A Psychological Perspective On The Choice Of Partners Essay Example

One of the most basic human qualities is the desire to unite in groups. History demonstrates that throughout the ages, people have tried to join various communities and interest groups. This has included joining groups of hunters to maximize prey, joining mythical communities to search for the meaning of life, and joining groups of explorers to discover new knowledge. In other words, people by nature can hardly exist alone, hence, they often try to find allies. Unification on the basis of solid feelings and attachments is one of the most durable because not only a common goal but interests, views, and plans for life arise between people. From a psychological point of view, it is about the patterns and models that underlie the choice of a partner, allowing a person to choose the individual with whom they are comfortable living and evolving together. This integrative essay will theorize patterns and critically explain several well-known mechanisms for choosing partners, whether in friendships or love relationships.

One of the first explanations for the formation of partnerships between people is the presence of physical proximity between them. As has been shown, best friends and partners are those people who live close by (Watts and McDermott, 2015). This is not surprising since the implied freedom of choice is actually limited by a person’s demographic and geographic factors. The need to attend school, work, or spend time away from home are all social human activities that are closely tied to interactions with others. We find ourselves limited in these interactions because the range of interpersonal relations is no broader than the connections we make in the course of these activities. This is the reason why at least a third of high school students have a permanent love partner from their environment (Maximets, 2021). In other words, one is forced to systematically spend time with the same people, which is one of the strongest predictors of building partnerships, whether friendships or love relationships. In turn, this perspective means that pseudo-perceived freedom is created in our choice of partner because we tend to believe that we make our own decisions, whereas, in reality, we are constrained by our environment. Consequently, partnerships between people are formed on the basis of their physical contact in their daily activities. There are, however, opposing opinions on this point of view, as the concept of proximity ceases to be universal in the modern world.

Some contradictions can be found in the theoretical study of the above hypothesis, especially in the rapidly developing digital world. With the advent of mobile apps and dating websites, the need for physical proximity is suppressed (Holliman and Critten, 2015; Chien and Hassenzah, 2020). The modern person does not need to be close to a person to get to know them and start communicating, as the use of messengers and video communication is sufficient — in some cases, long-distance relationships can be strong and long-lasting. Another counterargument to the need for physical proximity between people is the forced displacement of one of the partners, such as best friends. If their friendship has been cultivated over many years, and for various reasons, one of the couples had to move to another city or country, the strength of their friendship will not necessarily weaken (Pazil, 2018). The friendship will persist at a distance and will be particularly noticeable when the friends reunite; as a consequence, regular physical proximity may not be an unambiguous and universal predictor of partner choice.

The following psychological hypothesis about mate choice is the idea of homogamy or matching. The essence of this hypothesis is that people tend to choose a partner who is similar to them in terms of cultural background, demographics, cognitive characteristics, or emotional spectrum (Watts and McDermott, 2015). This hypothesis seems intriguing because it suggests that people tend to integrate when they are most similar to each other. The motivation for such integration is obvious: subconsciously, people try to find people who are similar to them, who can share their views and mentally support their moods. In this context, it is impossible not to mention that any groups, regardless of the field, whether they are students, workers, or even church groups, are usually formed on the basis of statistical similarity (Cinelli et al., 2021; Chen and Kuo, 2019). Thus, the likelihood that a group of psychology students will include people who initially had similar goals and intentions may be high. From this perspective, it seems that one is placed in advance in an environment where one is surrounded by people who are similar to them, hence, it may be easier to choose a partner. Consequently, finding partners based on similarity covers the need for close emotional contact and simplifies the interaction between people. However, there is an alternative view to this hypothesis: many people are convinced that opposites tend to attract.

