchmarking Plan

The systems for gathering and processing health data from multiple sources are known as health information systems (HISs). HISs are becoming essential to improving developing nations’ health systems (Siribaddana, 2014). These systems have expanded significantly over the past few years due to the global technological improvement that has been occurring. The development of HIS has thus caused a shift in how health information is processed, from paper-based to computer-based. The potential for effectively manipulating patient data has expanded due to this change (Haux, 2010).

Health data are being used for more than just administrative and patient care; they are also used for planning and decision-making to enhance healthcare. Today’s health care professionals work with a lot of data, which increases the cost of accessing and interpreting the data and poses a high risk of inaccuracy. It is essential and pertinent to improve the performance of health professionals to demand technology-based tools that might simplify the data input and manipulation procedure (Siribaddana, 2014). New health information systems may now be able to capture various types of data anywhere, thanks to the ubiquitous network infrastructure that is now widespread.

Quality and Change Management Strategies

Understanding the necessary information flow will help to improve coordination between levels of the health care system. Reliable data from the lower level are required to transfer health information from the lower level (primary health facilities) to the higher level (secondary facilities). Strategies and plans are created at higher levels and rely on data gathered at lower levels (operational level) (White, 2015). Improving strategic plans for managing the primary facilities depends on having adequate and timely information at the organization’s top level. Lack of sufficient information could have detrimental effects on the health system, such as underreporting crucial data (Siribaddana, 2014). Operational data collection units need to be outfitted with the right technology to make sufficient and timely information available. Health data systems in remote developing nations have had issues with data reliability, which has hampered the provision of high-quality medical care.


It was essential to decide on the technology before designing the suggested prototype. The prototype could be created using a variety of technologies. J2ME or Java-Android are available for the mobile client, and the administration module, PHP or JSP. But since the prototype was built on top of the ODK framework, it was restricted to following its requirements for implementation languages and development toolkits.


The statistical data reported from primary health facilities to secondary health facilities are the main emphasis of the suggested prototype. The overarching goal is to enhance data-driven decisions and policy-making to improve the health service. For decision- and policy-making processes to be successful, timely and appropriate data are crucial. The lack of reliable communication infrastructure in the poor world makes it challenging to manually report health data from distant health facilities, which delays plans and decisions. The concentration was on open-source frameworks and mobile technologies that might facilitate data collection and reporting. The proposed prototype has been created to examine how well open source and mobile technologies may be applied to enhance the reporting process.


Haux, R. (2010). Medical informatics: Past, present, future☆☆☆. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 79(9), 599-610. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2010.06.003

Makri, S. (2020). Information informing design: Information Science research with implications for the design of digital information environments. Journal of The Association for Information Science and Technology, 71(11), 1402-1412. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.24418

Mechael, P. (2010). “Barriers and Gaps Affecting mHealth in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Policy White Paper. Mhealth Alliance, 1-79.

Sanders, K. (2018). Media Review: Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative, Mixed Methods, Arts-Based, and Community-Based Participatory Research Approaches. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 13(2), 263-265. https://doi.org/10.1177/1558689817751775

Siribaddana, P. (2014). Making Distance Learning an Effective Health Information Systems Training Strategy: A Combined Social Network Analysis and Content Analysis Perspective. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries61(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1681-4835.2014.tb00434.x

White, F. (2015). Primary Health Care and Public Health: Foundations of Universal Health Systems. Medical Principles and Practice, 24(2), 103-116. https://doi.org/10.1159/000370197

Yawson, R. (2021). Transformativism: A paradigm whose time has come. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 32(1), 7-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.21422

Fusco Girard, F. (2014). City-systems: A new development strategy to promote a new economic paradigm. Human Systems Management33(1-2), 35-45. https://doi.org/10.3233/hsm-140804

A Report On Opportunities In Sports Safety Niche For BEA21 Technologies Ltd Sample College Essay


The rising risk of kidnapping among athletes is a significant issue, particularly given the correlation between economic instability and criminality. Similarly, the rise in psychological breakdowns among athletes is a growing worry in the sporting world. Today, technology businesses must create and sell wearable technologies for sporting teams to ensure safety. This report is presented to BEA21 Technologies Ltd., a pioneer in sports safety operating in the United Kingdom. The business has opted to focus on creating tracking software for use in wearable and tagged devices that can investigate data analysis to enhance sports quality. This research provides advice for the most effective technical innovation, examines the micro and macro environments, and recommends niche economies. Wearable sports technology may assist monitor athletic training, in-game performance, instances of abduction, and recovery from injury due to recent advancements in telecommunications using Global Positioning Systems (GPS).

