About Wildfires: Brief Overview Writing Sample

Thesis Statement: Underestimating the severity and danger of wildfires and not taking timely action can lead to disaster, as happened, for example, in Australia in 2019-2020.

  1. Wildfires, which are considered to be a type of disaster, are destructive, uncontrolled, and quite large fires that spread quickly over brush or woodland (National Geographic Society).

  1. Wildfires are not limited to a specific environment or continent and can appear in various ecosystems, including savannas, grasslands, and forests (National Geographic Society).
  2. There are three common types of wildfires: crown, surface, and ground fires (National Geographic Society).

    1. Crown fires destroy the whole tree up its entire length to the top.
    2. Surface ones burn only duff and litter on the surface.
    3. Ground fires appear in deep and dry accumulations of dead vegetation like peat and humus.

  1. Due to the severity of wildfires, they can have a significant effect on various spheres, including the environment and economics (Rinkesh).

  1. Environment and ecosystems may be negatively affected by wildfires.

    1. Animals die because of fires and lack of water and fresh air, and trees and plants get destroyed (Rinkesh).
    2. Wildfires cause air pollution, as well as the destruction of the soil.

  2. Governments need to spend significant amounts of money to stop the fires and eliminate their consequences (Rinkesh).

  1. Wildfires cannot be underestimated since they pose a significant danger to the whole world.

  1. Once a fire starts, it spreads extremely quickly, and it requires great efforts to eliminate it (“Australia Fires: A Visual Guide to the Bushfire Crisis”).

    1. Ordinary people and firefighters die while trying to escape from or deal with wildfire.
    2. Citizens lose their property and may also become buried alive in the wreckage or trapped in the forest.

  2. Wildfires eliminate vast territories, and it gets challenging to escape from them. Researchers note that “more than 11 million hectares (110,000 sq km or 27.2 million acres) of the bush, forest, and parks across Australia has burned” (“Australia Fires: A Visual Guide to the Bushfire Crisis”).

Restated Thesis: To reduce the consequences of wildfires, it is of vital importance to address this issue and never underestimate them.

Works Cited

“Australia Fires: A Visual Guide to the Bushfire Crisis.” BBC News. 2020.

National Geographic Society. “Wildfires.” National Geographic. 2019.

Rinkesh. “What are Wildfires?” Conserve Energy Future.

Anderson’s “Code Of The Street”: Subculture And Conflict Theories

Introduction

In this book, the author try to put forward a fact in which the life of a gangster is culturally glamorized. The media houses depict slums in the urban centers as places that are constantly being under the terror of criminals who are very violent. As per the writer, there is a culture that is very intricate in these communities dominated by poor minorities. According to Anderson (1994), the so called “code” is an outcome of adaptations to culture and circumstances that are structurally constructed by the individuals living in these communities that are ever so violent. Situations in which individuals tend to find themselves entangled into because of their societal place are the so-called circumstances that are structurally constructed.

The authors’ main argument in writing this text was so as to highlight this “street code” i.e. an informal set of rules that now govern how individuals are to handle themselves in public or how they are to display their behavior. Violence is inclusive. These rules are known to provide the best comportment and way of responding to challenges. Having been established, these rules are known to be highly enforced by those who are oriented with the streets. Having a deep know how of this code is very defensive as you are able to know when one has violated your rights. It is thus not a surprise that even decent families opposed to this code reluctantly must teach their children these rules by encouraging them to interact with those in of the inner-city.

The theoretical perspective that I will use to explain the criminal behavior presented in this text are the subculture theory and the conflict theory.

Subculture Theory

Subculture theory is structural. This is from the fact that it is directly group influenced. Culture is a representation of values together with customs. This act as a guide to behavior and gives an appropriate framework for judging a majority of behaviors that are portrayed. It ought to be noted that culture is socially transmitted and not biologically as widely perceived. A subculture on the other hand is easily defined as a culture that is distinct and is present in another culture. Subculture theory thus tends to explain crime that is cutting across a certain society hence it is structural.

The assumptions of this theory are that it is easily distinguishable from another culture i.e. the counterculture that is always in opposite to what is considered a culture of the majority of people. Further assumptions are made through two more theories. These theories are the theory of transmission of culture and the theory of social disorganization. These two theories put it that certain behavioral forms tend to become the transmitted culture generation after another in city zones that are the poorest. Further an assumption is made that people living in urban areas always find means of putting up a certain sense of community no matter how much anonymity or any form of alienation that may be prevailing. Therefore, it is very clear that the specific tenants of this theory can only be the poorest individuals within a city who share an area that is densely populated.

The types of crimes that are typically explained by this theory are gang related crimes. Such crimes include theft in which most of the time was to share as law breaking experience that would lead to stronger peer bonds. They literally end up being friends in crime. Other crimes included vandalism. However, most of these crimes are only aimed towards ensuring a consolidation of loyalty

The major link existing between this theory and the “code of the Street” is the amount of violence present and the presence of gangs. It is not a surprise that of all the problems faced by communities of black people in United State of America; violence stands out as the most harmful of all the problems (Anderson, 1994). It is thus very easy to get an identity that is so violent from just being in this environment. The most unfortunate thing for these black people in these poor communities is the fact that this violence has shaped rules for them. They therefore just must embrace and live with this violence.

However, the component of this theory of subculture that is particularly relevant to this text is the fact that there is a lot of violence in this text. This violence is associated with gangs formed in subculture theory.