Since forming a partnership is not universal, it is proper to recognize that people with different worldviews or behaviors often come together in love or friendship alliances. Often psychologists turn to the physical example of magnetism to demonstrate how opposing charges — plus and minus — can attract while similar charges repel each other (Field, 2021). The tangible benefits of such alliances cannot be overstated: each person brings a new dimension to the partnership, complements it, and adds unique facets. It has been reported that resolving conflicts arising from differences in attitudes promote a sense of personal well-being and helps to strengthen the bond between people (Holliman and Critten, 2015). In addition, differences in behavior and cognitive traits between people reduce the tone of communication by forcing them to constantly learn and be engaged in the interaction without predicting their partner’s behavior. When we are confronted with new perspectives and opinions, it ultimately contributes to personal development as well, as it catalyzes critical thinking and a willingness to engage in new experiences.

Another intriguing perspective on the problem of partner choice is the subconscious tendency of people to relive their own traumas. It is a fact that many people are carriers of emotional turmoil and trauma rooted, in part, in childhood relationships with their parents (Voith et al., 2020). When a person grows up, the trauma can remain unprocessed, which affects their behavior. From this perspective, it is believed that a person tends to choose partners who will excite these traumas in their minds, as people subconsciously crave healing (Hick, 2019). In this context, it is impossible not to cite Bowlby’s theory, which postulates the evolutionary development of attachments (Holliman and Critten, 2015). It has been reported that attachments tend to be established at an early age as a biological need of children for emotional contact and survival. Regarding the self-healing hypothesis, attachment, according to Bowlby, may refer to a desire to become attached to people who help restore childhood memories and refresh experiences and trauma from the past. The individual seeks to find a partner with whom to recreate emotional attachment, thus facilitating survival in the adult world. Consequently, we are more likely to choose partners who allow us to relive past traumatic experiences because we ourselves unconsciously want to overcome this barrier. It is worth acknowledging, however, that the self-healing hypothesis is incomplete and may reveal fundamental contradictions.

In particular, the idea described above seems logical if the person does have traumas and does not have the resources to deal with them professionally. However, this hypothesis does not explain the scenario if the person grew up in a healthy family and all of his or her traumas were healed through psychotherapy — what is the choice of partners in this case. Moreover, the pursuit of self-healing turns out to be a self-centered perspective since, in this case, the priority in choosing a partner is given not to feelings of emotional attachment or attraction to each other but to a unilateral desire to be better. We may get the impression that subconsciously we are choosing a person who would help us, but such a desire is destructive to a two-way, trusting relationship. Putting the responsibility on the partner to deal with personal emotional trauma does not seem to be a healthy relationship-building strategy, therefore, this psychological perspective does not seem to be universal or defensible.

To summarize, we must first consider the natural social urge for people to band together in groups and alliances. Indeed, loneliness does exist in modern society, but most people feel the need to make friends and begin loving relationships. There is no single rationale for a person’s decision to seek specific partners in psychology, as there are too many viewpoints and perspectives. This paper has examined at least three hypotheses — physical proximity, affinity, and desire for healing — that may unconsciously drive people’s decision-making. However, a critical look at these paradigms reveals their instability and unpredictability. From this, we can conclude that there is no single model for choosing partners, and each case is unique; moreover, we cannot rule out the possibility of a combination of different motivating forces forcing us to choose certain friends or partners. Ultimately, the fact that not all alliances last forever and breakups occur is evidence of the dynamism of motivation and the existence of many other factors.

Reference List

Chen, C.M. and Kuo, C.H. (2019) ‘An optimized group formation scheme to promote collaborative problem-based learning,’ Computers & Education, 133, pp. 94-115.

Chien, W.C. and Hassenzahl, M. (2020) ‘Technology-mediated relationship maintenance in romantic long-distance relationships: an autoethnographical research through design,’ Human–Computer Interaction, 35(3), pp. 240-287.

Cinelli, M., Morales, G.D.F., Galeazzi, A., Quattrociocchi, W. and Starnini, M. (2021) ‘The echo chamber effect on social media,’ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(9), pp. 1-8.

Field, B. (2021) Do opposites attract in relationships?

Hick, K. (2019) Three reasons why people come together in relationship.