Application of the Tracking Device

Case Study

Eliza Fletcher, a teacher, kidnapped while running, is an example of the reality of abduction that the world is confronting today. According to the Independent, authorities have accused a 38-year-old man of kidnapping Eliza Fletcher, a teacher from Tennessee who remains missing (Hurley and Muzaffar, 2022). There are concerns over similar causalities among mountaineers and forest adventurists. Such explorers may need technical support to sustain their mission as scientists or explorers. In Fletcher’s case, on Friday morning, police reported that Eliza Fletcher, a 34-year-old teacher, was pushed into a car (Hurley and Muzaffar, 2022). Such cases need to be handled since there are increasing occurrences, particularly among athletes who must train in distant places and abroad. There is a need for a study to support the effective use of GPS technology in sports and coaching since its use is becoming more prevalent.

Cases of mental collapse have similarly increased concerns in the sports industry. Simone Biles, one of the most recognized athletes in the United States, startled the world by withdrawing from the Tokyo Olympics to concentrate on her mental health due to psychological discomfort (Weston, 2022). Naomi Osaka surprised fans and the athletic world when she withdrew from the French Open as the ultimate act of self-care (Weston, 2022). Athlete has been growing the need to consider individual mental health and safeguard their mind and body. Such a perspective in professional athletics has been hailed as the correct approach to coaching. Such a rapid psychological collapse in an athlete was likely due to psychological distressBEA21 Technologies Ltd should develop an appropriate sports technology business to address cases of undiagnosed psychiatric illnesses among athletes.

This report suggests that BEA21 Technologies Ltd introduce research and development on a GPS-based wearable with maps and an operation centre that may assist athletes in obtaining real-time monitoring if they feel threatened. Sports scientists and coaches are becoming more aware of the need to quantify parts of training to enhance prescription training. There is a significant positive association between the rise in scientific curiosity and technical developments. BEA21 Technologies Ltd.’s profit prospects have improved due to a greater understanding of the importance and influence of technologies. The business would need to research athletes’ psychological and geo-locational states for safety monitoring and psychotherapeutic coaching treatments.

Impacts on Sports Coaching

Wearable sensors allow the noninvasive, real-time monitoring of biomechanical, physiological, and biochemical factors relevant to the performance of athletes, hence optimizing psychological monitoring. Researchers in sports medicine produce datasets including an assortment of factors, which might be time-consuming to evaluate to create value quickly and accurately. Machine learning and artificial intelligence models can facilitate the clinical decision-making process for sports scientists. Team physicians and athletic trainers can translate the data acquired from wearable sensors so that decisions regarding athletes’ health, safety, and performance can be made accurately and efficiently. The research and development teams at BEA21 Technologies Ltd. should strive to address the use of commercial sensors now employed by sports teams. Open source tools foster the growth of descriptive analytics to monitor the internal and external workload, hydration status, sleep, cardiovascular health, and return-to-sport status of athletes. This review is intended for people interested in using wearable sensor data and data science to improve athletic performance and minimize the injury burden in athletes of all ages.

Usefulness in Sports Coaching

Managing the psychological stability of athletes requires rapid industry identification and control. Wearable technology provides the foundation for exploring injury prevention necessary in enabling athletic trainers to determine whether the athlete is ready to resume practice without the danger of re-injury. BEA21 Technologies Ltd., utilizing the data acquired over time and the datasets for the trends of athlete stability, is recommended as a sports database for analysis that could be an important tool in quality coaching.

The company’s research and development teams should recognize that most frequent injuries in dynamic team sports may have detrimental effects if not treated appropriately. The use of the wearable device can prove to be important in addressing the needs of data-directed coaching. Several wearable devices with micro-sensors connected to helmets or mouth guards to estimate impact forces for concussion treatment in certain sports have been developed to address this problem. There is an opportunity for study in the broader sports sector, which is increasingly requesting data on players’ bodily behaviour, which might pave the way for synchronized psychiatric care among athletes.

The External Macro Environment for the Business Environment

Political Factors

The present political climate in the United Kingdom is dynamic since the newly elected leaders will assume office within a few months. The United Kingdom is a secure and prosperous economic environment despite its unpredictable political climate since it provides access to markets in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland (Nguyen et al., 2022). Today, the United Kingdom is one of the world’s most powerful nations.

