A Study Of Stereotypes In A Confederacy Of Dunces Free Sample

He creates characters that, according to Thomas Transitions, are “vivid, if flat, characters” (484). While it is true that Tool uses many stereotypes In his writing to convey relatable characters to the reader, Tool’s funniest characters are more than simply perfect stereotypes. Through character development and the use of a shifting omniscient limited point of view, Tool expands the personalities of his characters in A Confederacy of Dunces, moving them beyond one-dimensional stereotypes and into fully realized characters.

The grotesque Igniting, The dumb cop Mucous, the black vagrant Jones, and the greaser George all live up to their stereotypes, but also take on personality traits that are entirely unique for the stereotype they exemplify. As a result, the reader sympathizes with and feels for the characters as well as crying with laughter at them (Traversal 484-85; Simmons; McNeil). Stereotypes are essential to the success of A Confederacy of Dunces, but advancing the characters past the point of a simple type through the point of view of the novel’s main character Igniting is what truly sets the stereotypical characters apart as distinguishable characters.

Stereotypes are, In their very nature, representations, albeit crude and sometimes Inaccurate, of the groups that they are typing. As Jane Arnold puts it “… Troopers are not necessarily inaccurate descriptions; they are simply unbalanced. Stereotypes might be described as the distilled essence of the public perception of particular groups of people” (275). While Tool’s stereotypes do abide by this standard of typifying characters, another factor influences the reader’s discernment of who the characters are: Igniting.

Igniting is essentially a paradox of humanity: while very well educated and even smart, this childish, sexually immature man still lives with his mother. Igniting has no self- awareness of any kind (Brown 895; Clark 275; Simmons). All of these and other aspects of Ignition’s personality are perfectly described by the word grotesque. Grotesque, according to the Columbia Dictionary of Modern Literary Devices, is defined as ” .. A fascination with the unnatural, ugly, distorted, or bizarre.. .” (127).

The psychology of Igniting is confusing and difficult to analyze itself, but the Important thing regarding these faults is that they create the character whose point of view is responsible for initially typing many of the novel’s characters. As Diane 1 OFF to see the perspective of the teller, which can render the story funnier when seen in a different light (101). This is especially true of Igniting, who can reduce the most dynamic of characters to what they are wearing, their occupation, their social standing, and their race.

As Elizabeth S. Bell articulates “Igniting is Joined fittingly enough by a ragtag band of characters … These characters are, to Igniting, representatives of the human condition. ” Igniting sees these characters as inferior to his own genius, and types them without regard to their individuality as people. However, Tool brilliantly brings these minor characters out of the realm of the stereotype by revealing the characters’ own points of view to bring more perspective o their personalities, thoughts, and emotions.

Tool uses all of these techniques at his disposal so readily and flawlessly because he understands how they can influence the direction of a novel in a very immense fashion (Bell). To understand the brilliance of the use of stereotypes in A Confederacy of Dunces, one must first understand how Tool himself perceived and used them so effectively. The dilemma stereotypes pose for every author, according to Caroline Cargill, is this: “To resist typifying leaves literary characters that bear little resemblance to human beings.

However, to anticipate behavior, values, and attitudes based solely on identification of a particular group misrepresents the human experience. ” Furthermore, Cargill adds that writers can make two types of characters, often intertwining these characters to create one who is both universal and original. Universal characters appeal too reader due to their reliability, and original characters are more themselves, which creates appeal in the individuality of their actions. This line between one- dimensional characters and unrealistic characters is one that Tool tightropes with incredible skill. He is able to do this for two important reasons.

First, he understands the dynamic that stereotypes play in literature, especially literature written about a place that has developed a stereotypical personality of its own: New Orleans. A close friend of Tool’s, Emilie Dietrich Griffin, recalls that Tool wanted to do something that no one in his mind had every before done: write a novel that truly captured the essence of New Orleans. To do that, he would need to expand the fabled typifying of New Orleans and add his own experiences of the city to make New Orleans something that was his own as well as something about which everyone already knew (McLaughlin 163).