Holliman, A. and Critten, S. (2015) Chapter 2: what is the point of childhood? Early experiences and social relationships. Web.

Maximets, N. (2021) What percent of high-school relationships last? | statistics and facts.

Pazil, N.H.A. (2018) ‘Face, voice and intimacy in long-distance close friendships,’ International Journal of Asian Social Science, 8(11), pp. 938-947.

Voith, L.A., Logan-Greene, P., Strodthoff, T. and Bender, A.E. (2020) ‘A paradigm shift in batterer intervention programming: a need to address unresolved trauma,’ Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 21(4), pp. 691-705

Watts, S. and McDermott, V. (2015) Chapter 6: why would I hang around with you? The psychology of personal relationships. Web.

AUD And NZD Exchange Rate Forecast

Australia and New Zealand are neighboring countries with highly intertwined economies and cultures. Australia, which has a larger and more industrialized economy, utilizes the Australian dollar (AUD), while New Zealand with an advanced market economy utilizes the New Zealand dollar (NZD), informally known as Kiwi. The two countries maintain a free trade agreement. Australia is New Zealand’s second-largest trading partner behind China, with 26.2b NZD. Both countries have a floating exchange rate. The current exchange rate for AUD/NZD as of April 21, 2022, is 1.0954 (Bloomberg, 2022).

The biggest ongoing macro factor is the geopolitical crisis in Ukraine. Both countries have sanctioned Russia but do not maintain strong trade relationships with it, and receive less than 2% of oil and other energy from Russia, meaning that neither economy would be drastically affected directly. The AUD is seeing some strength as it is viewed as one of the more reliable reserve currencies by investors in times of crisis. COVID-19 is still an ongoing issue, but both countries have opened borders to the vaccinated and maintain a ‘living with COVID’ approach. A significant impact may be brought by COVID-19 lockdowns in China, essentially freezing supply chains and trades on many fronts. China is the primary trading partner for Australia and New Zealand. However, the value of the two-way trade volume for New Zealand is 31.5b NZD, while for Australia, it is 180b AUD, an 84% difference (New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2021).

If the lockdown in China persists and it will negatively impact Chinese growth and commodity price demand, then the AUD will be affected slightly. However, the Ukraine crisis is generally driving commodities up, and as Australia is a major oil producer and exporter, this should aid the currency. At the same time, New Zealand largely exports agricultural commodities and has to import oil, fuel, and other commodities which are rising in value, which may put downward pressure on the currency.

Global inflation, as part of the ongoing crises described above, is steadily rising. Australia and New Zealand have not been immune. The Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) saw core inflation rising higher than the target 2-3% range in the first quarter of 2022, lifting the annual rate to at least 3.2%. The RBA has maintained an emergency low-interest rate of 0.1% and has seen no official hikes since 2010, but expert and market expectations are that the RBA will hike the rate to 0.25% in June, and potentially 2% by year-end (Cole, 2022). Meanwhile, New Zealand has seen a 30-year record inflation peak at 8.5%, once again above the 3% target range. Recently, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ) has raised the interest rate to 1.5%, with two-year swap rates that reflect interest rate expectations suggesting a hike to at least 3.53% (Lefort, 2022).

Generally, a country with a consistently lower inflation rate demonstrates an appreciating currency value as its purchasing power increases. New Zealand’s inflation rate is significantly higher, depreciating its currency. While both countries are increasing interest rates that are meant to boost currency value, because of New Zealand’s inflation rate, that hike will be largely offset. It is unclear how much each currency will be impacted as a result of interest rate hikes, but it is expected that AUD will likely benefit more. Furthermore, across international markets and currency exchanges, the AUD is outperforming the NZD, particularly in USD. Furthermore, the Australian markets are pricing in the RBA likely rate hike this summer, both betting and pressuring that the government will change its conservative monetary policy stance. Meanwhile, the NZ economic outlook is deteriorating, and there is a lack of faith in the business community in the NZ government to enact competent economic policies to reduce inflation and improve conditions. Given all these factors, in 2022, the AUD will appreciate against the NZD. The rate will likely continue climbing stably, reaching 1.13 at mid-summer and potentially 1.5 by end-of-year.