The nation is a constitutional monarchy with contemporary parliamentary democracy. The monarch’s position in the legislative process is primarily ceremonial, which provides stability. In the United Kingdom, the prime minister is the elected head of government for a five-year tenure. Labour, Conservative, Liberal Democrats and Scottish National Party are the four parties that dominate British politics to the greatest extent. London is the United Kingdom’s capital, an internationally influential financial and cultural hub (O’Brennan, 2019). The market is therefore stable and fit for BEA21 Technologies Ltd.’s line of products.

The country’s political stability has become a significant asset in recent years. However, Brexit, precipitating the United Kingdom’s secession from the European Union, has generated uncertainty and political discussion. Some observers feel that Brexit has already developed much instability, but others believe it has also presented the UK with enormous potential (O’Brennan, 2019). Today, the new leadership maintains excellent connections with the United States and a significant number of other nations throughout the globe. The United Kingdom is a permanent member of the United Nations with considerable influence on economic, cultural, military, scientific, and political issues (O’Brennan, 2019). However, the UK’s links with authoritarian governments have been heavily criticized regarding the conflict in Ukraine, which has raised the likelihood of an economic downturn. Similarly, the recent increase in violence and criminality in eastern Europe has raised grave worry.

Economic Factors

The United Kingdom has the sixth-largest economy in the world, although its development has slowed since the 2016 vote on leaving the European Union. The situation deteriorated, and the GDP fell by an astounding 9.8 per cent in 2020 (Santini et al., 2022, p.1531). The decreasing trend remained in the first quarter of 2021, but since then, the GDP has revived, with private and public consumption serving as the primary engine, reaching an estimated 6.8% (Santini et al., 2022, p.1581). The IMF anticipates that the real GDP of the United Kingdom will not return to pre-pandemic levels until the second quarter of 2022.

For resumption in growth, corporate investment is expected to surge due to the super-deduction, which enables firms to offset 130 per cent of qualified investment expenditure. With such boosts, the GDP is expected to increase by 5% this year and 1.9% in 2023 (Santini et al., 2022, p.1595). In addition to prolonged economic difficulties induced by the recurrence of COVID-19 and Brexit-related trade disruptions, the United Kingdom will undoubtedly continue to face significant supply-side limitations and acute labour shortages.

Similarly, the emergency measures the government had to implement to combat the epidemic-induced crisis seem to have failed to reach the most vulnerable in the economy. The social support included short-term work schemes, grants for the self-employed, grants and tax relief for businesses, and additional funding for the National Health Service, which amounted to more than 19% of GDP, according to the EU Commission (Nguyen et al., 2022, p. 431). The International Monetary Fund reports that the general government balance reported a deficit of 5.6% in 2021, along with a debt-to-GDP ratio that skyrocketed to 108.5% from 85.2% before the epidemic (Santini et al., 2022, p.1543). The escalating energy crisis in Europe and the supply chain problem as a worldwide catastrophe are exerting increasing strain on the economy of the United Kingdom.

Inflation rose towards the end of the year due to a spike in global energy costs and higher consumer spending and is predicted to continue to climb until 2023, when it begins to decelerate. As the economy improves and fiscal assistance is reduced, it is anticipated that the budget deficit will steadily shrink to 4.9% in 2022 and 3.5% in 2023 (Nguyen et al., 2022, p.3). For growth to sustainably achieve the medium-term inflation objective, a slight tightening of monetary policy throughout the projection period is expected.


Historically, the socioeconomic class has affected the United Kingdom; nonetheless, the population is multicultural. Over the years, businesses have created a range of new goods and marketplaces to meet the requirements of people of many races and faiths. There are still several chances for organizations to investigate. The present population is about 68.5 million, and with births continuing to outweigh deaths, it is anticipated that the number of people will reach 74 million by 2039 (Santini et al., 2022, p.1601). Such a population growth pattern should provide ample markets for BEA21 Technologies Ltd’s goods.

From a social perspective, the government’s efforts to assist workers and the self-employed helped stem the unemployment rate growth. According to the IMF, this rate should stay constant in 2022 before declining to 4.7% in 2023 (Nguyen et al., 2022, p.419). The country’s GDP per capita was projected to increase steadily due to the triumphs of 2021. However, the United Kingdom’s reasonably robust macroeconomic performance masks vulnerabilities and instances of inequality. On the socioeconomic front, there are growing calls for the new leadership of the UL to make human capital development a top priority. To boost prospects at BEA21 Technologies Ltd, the government must spend more on infrastructure, expand housing availability, and encourage more women to enter the labour force.