Conflict Theory

This theory is processual. This is because just like processual theories, it attempts to portray some individuals as having a high likelihood of committing crime than others. This theory is essentially based on some views with social and economic implications. This implies that the economic and social forces that operate in a society are the major contributors to the occurrence of crime. This creates an assumption that the criminal law and the system of criminal justice are only for the high and mighty, i.e., those who are rich. These establishments of criminal justice only aim at making sure that all the poor individuals are controlled by of course the rich fellows. Since too much is focused on separating those who are rich and powerful from the mere peasant, these rich fellows end up doing a lot to ensure that they are protected from attack by these poor individuals. Therefore, it leads to rights of these poor fellows especially in the suburbs to be tramped upon unnoticed.

The types of crimes explained by this theory include stealing. This crime can be placed under radical or sometimes called critical type of criminology. This might be an attempt to take what they think belong to the rich. Radical feminism leads to crimes against women majorly due to male dominance. Such crimes include incest, rape and abuse.

The link between this theory and the book “code of the street” is a view that these street codes are an adaptation towards the people’s lack of confidence in the system of judiciary and most importantly, the police. These police are seen to be returning a lot less respect than they have been receiving especially from the youth (Anderson, 1994).

The most important component of this theory is the fact that law seems to be upheld only for the rich people while down in the suburbs, it turn out to the street code.

Theory that Works Best

The theory that seems to work best in explaining crimes is the “code of the street”. This is because no matter what the politically mighty do to the poor black folks, they are always turning on each other. Therefore, they seem to be more gang affiliated and more on what this gang is doing to a member of out gang than on what the government is doing to them. The weakness of the conflict theory is the fact that code switching tends to be practiced especially by middleclass individuals.

One of the hypotheses that can be created is that violence in gangs is majorly a tool to form greater bond between its gang members. Another hypothesis could be that gang members are formed from way back while they are youths.

Conclusion

The major in my paper is that this book, “the code of the street” talks of a certain set of rules that are to be observed while in the streets. These rules are mostly because of subculture theories and sometimes also due to conflict theories. Both these theories lead to emergence of violent crime and theft. In subculture theory, it is to maintain gang ties while in conflict theory it is due to a feeling that they would be taking property that belongs to the rich man.

This work is clearly just an observation of a community at a certain time of life and at a certain place. There is no effort whatsoever to try and let us know whether violence or discrimination by institutions and racism came first or last. This thus clearly proves that he did not use an appropriate method of studying crime and violence in these inner cities. However, the major miss was the fact that in this book, there are women and older people in the society. These two groups of people are the ones who face a lot of racism and immense amounts of discrimination institutionally. The writer does not however let us know why they are neither violent nor criminals, especially the young women.

One of the major insights that I gained from this book was the fact that most people in the inner city are faced with no choice at all. They are either to play by the rules of the street or become faced out. In the streets, there is truly less help from the authorities and your neighbors and family truly matter in these streets.

Reference

Anderson, E. (1994). Code of the street: decency, violence, and the moral life of the Inner city. New York: WW Norton & Company.

Long-Terms Goals In Financial Planning

Introduction

Financial goals refer to the aspirations in the life of an investor that needs to be achieved when the person invests his money. By setting financial goals, chances of regretting are minimized and it ensures that the desired goal of investment is realized. These goals vary from one investor to another and it is necessary for a person to prioritize the objectives and the time frame that will enable the achievement of these goals. This paper explains some of the trends involved in setting long-term financial goals.

Discussion

Setting up long-term financial goals is important as it controls daily operations and acts as a guide towards the achievement of the objectives of the business. It ensures control of spending, saving of money and investing in significant aspects of financial planning. Financial planning also assists in establishing financial success.

The main decisions that need to be made by financial managers, as well as individual investors in long-term financial planning, are usually the same. One of these decisions is to determine the goals by writing them down and being specific about them. This enables visualization of the goals and helps in understanding them. The second decision is classifying goals as either short-term, medium or long-term goals. It assists in knowing whether the business is on track or some changes need to be made.

Some of the economic variables include forecasts of future returns, risks and correlation between these variables. These variables can be obtained by financial analysis such as internal rate if return (IRR), rate of return on investment (ROE) or asset utilization ratios.

The major challenges faced by managers in making financial decisions include a shortage of talents such as young people that are upward, professional, and efficient in the field of investment and financial management. The other challenge is different cultural environments such as labor market, employment structures, and cultures that create difficulties for multinational institutions that are maybe willing to attract and maintain qualified staffs in financial management. Decision-making on the method of funding the business may be determined by the source of funding.

During investment planning, the manager also needs to understand the concept of portfolio diversification. This is the process where the manager does not put all the resources in one line of investment. It involves investing in various areas to increase the chances of making more money and prevention of losses as a result of investing in volatile industries.

Conclusion

The lessons have enabled me to understand the benefits that I would gain if I make long term financial goals and plan for them. It has also assisted me in knowing the decisions that I need to make when making financial goals.

The most difficult topic that this course has taught me is the challenges faced by managers in making financial decisions. I have been able to understand the topic and it would be better understood if more research was done on the challenges faced by financial managers and the results forwarded to them for mitigation.

The effects of the lessons learnt can be measured by implementing the guidelines for financial decision making and estimating the increase or decrease of performance of an organization from the previous performance.

Generally, the study has provided a sound achievement of the course objectives by elaborating the right guidelines fro making long term financial decisions that if implemented can result into changes in profitability of any business.

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