The second reason that Tool embraces stereotypes in his writing is that “… His humor [is] tied to his ability to mimic other people.. .” (Angers 23). Due to his ability to imitate others so easily, his characters are based on people who are real and relatable as well as being so odd that they seem absurd (McLaughlin W). From the beginning of the novel, Officer Mucous embodies the stereotype of a dumb cop, but Tool’s insight into his thoughts reveal that Mucous is more than his stereotype would suggest. The novel begins with a scene involving Mucous that creates the stereotype that he operates under during the entire novel.

Mucous decides to check out Igniting as a shady character. In Unanimous defense, this decision is easy to understand based on the opening chapter’s description of Igniting. Igniting, offended severely by such an assessment from someone he probably deems unfit to be in his presence, responds by causing a scene: “Is it the part of the police department to harass me when this city is a flagrant becomes too threatening for the officer to handle, Igniting escapes the scene with his mother leaving Mucous empty-handed.

The stereotype of Mucous becomes forged with utmost certainty thanks to Ignition’s continued bad opinion of him, which eremites the novel, as well as his actions in letting Igniting escape. However, the dumb cop has chances to expand throughout the novel and become a more dynamic character through Tool’s limited, shifting, third person point of view. Atone point in the novel, Mucous delights in his daily ride on the police motorcycle due to its size and power. He feels like he’s in charge when riding it, a respected cop. He loves the .. Flashing, winking, blinking red and white lights” as well as how the siren “. Was enough to make any suspicious characters within a half-mile radius . . Rush for cover” (Tool 31). While these seem like unimportant details in comparison to the major plot of the book, which is not even about Mucous at all, Tool did not put them in accidentally. He wants the reader to know that Mucous enjoys the feeling of respect and authority from others. This craving for respect and success is what motivates the dumb cop as he dons disguise after disguise and goes from one humiliating locale to the next in his quest for French Quarter criminals.

His final post is the worst yet, and the reader learns that “He had always hoped to win honor on the force, but what honor was there in dying of pneumonia in a bus station rest mom? ” (163). Through the insights into Unanimous inner life Tool shows his reader this character is a person and not Just a type of person. In a similar fashion Joneses character is instantly recognizable as the black vagrant stereotype, but Tool adds a New Orleans flavor to the luckless African American to individualize his character. As Tool’s style dictates, the initial introduction of Jones reinforces the stereotype of him.

He is described in the police station awaiting questioning: “A young black man, eyeless behind seascape sunglasses” (Tool 12). Joneses stereotype is further enforced by his nonchalant attitude in the face of theft accusations. He even Jokes with the policeman who is questioning him (Tool 13). Tool characterized him as relaxed, funny, slightly ignorant, and a little shady. These stereotypes, according Patricia G. Divine and Andrew J. Elliot, exactly match what most people thought about blacks during the ass and ass (1139-40). Tool uses this stereotype extensively throughout the novel to amplify the hilarity of Joneses character.

However, Jones, like Mucous, does not continue to be a type for the entire novel; he also blossoms into a memorable character. He thinks hard about who “the cat in the green cap” is and why he keeps appearing in his life. He is not satisfied with his life as a “vagrant” (Tool 145); he embarks on a quest to sabotage his employer and her bar, Night of Joy. As he stands on the street recruiting an audience for Darkener’s strip show he seems aware of the irony, proclaiming that Night of Joy has “genuine color peoples working below the minimal wage” and “a civil right worker getting his ass beat up between show’ (281).

This ironic self-awareness is what propels Jones beyond the type as his efforts at sabotage work far beyond his dreams with hilarious results. Giving Jones the ability to view himself with humor and irony is one way Tool moves his characterization of the black man beyond the stereotype. While Joneses stereotype glares obviously out to any reader, George’s stereotype is one that might not be as easily recognizable to a twenty-first century audience. George’s Tool wrote the novel, but his inner monologue also reveals a dark and prejudiced character.