Technological Aspects

The United Kingdom is one of the most technologically sophisticated nations on Earth. Both financial and technical organizations thrive in London. Businesses regularly create new technology to provide the most effective client solutions. The excellent technical infrastructure provides entrepreneurs with limitless business prospects in the United Kingdom (Kurpayanidi, 2018). High Internet connection in the United Kingdom presents an opportunity for those who utilize online services for personal, social, and commercial purposes. It also allows firms to acquire new clients through digital marketing and social media platforms. The technology industry contributes significantly to the British economy. A great deal of capital and skill are flowing into the sector. It is important to note that investment and growth are expanding nationwide. However, the United Kingdom lags behind the United States, South Korea, India, and Japan in technical advancement.

The United Kingdom is one of the world’s major markets for information and communication technology (ICT), ranking second in ICT expenditure per capita. In 2018, digital technology sales in the United Kingdom exceeded $240 billion. Today, around 100,000 software businesses operate in the United Kingdom (Nguyen et al., 2022, p.421). Despite Brexit’s uncertainties, the UK ICT industry received more venture capital investment than any other European nation in 2018 (O’Brennan, 2019). The effect of Brexit on the ICT industry will primarily rely on the relationship model adopted by the United Kingdom with the European Union. If the United Kingdom stays a member of the European Economic Area, it is anticipated that the technology sector will develop significantly. As in any business environment, access to key markets, such as the United States, stabilizes the United Kingdom’s technology industry.


The United Kingdom is one of the world’s safest and most accessible countries to do business. It is home to the world’s business law, innovation-friendly regulators, robust market infrastructure, and the gold standard of corporate governance norms. The Employment Act of 1996 safeguards the rights of employees and places responsibility for their well-being on companies. The law protects maternity and paternity leave, minimum wage, holiday pay, and sick pay, among other rights. Similarly, the 2010 Equality Act safeguards individuals against discrimination. The controlled working environment boosts the potential for research and development of the company’s goods for the regulated sports business in the United Kingdom.


The environmental element of the external environment is a crucial issue due to the growing number of severe weather events attributed to climate change. Economic activities influence the environment, but the United Kingdom has made tremendous strides in lessening this impact. Numerous efforts have been made by the government, local councils, media, and charities, among others, to raise environmental awareness and mitigate the harmful effects of economic expansion on the environment. The United Kingdom is now experiencing adverse weather conditions. The United Kingdom attracts millions of visitors from throughout the globe, especially during the summer. Each year, tourism contributes considerably to the economy.

The United Kingdom is a victim of climate change, which has directly impacted the regional economy. The agricultural area has been severely affected, posing a risk of inflation across the region. Trends indicate that the tremendous inflow of people has increased the need for urbanization, resulting in an alarming increase in deforestation as we search for additional land to build on. Using the land to house more and more people results in less open space and farms, more overpopulation, and a massive loss of biodiversity and wildlife habitats throughout the nation. Such fast environmental change has likely caused worldwide ecological harm that will persist for the next several decades. These external macro-environment observations should inform the polity forms of BEA21 Technologies Ltd.’s research and development divisions.

The Rationale for Selected Tools

This research employs a PESTLE analysis of the external environmental systems in the United Kingdom. This report gives context to the firm’s strategy, brand positioning, growth objectives, and productivity threats in business and economics. The information should aid BEA21 Technologies in determining the validity of current goods and services and defining new product development. The accepted technique in external macro-business environment analysis is often used as a broad fact-finding activity in most case analyses. Contextualizing the desired market environment assists an organization in identifying the external elements that may influence internal choices. Combining the macroeconomic component of the markets with the microeconomic climate would result in a more effective management strategy for the departments.

Analysis of the External Operating Micro-Business Environment

The SWOT model is used to analyze the external operational microenvironment of the firm since it offers essential information. The microenvironment study revealed the company’s profit-influencing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and dangers (Ke et al., 2022). BEA21 Technologies Ltd engages in the rapidly expanding technology sports business in the United Kingdom. The company needs to take advance of the strengths and opportunities in the sector and address the challenges introduced by the threats and the weaknesses in the micro-environment setting.

Strengths of the Sector’s Micro-Environment

Among the industry’s strengths for BEA21 Technologies, enhanced product value on the market stands out. With over 470 outlets, the United Kingdom is now the top sports environment retailer in the world (Ke et al., 2022). Numerous well-known sports companies, like Nike, Adidas, and Reebok, are affiliated with the nation. The internet marketplaces for sports technology and athlete research have boosted the country’s possibilities. Market. The effective pricing strategy resonates with consumers, enhancing the retailer’s trust. Low employee turnover is rewarded with generous incentives for floor employees and supervisors. There are an increasing number of strong online presences with the slogan 24HR delivery, which allows businesses access to clients for home delivery of items.

