Abortion In The US: Human Behavior And Social Environment University Essay Example

Each year, a broad cross-section of U.S. women obtain abortions. The following statistics are provided by Guttmacher Institute: “some 60% of women having abortions were in their 20s; 59% had one or more children; 86% were unmarried; 75% were economically disadvantaged; and 62% reported a religious affiliation” (“State facts about abortion: Indiana,” 2018, para. 1). No racial or ethnic group made up a majority: “some 39% of women obtaining abortions were white, 28% were black, 25% were Hispanic, and 9% were of other racial or ethnic backgrounds” (“State facts about abortion: Florida,” 2018, p. 2).

As of May 1, 2018, there are following laws in Indiana state concerning the abortion procedure: “a woman must receive state-directed counseling that includes information designed to discourage her from having an abortion, and then wait 18 hours before the procedure is provided” (“State facts about abortion: Florida,” 2018, p. 1). Counseling must be presented in person. Also, it is essential that it takes place prior to the waiting period, and thus two admissions to the facility are needed. It is also stated that private insurance policies can “cover abortion only in cases of life endangerment, rape, incest or if the woman’s health is severely compromised unless individuals purchase an optional rider at an additional cost” (“State facts about abortion: Florida,” 2018, p. 1).

Otherwise, if a woman wants to use health plans offered under the Affordable Care Act, she can only apply for it if her life is in danger due to significantly compromised health as well as in cases of rape and incest (“State facts about abortion: Florida,” 2018). Abortion is included “in insurance policies for public employees only in cases of life endangerment, rape or incest, or when the woman’s health is severely compromised unless an individual purchases an optional rider at an additional cost” (“State facts about abortion: Florida,” 2018, p. 1). Prior to applying for abortion, a woman should be provided with an opportunity to undergo an ultrasound procedure and to view the image of the result (“State facts about abortion: Indiana,” 2018). There lies an obligation to share these laws with your client since it may affect their decision as to whether or not to proceed with any procedure. These laws are in place to protect the patient and also verify that the patient has given informed consent.

My position on abortion is that a woman has a right to govern her own body. She also has the right to her moral convictions on this issue. The government is already far too intrusive in our lives with laws, regulations, and statutes. We don’t need them also to legislate our moral conscience. It is possible to draw the line at partial birth abortions which would set the maximum gestation to approximately 21 weeks. Beyond that point, a fetus that could live outside the womb is developed, and thus it is a viable life.

The movement of pro-choice has a distinct position on the issue of abortion. A vast majority of the U. S. population consider abortion to be a private process of decision-making between a woman and her doctor (Arthur, 2000). Pro-choice does not mean pro-abortion. We do not advocate abortion over birth – we only “defend the right of women to decide for themselves” (Arthur, 2000, para. 3). The purpose of the pro-choice movement is to prevent unexpected pregnancies, to reduce abortion rates, to promote contraception, to educate women of various ages as well as to provide families with sufficient resources for raising children (Arthur, 2000).


Arthur, J. (2000). What pro-choice really means. Web.

State facts about abortion: Florida. (2018). Web.

State facts about abortion: Indiana. (2018). Web.

Redhook’s Market Expansion: Analysis And Strategies

SWOT Analysis


  • Advanced technology and new equipment
  • Popularity in the market
  • Strong brand presence


  • Relatively high prices
  • Focus on freshness complicates large-scale distribution.
  • Refusal to accept contract brewing makes expansion more difficult


  • Large geographic areas for expansion
  • Younger populations discovering craft beer
  • Large general growth in the craft beer market


  • Low market penetration in large cities
  • Large beer brands entering the craft market
  • Expectations of considerable growth after the IPO

PEST Analysis

  • Political: Low importance. The political climate does not affect the production or sales of beer, though numerous laws govern these activities.
  • Economical: High importance. Craft beer is a premium product that primarily appeals to people with high incomes. Therefore, sales strongly depend on the economic status of the populations where it is being sold.
  • Social: Medium importance. Craft beer is associated with a specific social image of supporting local businesses, preferring quality, and having unique tastes. As such, its appeal is dependent on the prevalence of such trends in the local social climate.
  • Technological: Medium importance. Most of the techniques used to brew beer are centuries or millennia old and do not require advanced technology. However, craft beer companies can use new equipment to differentiate their products from those offered by the competition.

Porter’s Five Forces

  • Competition in the industry: High. Craft beer companies have to compete with each other, cheaper mass-produced brands, and European imports.
  • New entry potential: high. While in-house brewing is expensive and difficult, contract brewing enables companies to enter the field with significantly lower costs.
  • Power of suppliers: low. There are numerous sellers of hops, grain, and other beer ingredients, all of which come at mostly the same quality. As such, they are mostly interchangeable, where beer companies are concerned.
  • Power of buyers: medium. Craft beer companies tend to have difficulty expanding into other regions and serve a small market. Price is usually not a concern for craft beer drinkers, but companies still have to fight for their loyalty.
  • The threat of substitutes: medium. There are many other varieties of alcohol in the market, and more expensive options such as whiskey can appeal to craft beer’s target market. However, few alcoholic beverages can approximate beer closely or fulfill a social function that is similar to it.

Porter’s Generic Strategies

Overall, Redhook brews to appeal to a somewhat narrow section of the population, being both geographically limited and more expensive than other beer. As such, its brand strategy is narrow in scope, even though the IPO initiative is aimed to increase its nationwide appeal. Concerning focus, various craft beer brands generally did not compete on price, in which they would necessarily lose out to mass-produced brands. As such, they pursue a differentiation strategy, trying to be different enough from the rest that consumers would choose the brand. In terms of Porter’s generic strategies, this tendency would put Redhook in the differentiation focus strategy category.