Reference List

Bloomberg AUDNZD: CUR, 2022.

Cole, W. Australia rate hike brought nearer by inflation, wages – central bank, Reuters.

Lefort, C. NZ inflation hits 30-year peak but disappoints rate hawks, Financial Review.

New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade Market update: China, 2021, New Zealand.

Chapter Highpoints Journal

Introduction

Healthcare providers must be in a position to describe the healthcare system and available healthcare organizational structures in order to develop an adequate understanding of how to integrate all the elements and dynamics in meeting the needs of target populations. This paper uses the first two chapters of Longest and Darr’s book and other resources to not only discuss several learning outcomes on the U.S. healthcare system but also to describe the major types of healthcare organizational structures.

Learning Outcomes on U.S. Healthcare System

First, I did not know that the judicial process could be used to develop health policies as I was of the opinion that health policies are only produced through the legislative process. Upon reading the chapter, I am now aware that the courts have jurisdiction and authority to use formal law to produce health policies (Longest & Darr, 2014). The second issue that I did not know prior to reading the chapter is how HSOs are classified. Now, I know that the methodology used in classifying HSOs is profit or not for profit (depends on profit motive), ownership (e.g., publicly or privately owned), length of patient stay (e.g., inpatients or outpatients), and role in the health services system (e.g., provision of ambulatory or social welfare services).

Third, I did not understand how health services organizations (HSOs) can improve their focus on populations and communities to provide greater efficiency in care delivery. Now, I have the knowledge that HSOs can achieve more focus by developing community care networks charged with the responsibility of “increasing access and coverage, enhancing accountability to the community, imbuing the healthcare system with a community health focus, improving coordination among the many parts of the healthcare system, and using healthcare resources more efficiently” (Longest & Darr, 2014, p. 17) The fourth issue that I did not know is whether health regulators have real authority. Now, I know that these regulators derive their authority from the U.S. Constitution and associated interpretations of the Supreme Court. Lastly, I did not know how health accreditation is done. Upon reading the chapter, I am now well versed with HSO accreditation, educational accreditation, and ensuing benefits.

Healthcare Organizational Structures

The most used organizational structures in healthcare settings include the functional organizational structure, the service line organizational structure, and the matrix or team-based organizational structure. The functional model employs a pyramid-hierarchy to not only define the functions associated with each unit or department in the hierarchy but also to outline important management positions allocated to those functions in a way that clearly reflects diverse levels of administrative and operational control prevalent in the health services organization (Longest & Darr, 2014; Siedel & Lewis, 2014). This structure utilizes a stringent sequence of command and unambiguous lines of reporting and accountability to ensure optimal delivery of clinical services and seamless management.

In the service line organizational structure, “a manager is appointed to head a specific clinical service line and has responsibility and accountability for staffing, resource allocation, budget, and financial control associated with the array of services provided under the service line” (Buchbinder & Thompson, 2010, p. 24). Moving on, the matrix organizational structure provides authority to specific departments or teams in a healthcare organization to achieve flexibility, improve lateral communication and coordination of services, and ensure the optimal use of pooled knowledge. An example of the matrix organizational structure is when functional employees (e.g., nursing professionals and dialysis experts) are allocated to a particular program such as kidney treatment and they are accountable to the program director of the kidney unit.

Conclusion

Drawing from this discussion, it is evident that the two chapters of the book have expanded my knowledge and understanding of issues related to the U.S. healthcare system and healthcare organizational structures.

References

Buchbinder, S.B., & Thompson, J.M. (2010). Career opportunities in health care management: Perspectives from the field. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC.

Longest, B.B., & Darr, K. (2014). Managing health services organizations and health systems (6th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Health Professions Press, Inc.

Siedel, L.F., & Lewis, J.B. (2014). The Middleboro casebook: Health strategy and operations. Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press.

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