Similarly, wearable technologies create a technical niche due to the internet’s worldwide expansion. These developments provide access to modern technology such as GPS and cloud computing. The European Soccer Club, a pioneer of early wearable devices for assessing total player effort during games, has used wearable technology (Perreault et al., 2022). The gadget is one of the first to offer coaches real-time monitoring of each player’s biometrics on the field for indicators of fatigue or injury. As in Figure 2 (Appendix), in 2014, the legendary Dutch football manager Louis Van Gall introduced the Oculus Rift to his Manchester United players, allowing them to experience the 2014 FIFA World Cup from the viewpoint of the other team’s players (Ke et al., 2022). In enhancing performance in professional team sports, wearable sports technology has moved beyond physiological monitoring to include perceptual and psychological factors.

In 2022, the number of professional athletes using wearable devices is projected to increase. Catapult GPS sports monitors, the Australian industry leader, enhance individual and team performance and decrease injury (Crang et al., 2022). This tendency is expected to spread to major sports, especially in the United Kingdom. Today, large teams of players are volunteering to be the first professional athletes to recognize the advantages of these technologies for enhancing sports performance and achieving personal bests. These new technologies are also transforming sports by decreasing the likelihood of sports-related ailments such as torn tendons, weariness, and concussions.

Equally, BEA21 Devices may capitalize on the development of GPS-based wearable technologies as the industry expands. Current tendencies indicate a rise in the use of technology for monitoring sports training, in-game performance, and injury rehabilitation. This fast-increasing technical speciality allows team administrators, coaches, trainers, and athletes to flourish in their sport while eliminating injuries and illnesses associated with sports.

The expansion is evident in the investors’ interest, who are reaping the advantages of technological advancements in athletics. By 2013, the sales of these technologies had reached over two billion dollars (Ke et al., 2022, p.5). According to the survey, this number is projected to reach $2.8 billion by 2019 (Ke et al., 2022, p.7). Sports gear makers, such as Niki, are collaborating with wearable analytics businesses, such as Catapult, to produce more sophisticated goods in this industry and make them more accessible to professional athletes and the general public.

The administration of BEA21 Technology should pay attention to the rising uses of wearable sports technologies. While professional sports teams are paving the way, versions of similar devices for amateurs and non-athletes are becoming available to the general public. Wearable sports technology combines personal medical gadgets that monitor people and convey biometric information to a healthcare professional. Another financial benefit of wearable analytics is the possibility for athletes and teams to get product sponsorships. The widespread distribution of personal biometric devices, fabrics, and equipment for sports teams and everyone else will likely increase.

Weaknesses of the Sector’s Micro-Environment

Data protection has developed as a critical component of every system that gathers personal data, some of which might have negative consequences if exposed to the wrong hands. There is a myriad of causes for data breaches in athletics, including rival teams and countries attempting to forecast the activities of their opponents and sports bettors intent on maximizing their profits at whatever cost. Wearable technologies are capable of collecting vast quantities of biometric and biomechanical data. In addition, specific GPS-enabled wearable devices offer 24-hour monitoring options that might expose sensitive information about their owners. Most wearable devices are linked to the cloud, where personal data is kept, analyzed using statistics, data mining, and machine learning, and then provided visually.

If private information about an athlete’s location becomes public, this might hurt their careers and following sponsorships. Many athletes are worried about how firms that possess wearable devices handle their data since it is often provided for research purposes and shared with other parties. They are also concerned that their managers and coaches utilize unrevealed information from these gadgets to alter contracts or give value to each player. This information might damage an athlete’s image and professional chances after their sporting career. Even while great athletes spend more time than ordinary people in the public eye, they are entitled to their private personal lives.

Opportunities in the Sector’s Micro-Environment

However, the limits are manageable compared to the advantages the technologies give to the sports business. There are now a variety of wearable sporting gadgets on the market for various sports, and new ones are constantly being developed. Devices are seamlessly integrated into the fabric of athletic clothes, constructed into sports equipment such as balls and bats, and worn by athletes as waistbands or skin patches. The gadgets transmit real-time data to coaches using laptops or other electronic devices to assess, record and react to the information. Such resources are helpful for data analysis and mental intervention, which are becoming more important in sports.