George’s introduction comes at the hands of Igniting himself, so it instills the stereotype without George even doing as much as speaking to Igniting. Ignition’s mind rattles off that George is immediately offensive because of “… He pimples, the surly face that seemed to hang from the long well-lubricated hair, the cigarette behind the ear, the aquamarine Jacket, the delicate boots, and the tight trousers that bulged offensively in the crotch.. .” (Tool 139-40). George is obviously a greaser, the sort of disreputable teen made famous in S. E. Hint’s 1967 young adult novel, The Outsiders.

After Igniting becomes a hot dog vendor his encounter with George highlights the latter’s type casting. George asks Igniting for a hot dog, but Igniting refuses to grant his request on the grounds that he has only a few left that he must save (presumably for himself). The argument erupts when George makes the grave mistake of asking Igniting “What’s matter with you, friend? ” (140). Similar to the introduction of both Jones and Mucous, Tool draws attention to the stereotype that George will be operating under as well as adding more detail to the stereotype of Igniting.

Igniting, whose tirades have become a common feature of his character, does not disappoint and launches into yet another rant against the inferior humans living in his society. George’s actions in response to the rant reveal that his character does not submit to authority of people he deems inferior; furthermore, the reader sees that George’s relaxed attitude can be provoked to rage by things that are very obviously unfair. All of these traits coincide with the greaser stereotype that Tool associate with George.

However, a deeper examination of George’s character reveals something that does not correspond very well with his stereotype. George reveals, after witnessing a “Gig” or black person throw a cigarette over Lana Lee (his boss’s) head, that he wants to “… Ride into one of their neighborhoods one of these nights and toss a few eggs. ” (222). This shows a previously unknown aspect of George’s character: he is a racist. Letting the reader into George’s mental life develops his character in the same way Mucous and Jones are developed through their thoughts.

However, unlike the other characters, this revelation of George’s personality does not endear him to the reader; in fact, it alienates him. Either way, the way Tool moves beyond stereotype in the characterization of many of the minor figures of the novel gives them stronger identities as characters, as opposed to types of characters. Many authors provide the perfect foundation for a truly revolutionary character, but that is what separates the masses from John Kennedy Tool. Tool builds the foundation into a beautiful house, and allows his characters to flourish as people inside these houses.

Effects Of Nutrient Pollution On The Neuse River

The Neuse is one of only three rivers in North Carolina whose boundaries are located entirely within the state. Encompassing over 6,000 square miles of watershed and stretching about 248 miles, it begins northwest of Durham, NC, in a 10-acre farm pond which is the headwater of the Eno. From there it feeds into Falls Lake, located on the north side of Raleigh, NC. From the Raleigh-Durham area, where it is a freshwater river, it flows generally south of east toward the Pamlico Sound, passing through many cities, farms, and swamps.

It becomes a shallow, slow-moving, brackish (where freshwater and salt water meet) estuary (is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea) just upstream from the city of New Bern, in western Craven County. It is wider here at its upper estuary and is affected by wind-driven currents, as well as by salt water that move upstream from the Pamlico Sound. The lower Neuse estuary begins in the area of Flanner’s Beach and Minnesott Beach and continues emptying into the Pamlico Sound.

There, the mouth of the Neuse is reported to have the widest river mouth in the continental US. The Neuse River is one of three large rivers that flow into the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds. The Neuse’s provides approximately 2,750 acres of prime nursery habitat, and 1,250 acres of secondary nursery habitats. The Neuse is an important habitat for such fish as shad, herring, catfish, bass, and flounder. The Neuse is also home to vital populations of blue crab and oysters. Of the 3. million acres that comprise the Neuse Basin, 48,000 acres are state parks, 110,000 acres are game lands held by the Wildlife Resources Commission, and 58,000 acres are National Forest. The Neuse River drains land in 19 counties covering 6,192 square miles. More than 1,500,000 people (1/6 North Carolina’s population) live in the basin. Many more come to visit each year. Hog production in North Carolina takes place in the worst possible place, on the flood prone coastal plain. This area has a great deal of sandy soil and a high water table. To make it suitable for farming, a massive ditching system was built.