The IPO initiative addresses Redhook’s issues regarding its market expansion by providing sufficient finances to address its expansion problems. However, it is still going to be challenging for the company to grow due to its refusal to accept contract brewing and the narrow market of people who may try a craft beer. As such, it should invest in marketing to ensure that its products can penetrate the markets where they previously had low appeal.

Life Meaning: 15 Reasons To Live By Alan Zweig


A documentary movie, 15 Reasons to Live (2013) by Alan Zweig, is an attempt to answer a question that probably puzzled every person who ever lived on earth at least once across the lifespan: what is the meaning of life? The film comprises fifteen short stories told by different people and related to particular concepts which are deemed to make up the essence of life. Some of them include love, work, humor, friendship, and duty. It is valid to say that by elaborating on these fifteen concepts and stories, Zweig manages to demonstrate the multidimensionality of life and shows that there cannot be a single right reply to the posed question. However, one may distinguish a few common themes within the vignettes included in the movie: connectedness, passion and a sense of purpose, self-realization, and self-expression, and acceptance of uncertainty. It seems these are the four major things that endow a person’s time on the planet with a value no matter where they live. I would like to discuss them in the present paper.


The given theme refers to a sense of relatedness either to other people or nature and the world in general. It can be expressed in support of loved ones and friends, sharing positive experiences, challenges, and stories; a state of being open, compassionate, and sensitive to the needs of others. It is apparent that when a person feels supported and connected, they handle challenges much easier than if they were alone. The story of Peter, a rock climber and a mountaineer who suddenly fell ill and became paralyzed, verifies this idea. During the hardships, he was attended to by his friends, surrounded by their care and attention, and it probably was one of the primary reasons why he managed to regain the strength needed to carry on and recover. However, what is more, important in the sense of connectedness, in my opinion, is that it helps to comprehend your own value and that your life has an impact on others. It is not just about how many good friends one has. Relations with the world and society can take many forms and may be expressed through multiple activities, including bird watching, taking care of an old lighthouse, saving whales trapped in fishing nets, and commenting on favorite songs in a music blog. Whatever shape it takes, connectedness is extremely important as it promotes the feeling of belonging and security, which makes life more wholesome.

Passion and Sense of Purpose

Edward Albee once said that the meaning of life lies in the awareness of it (Metz 1). This statement implies that to make life meaningful, individuals should either actively engage in search of their purpose or live up to it, in case they already know the thing that makes their existence significant. The importance of passion and purpose is rather questionable, and not everyone would agree that they are indeed necessary: many people are doing just fine without them anyway. However, when you are devoted to a certain activity and see how the skills in a particular sphere become improved when you invest a lot of time and effort in their development, it can provide significant psychological comfort and inspiration. A strong interest in something can be very motivating and serve as a source of substantial support during turbulent times like it was in the case of Howard, a writer who had a stroke and could not read anymore. It is also possible to say that compared to individuals who are not devoted to anything, a person with a passion can get enduring enjoyment and satisfaction from the feeling of accomplishment and contribution. Thus, it is valid to say that the sense of purpose makes life worth living.

Self-Realization and Self-Expression

Self-expression is defined as a conscious act of an external representation of individual ideas and feelings and an assertion of personal traits (“Freedom of Expression Explained”). The expression of individual opinions, attitudes, and some personal traits is, however, not always welcomed in society, especially when they do not meet the mainstream ideas and expectations. Therefore, such external representations of a person’s self may frequently lead to conflicts and troubles. In spite of this, 15 Reasons to Live shows that self-expression takes an essential part in the lives of individuals and, without an opportunity to behave and speak in accordance with personal views, many people would not be happy to a full extent. It is true that when living in society, we must abide by some rules. However, when the formality is overemphasized, and even slight deviations from norms are penalized, we may feel constrained and deprived of freedom. At the same time, it is impossible to progress in self-realization and fulfillment of the life purpose substantially when self-expression is limited. Conversely, when a person is free to show their true self to others, they become able to establish more meaningful and authentic relations and make various choices more thoughtfully instead of just following the crowd and trends.

Acceptance of Uncertainty

Partially due to societal norms and behavioral expectations, which people start to learn and take for granted since early childhood, most of us prefer to control every single element and event in life. Uncertainty is regarded as something negative by many individuals, and, therefore, they try to avoid it by any possible means: working nine-hour shifts five days a week, saving money, forecasting, and thorough planning, et cetera. However, it can be very suffocating to reduce life to the routine. There is a risk that such an approach can make it meaningless. Conversely, an ability to decrease the level of control and embrace uncertainty, no matter how threatening it may seem at first, can be rewarding. For instance, the main message of the vignette entitled “Intoxication” is that by saying yes to things that one does not usually engage in regularly, it is possible to enrich life with some memorable experiences and new acquaintances and make it much brighter and interesting and, hence, more valuable.


There can be as many answers to the question about the meaning and value of life as there are people in the world: they are all defined by individual backgrounds and personal preferences. 15 Reasons to Live makes viewers reflect on the meaning and purpose of their own lives and offers a few solutions that they can choose to apply. The four themes, which were identified in this paper as the most significant in the movie, are present in every person’s life even if they do not realize it. They affect everyday performance, mood, behaviors, and decisions. It means that they define the overall quality and outcome of life to a significant extent as well. As the movie analysis makes it clear, by working towards improving the sense of connectedness with the world, finding a passion and life purpose, learning to express oneself freely, and embracing uncertainty more often, an individual can discover the meaning and new value in their life.

Works Cited

“Freedom of Expression Explained.” Bright Knowledge, Web.

Metz, Thaddeus. Meaning in Life. Oxford University Press, 2013.

error: Content is protected !!