BEA21 Technology has the potential to develop technologies that can improve the detection of defects in managing the health of athletes during and after. Early detection of soft-tissue damage in sports may help in physical and psychological support, allowing coaches to offer quality training. BEA21 Technology should work on impact monitor stickers that can be attached to players’ bodies. The gadgets should be able to notify coaches and trainers of the possibility of concussion, brain damage, overexertion, or torn muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Similarly, GPS trackers sewn into sporting outfits now may give real-time input that can improve safety, balance, speed, acceleration, and support. In such applications, it is essential that the sensors and gadgets used by athletes be lightweight and impact-resistant. They must simultaneously generate exact readings of biometrics such as mobility, heart rate, breathing, and implications.

BEA21 Technologies should create fabric patterns that incorporate micro-sensors directly into a lightweight, flexible material. Bluetooth circuitry transmits data to an Android application, which displays real-time feedback to the user wearing the clothing. Fabric sensors may be attached or hooked onto garments, and the materials are availed in various colours and patterns. As in Figure 2 (appendix), sorts of sensors are now integrated into athletic footwear. Over a hundred human parameters, including heart rate, metabolism, stress load, core temperature, and physical impact, are measured by devices in use today. Researchers are advancing, inventing technologies that will be accessible in the near future to assess hydration levels, physical stress, and metabolic function more precisely.

Threats in the Sector’s Micro-Environment

Threats in the domain of wearable sports electronics restrict the potential available. Studies have shown that wearable electronics in sports have significantly impacted players’ everyday lives by moving their identities and social connections and exposing excess personal information (Ke et al., 2022). The data sharing of wearable devices can potentially increase athletes’ and staff’s emotional and cognitive stress. Wearable technology has a broader impact on the world of sports, calling its core ideals of fairness and trust into question.

There are similar worries over the athletes’ lack of confidence in privacy and data autonomy—a belief in the effectiveness of wearable technology in sports. Most sports professionals feel insecure storing personal data on the cloud due to inaccuracies (Crang et al., 2022). Similar concerns connected with recurring device breakdowns have led to significant reservations about the effectiveness of wearable electronics in sports. For instance, in recording trajectory and kinematics, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors, which are often a mix of accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, encounter frequent drift problems.

Similarly, GPS gadgets may not always estimate the right speed, particularly inside, and Bluetooth noise interacts with other factors. In addition, several modern technologies have not been adequately validated to ensure their validity. These issues have led some businesses to forsake wearable devices entirely (Ke et al., 2022). For higher success, organizations must give sufficient resources for device trust. This might include documentation on the data’s accuracy, an explanation of what it represents, and improved customer support for consumer inquiries.

Multifunctional products that cause injuries during training have equally emerged as a danger to the sector’s development. Recalls have happened, for instance, in the case of the LZR suit in swimming (Soule et al., 2022). According to the reports, Speedo’s LZR Racer was a full-body suit with a material that offered so much buoyancy that practically all world records and gold medals at the 2008 Olympics were won using this suit. FINA subsequently banned the company in 2009 because of its perceived unfair advantage. As manufacturers of wearable electronic devices evolve and become more comprehensive, the research and development teams of BEA21 Technologies should be aware of the significance of this development. It will always be necessary to reassess sports regulations about what constitutes cheating vs. mere competitive advantage. Protecting the core concepts of fairness and impartiality in athletics is crucial.

Stakeholder Map

To guarantee that BEA21 Technologies capitalizes on the prospects in the sports market, management must establish good coordination among stakeholders. Stakeholder mapping is the visual representation of all stakeholders of a product, project, or concept on a single map. The management should study the following stakeholder map, which provides a visual depiction of all the individuals who might affect the company environment. As the map in Figure 1 indicates, a thorough grasp of the various sorts of stakeholders may assist in focusing the company’s attention and resources.

Stakeholders' map

Figure 1: Stakeholders’ map


The market for wearable devices in sports is anticipated to expand throughout the projected period. Today, the demand for wearable technologies and gadgets is increasing fast, with the industry moving toward a focus point where businesses emphasize service improvement above adding new capabilities to the device itself. As a result, BEA21 Technologies Ltd. could capitalize on the transition in electronics and computers that has sparked a rising interest in wearable devices. Wearable gadgets have remained an integral element of the sports business, assisting athletes in adhering to their daily routines and providing crucial data on the numerous parameters they are programmed to regulate.

Recommendations for Tapping Market Openings

BEA21 Technologies should create the right human capital to capitalize on cloud computing and GPS technology. Today, the necessity for wearable devices in the sports business has been supported by the incorporation of analytics tools for better assessing and analyzing this data to enhance performance or general personal fitness. Today’s expansion of the wearable devices industry may be attributed to a combination of factors, including rising demand, the spread and acceptability of enhanced communications protocols, and the downsizing of sensor technologies. Due to their compressed or tiny size and improved integration technologies, sensors and wearable devices may be integrated into various accessories, such as wristwear, clothing, footwear, and eyewear.