This ditching drops the water table by promoting runoff. Without this runoff, much of this area would be too wet to farm. Hog waste is extremely harmful to wetlands, streams, creeks and rivers. When hog waste gets into the water it can instantly kill fish and other small life forms that come into direct contact with it. Worse is the significant damage caused over time from the cumulative effect of the continuous runoff of the nutrients from hog factories and other sources, especially nitrogen and phosphorus. When these nutrients arrive at the estuaries, they settle out into the sediments.

This is called nutrient pollution Nutrients are a necessity but too many nutrients can be harmful. Many of our nation’s waters, including streams, rivers, wetlands, estuaries, and coastal waters, are affected by nitrogen and phosphorus pollution. The effect of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution for a given water body depends on its ecoregion and its sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. One of the problems of nutrient pollution is that is creates algal blooms. Many thousands of species of marine algae form the base of the world’s marine food web.

Pfiesteria is one of only 80 to 90 of these species – a very small percentage – that produce toxins that can affect human health. Under certain conditions, a dense growth of algae causes “blooms” which color the water red or brown and sometimes produce harmful toxins. Called Harmful Algal Blooms, they can cause serious disease and other chronic impacts on finfish, shellfish and aquatic mammal health. An unusually problematic algal species has brought new attention to harmful algal blooms in the Neuse. It differs from most known toxin-producing algae in that it does not produce a pigment and thus gives no visual evidence of its activity.

Among the indicators of potential toxin activity by Pfiesteria species are fish with deep sores and fish kills, though laboratory tests are currently required to confirm their presence Noticeable nontoxic algal blooms occur regularly in many coastal systems around the world and some feel that their occurrence is on the rise. In the Neuse in September 1995, more than 20,000,000 fish died and scores of fishermen and residents complained of health problems. The state was forced to close the Neuse to fishing for approximately two weeks.

The news related to this event traveled worldwide in just a matter of days. Recently there was another wave of fish kills in the Neuse River said to be brought on by this same phenomena that killed more than 50,000,000 dead fish that have been scientifically documented. It is estimated that another 50,000,000 or more fish sank to the bottom before they could be counted. Some estimates of the total number of fish killed during this event now exceed 100,000,000. The citizens of North Carolina, especially those from the coastal plain, have protested the hog industry practices for a long time.

When you have industrial hog production, you have something no one else wants. Quiet and friendly neighborhoods have been turned into battle zones. In North Carolina the hog industry has caused citizen unrest throughout the areas where they are situated. Ultimately the federal government stepped in with about $200 million to help restore the river. The state came up with a bunch of programs aimed at reducing nutrient pollution. Eleven wastewater discharge pipes were pulled out of the river. A lot of things did happen between 1995 and 2000 to fix the river and fish kills declined.

But the hog farms are still there. The recent fish kill is a testament to the fact that something must be done. The main problems and concerns with closing the hog farms or at least regulating their runoff are mostly economical. You are talking about a huge industry in North Carolina and many farmers’ livelihoods. They need to have stronger regulations and enforcement of those regulations. “The state has not followed through on the nutrient reduction programs because of all the pressure from some of the very same people who were complaining back in 1995, the tourism and development community.

All the people who suffered the economic pain and helped us get the state to set up pollution control programs now want to put pollution pipes discharging partially treated sewage back into the river. Towns, like Havelock, want more sewer capacity and the easiest way to get it is to put the pipes back into the river. We cannot allow greed and short memories to prevail”. http://hsgac. senate. gov/031302dove. htm http://www. pfiesteria. seagrant. org/ http://www. epa. gov/waterscience/criteria/nutrient/basic. htm http://www. riverlaw. us/theneuse. html

Abortion And Unborn Child

The abstract is a short summary of the document. Please input the document’s abstract here. The abstract gives a brief overview of the content. ] I Abortion is a topic that always generates extensive discussions. People have different opinions on abortions and their effects on women and men. Mitt Rooney, a former presidential candidate, has interesting perspectives on abortion.

Many people agree with Mitt Rooney’s stance on abortion if he were to win office. Rooney, who was raised in a Mormon household where abortion is considered taboo, follows the belief that it is illegal and viewed as equivalent to murder in the United States.

Abortion is a medical procedure that requires a licensed professional and is performed under the care of doctors and nurses. This procedure, which can be harmful to both the mother and the unborn child, involves methods such as salt poisoning, partial birth, and embryo dilation and evacuation.