The administration of BEA21 Technologies Ltd should be aware of the elements impacting wearable devices in the sports sector. Currently, the most significant reasons are the arrival of major companies, the portability and convenience of the devices, the increased healthcare awareness, the rising cost of production, and technical advancements. These significant aspects have contributed to the widespread acceptance of wearable gadgets. Customers favor wearable devices such as activity trackers, smart-watches, and smart clothes for their various benefits, such as portability and using the most cutting-edge technology.

Wearable electronic devices have numerous applications in fitness and sports for psychotherapeutic intervention in coaching. Since they give crucial data, the gadgets are essential for managing and monitoring factors such as heart rate, calorie intake, sleep, and blood pressure. In sports, wearable gadgets allow users to access health-related data on their smart wearable devices. BEA21 Technologies should research new spaces in telecommunication research that can improve wearable electronics gadgets in sports, such as virtual support and augmented reality.


Current trends indicate that several kinds of athletes experience injuries, and modern technology enables physical therapists and orthopedic experts to treat all levels of athletes and all forms of harm. Similarly, the potential of kidnapping is increasing as a worry for athletic explorers who may like to go to isolated places around the globe. This report gave BEA21 Technologies Ltd. important insights necessary in research areas and opportunities for wearable devices in sports. Enhancing performance in professional team sports, wearable sports technology has moved beyond physiological monitoring to include perceptual and psychological factors.

This report acknowledges that wearable technology has permeated the sports industry over the last two decades due to the multiple benefits accruing from the collection of adequate device data. In sports, the advantages of wearable gadgets include thorough performance data analysis, injury prevention, and encouragement to check one’s physical health. With the proliferation of wearable gadgets in sports, its impacts have affected all levels of players and the cadre of the athletic staff. Physical consequences include enhanced overall fitness and injury prevention, while sociocultural implications include ethical shifts, unprecedented privacy issues, and a rise in mental health stress.

Economic implications include new employment possibilities and profitable channels for professional and sports groups. This analysis of these diverse repercussions assists those investing in current wearable devices and those creating innovative gadgets in this fledgling market with decision-making. This report proposes that BEA21 Technology Ltd.’s research and development teams explore opportunities for more effective use of cloud computing and GPS technologies to enhance sports safety.


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Foot-mounted wearable in 2014: FIFA

Figure 2: Foot-mounted wearable in 2014: FIFA (Ke et al., 2022)

Over-Policing Community Problems In Texas Writing Sample

Cooley, Erin, and Jazmin Brown-Iannuzzi. “Liberals perceive more racism than conservatives when police shoot Black men—But, reading about White privilege increases perceived racism, and shifts attributions of guilt, regardless of political ideology.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 85 (2019): 103885. https://doi-org.aurarialibrary.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2019.103885

This article explores the perception of liberals and conservatives concerning systematic racism through over-policing. For liberals, police brutality toward black Americans was influenced by racism and inequality favoring whites over Blacks (Cooley and Brown-Iannuzzi, p.5). Conservatives had fewer premonitions about racism whenever Police officers attacked black Americans. However, for both liberals and conservatives, the perception of White privilege directly contributed to racist conduct by the police through over-policing (Cooley and Brown-Iannuzzi, p.7). Awareness of systematic racism tends to influence people’s perception when analyzing police-civilian interactions, especially for Black people.

The article becomes useful for researching the issue of over-policing in Texas as it relates to the lesson on White privilege, whereby systematic racism contributes to the criminalization of Blacks. The researchers use a random sample of non-Blacks to study the effect of political ideologies and lessons on privileged races to provide clarity on police-Blacks interactions (Cooley and Brown-Iannuzzi, p.3). The article uses the mediation model through two independent studies to demonstrate that political ideology affiliation contributes to the difference in the perception of racism (Cooley and Brown-Iannuzzi, p.6). The article’s findings also become critical in developing diversity policies for states such as Texas, where over-policing challenges lack much attention from the Whites.

Cummings, Scott L., Law and Social Movements: Reimagining the Progressive Canon (May 11, 2018). Forthcoming in Wisconsin Law Review (2018), UCLA School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 18-17, Available at SSRN:https://ssrn.com/abstract=3177207

The article by Scott Cummings seeks to exemplify the role of lawyers in organizing and facilitating the development of social movements essential for reforms. Cummings compares the old canon system with the present one to demonstrate the richness of legal actions in overcoming structural inequalities for minorities (Cummings, p.442). The article emphasizes the impact of lawsuits in developing equality for all persons, including immigrants using specific examples present in US history (Cummings, p.452). Cummings cites weakness in the implementation of laws and the lack of proper strategies by social movements as the major cause of the failure in securing civil human rights (Cummings, 500). Concerning racial inequality, Cummings explains how lawyers influence law enforcement decisions that discriminate against Blacks.

The article benefits research on over-policing in terms of the structural inequality in Texas and how lawyers could advocate for social movements. Cummings explores all the illegality undertaken by police officers and the implication on the discriminated communities (Cummings, p. 488). The stereotyping of Blacks coupled with police brutality in Texas, despite the state harboring a large population of African Americans, benefits from Cummings’ research on the role of social movements in challenging discriminative laws. As highlighted by Cummings, structural weaknesses of equality laws explain the impact of over-policing as a direct effect of systematic racism by law enforcers.

Graham, Amanda, et al. “Race and worrying about police brutality: The hidden injuries of minority status in America.” Victims & Offenders 15.5 (2020): 549-573.https://doi-org.aurarialibrary.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/15564886.2020.1767252

Police brutality against minority communities in the US is commonplace given the historical criminal injustice whereby unarmed African Americans have been injured and even killed. According to Graham et al., the racial divide in the US results in different levels of worrying about police brutality in the various ethnic communities (Graham et al., p.560). Among the most affected communities in the US regarding criminal injustice, the Blacks are the most worried, closely followed by Hispanics (Graham et al., p.557). The Whites express little worry about police brutality and over-policing. The authors also highlight that most of the harms caused by police brutality remain hidden from the public and may persist in promoting lasting racial inequalities.

The article establishes the relationship between race and police brutality. Using the ‘worry’ factor of police brutality as the dependent variable and the different racial groups as the independent variables, researchers have been able to explain the challenges faced by the minority communities during over-policing (Graham et al., p.556). Excessive use of force by the police reinforces negative interaction with the Blacks and Hispanics compared to the Whites. The article applies to the over-policing issue in Texas, where police brutality has resulted in the deaths of most African Americans (Graham et al., p.561). Less coverage of minority police victimization cases highlights the challenges of overcoming over-policing in states with Whites majority.

Wilson, Betty L., and Terry A. Wolfer. “Reducing police brutality in African American communities: Potential roles for social workers in congregations.” Social Work and Christianity 47.3 (2020): 66-84. https://doi.org/10.34043/swc.v47i3.153

This article focuses on developing community policing programs that support victims of racial injustice. The increasing brutalization of African Americans in the US has been brought to the limelight through technological advances that have increased surveillance (Wilson and Terry, p.68). The racial trauma developed from structural racism would then require community-based interventions, especially from Black communities, through social workers who can educate, advise, and support the recovery of the victims of police brutality (Wilson and Terry, p.71). The authors have also recommended that other communities, including the Whites, have a role to play in establishing trust and equality between the policy and civilians.

The article demonstrates the impact of police brutality on Black communities such as the one in Texas. Community programs through congregants would benefit states experiencing racial discrimination and the traumatic effects of over-policing (Wilson and Terry, p.76). The authors provide the function of social workers in shaping the conduct and relationship between the police and the Black communities (Wilson and Terry, p.79). Involving the Whites in the campaign against police brutality applies to the Texas scenario whereby the majority white population remains unconcerned with over-policing. As a result, the article would guide policy-making decisions for marginalized communities and the law enforcers in Texas.

Works Cited

Cooley, Erin, and Jazmin Brown-Iannuzzi. “Liberals perceive more racism than conservatives when police shoot Black men—But, reading about White privilege increases perceived racism, and shifts attributions of guilt, regardless of political ideology.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 85 (2019): 103885. https://doi-org.aurarialibrary.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2019.103885

Cummings, Scott L., Law and Social Movements: Reimagining the Progressive Canon (May 11, 2018). Forthcoming in Wisconsin Law Review (2018), UCLA School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 18-17, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3177207

Graham, Amanda, et al. “Race and worrying about police brutality: The hidden injuries of minority status in America.” Victims & Offenders 15.5 (2020): 549-573. https://doi-org.aurarialibrary.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/15564886.2020.1767252

Wilson, Betty L., and Terry A. Wolfer. “Reducing police brutality in African American communities: Potential roles for social workers in congregations.” Social Work and Christianity 47.3 (2020): 66-84. https://doi.org/10.34043/swc.v47i3.153