Rooney has expressed his views on this topic multiple times during his campaign and is a strong advocate for the reversal of Roe vs. Wade.

The Roe vs. Wade case, a pivotal event in history, sparked controversy. Prior to 1973, abortions were illegal and considered the ending of an innocent life. Rooney staunchly supports safeguarding unborn children and is against abortion except in cases of rape, incest, or when it poses a risk to the mother’s life. During the early 1970s, some labeled abortion as genocide – a deliberate eradication of a specific group. A continuous debate persists advocating for the ban on abortions in America and imposing severe penalties on offenders.

Women are searching for affordable options for abortions and facing various issues, including the risk of fatal bleeding. The Stomacher Institute reports that approximately 41 million legal abortions occur each year globally, with 48% being illegal. France introduced the abortion pill in 1988. Both surgical and medical abortions can lead to physical symptoms like nausea, stomach cramps, bleeding, as well as potential mental and emotional challenges. Even with a licensed doctor, health problems can still arise due to unforeseen circumstances.

Reports have emerged indicating that women who undergo a legal abortion procedure may face fatalities. In addition, some women who have had abortions encounter difficulties in becoming pregnant or carrying a pregnancy to its full term. It is crucial to acknowledge that abortion is a significant surgical procedure that affects not only the women undergoing it but also all individuals involved.

Despite their participation in conception, men’s perspectives are frequently disregarded. Men should also possess the right to choose as they too experience emotions and sentiments. Women might select an abortion due to financial constraints or feeling emotionally unprepared for parenting at present.

The argument supporting men’s involvement in child-rearing decisions is based on the idea that if they possess both financial and emotional capabilities, they should have the chance to raise their children. In our country, single parents of any gender can be found among different races and religions. It has been noticed that becoming a father can deeply transform men’s lives, with some even attributing their personal growth to having a child. There is a belief stating that every unborn child deserves the right to live, regardless of their potential quality of life. This belief emphasizes that the fetus’s right to life exceeds the mother’s right to choose.

There is a perspective contending that by offering women various options and opportunities, the government runs the risk of causing extinction and poverty. By criminalizing abortions, America will become more mindful in its behavior. As a result, both men and women will think twice before engaging in unprotected sexual activities that may result in unintended pregnancies. Women will take measures to protect themselves by employing methods like condoms or other forms of contraception to prevent conception. Research has demonstrated that using birth control decreases the likelihood of abortions by 85%. It is essential to improve public education regarding alternative options to abortion.

Adoption offers a chance for children to have a fair beginning with families who are unable to conceive, making it a beneficial choice. Yet, the legality of abortions remains controversial as there is inadequate evidence to determine if a fetus is considered life or if the decision should be left to the mother. It is crucial for Congress to work together and establish legislation regarding abortions in our nation. Advocating for pro-life options can effectively advance this viewpoint. However, activists have at times encountered negative perception due to previous incidents involving intimidating clinic staff, harassing families, and causing harm to their belongings and pets.

Using the Bible as a tool, many pro-lifers argue that abortions are morally wrong as taking away a life is considered a sin. According to Bayle (1997), legal abortion grants the unlimited right to use lethal force against innocent human beings, which threatens future generations. The late-term abortions, occurring in the second or third trimester when the fetus is alive during extraction from the mother and subsequently killed, evoke horrifying images. This act is viewed by many as murder since it prevents potential life from developing into a human being.

A website called Emerging Files aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the true nature of abortions. The main objective of this website is to expose the criminality associated with abortion and emphasize that the ultimate victim is the fetus. The act of legalizing abortions also raises questions about other laws, such as those surrounding self-defense or gun control, which are established to protect or regulate existing rights. Abortion can be equated with murder, and permitting women to terminate a fetus based solely on selfish motives obstructs progress towards creating a better world.

Both men and women should have equal rights when it comes to a fetus they jointly created. A woman deserves the right to decide for her safety and protect herself, but granting her the right to abort an unborn child who did not have a say in being here is not justifiable.

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