Acceptability Of Euthanasia: Moral And Humanistic Views Sample Paper

Introduction

Euthanasia is one of the most disputable questions of the modern age which are given great attention in terms of the increased importance of humanistic values and reconsideration of the value of human life. There are vigorous debates related to the possibility of the usage of the given procedure in terms of the modern health care sector. In general, the topicality of the given question also comes from the further sophistication of the approaches peculiar to the coherent society.

At the moment, any death is considered a great tragedy that should be avoided by all means. For this reason, the desire of an individual to terminate life and cease the moral of physical sufferings could not but spark public outcry. Furthermore, the ability of a person to manage his/her own life and make decisions of this sort are also disputable (Mill, 2008). These concerns predetermine the divergence of perspectives on the issue.

Besides, both opponents and adherers of this idea tend to explore various ethical theories like the deontological one to give grounds for their basic assumptions and prove their perspective. For this reason, when trying to highlight the most important concerns of the topic, numerous ethical questions, and significant problematic aspects that are usually discussed when cogitating about this very issue. Altogether, euthanasia is one of the most controversial issues of the modern era that could be discussed in terms of the deontological ethical theory.

Theory explanation

Yet, deontology provides an ethical basis for certain actions and their nature. Besides, it is the ethical position that “falls within the domain of moral theories that guide and assess our choices of what we ought to do, in contrast to those that guide and assess what kind of person we are and should be” (Larry & Moore, 2016, para. 1). In other words, when making a certain decision or creating a certain approach, a person should keep in mind the idea that the final result of an action is not so important if the action itself violates a certain duty (MacIntyre, 1984).

When a person wants to act in a certain way, his/her ethical considerations should be the most important concerns that should be minded. One realizes the fact that every individual has his/her mentality and point of view on the existing reality that also impacts the evolution of his/her sense of duty and approaches towards some actions. In this regard, adhering to the deontological ethics the only thing a person should consider when accepting a crucial decision is his/her understanding of duty.

For this reason, the final result does not matter greatly. The basic assumptions of the given theory could be used when revolving around the question of euthanasia and the attitude to it as the theory provides the rationale for the given decision. Any person must live a happy life and enjoy every moment. At the same time, he/she is not obliged to live if the perspective or chance for the improvement is absent. Under these conditions, deontological ethics could be used to support euthanasia and assure people in the ethically acceptable character of this action.

Theory application

Applying the theory to real-life conditions, it is crucial to outline several important facts. First of all, euthanasia presupposes cessation of suffering by terminations of an individuals life. In other words, we could speak about the decision that leads to the ethically unacceptable result as the life of any person is sacred, and it should be protected. Moreover, no one is allowed to terminate it.

From this perspective, euthanasia could be considered a horrible action that should be strictly prohibited. Nevertheless, the main ideas of deontology could help to alter the attitude to the question and suggest another perspective on it. As stated above, the result of any action is not so important as the motifs that conditioned the appearance of a certain desire to act in one or another way. If a person is sure that he/she is obliged to live happily, all his/her decisions should aim at the improvement of the quality of life.

However, in case a person suffers from a terminal illness, it is impossible to expect any significant enhancement as a person might be doomed to endless suffering. Moreover, some patients might also become disabled and turn into a real burden for their relatives and close people. Under these conditions, his/her sense of duty might impact decision making and make euthanasia acceptable. A person can manage his/her own life and if he/she is sure that it is the only possible decision, the opportunity to act in the given way should be provided.

Objection

Yet. certain objections could be raised when speaking about euthanasia. First, suffering from unbearable pain and being in the state of altered conscious an individual might be not able to think logically and will accept any decision to avoid the further complication of his/her state (Kass, 1991). In this regard, if all persons decisions, actions, and solutions could not be taken sound enough to use euthanasia. Moreover, another argument against euthanasia is focused on the great importance and significance of every individual’s life (Hursthouse, 1999).

It means that suffering and pain are not so important if to compare it with an opportunity to live and remain a member of society, communicate with close people, and enjoy other significant phenomena. This approach emphasizes the value of life and decreases the importance and impact of pain and suffering. Yet, a person should be able to face any challenges that appear on his/her way and live life in the way which is predetermined (Mosser, 2013). Finally, one also could say that any person must remain strong and protect his/her close people from pain. Yet a decision to terminate life will shock members of a persons family and make them unhappy.

Conclusion

Altogether, euthanasia could be considered one of the most disputable concerns of a coherent society. The nature of this procedure and its result contribute to the appearance of vigorous debates around the acceptability of the given practice.

Yet, deontology provides the basis for specific decision-making that results in the appearance of a desire to terminate life and avoid further suffering. Adhering to the given approach, a person might consider only the motifs that impact his/her decision while the result is not so significant. Yet, there are still opponents of the idea who are sure that an individual who suffers from a terminal illness is not able to think logically and clearly which means that the given decision could not be accepted. Besides, euthanasia could be considered a procedure that could be used to cease suffering and avoid deterioration of the situation.

References

Hursthouse, R. (1999). On virtue ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kass, L. R. (1991). Why doctors must not kill. Commonweal, 118(14), 472-476. Web.

Larry, A. & Moore, M. (2016). Deontological ethics. Web.

MacIntyre, A. (1984). After virtue. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Mill, J. S. (2008). Utilitarianism, In J. Bennett (Ed. & Rev.) Early Modern Philosophy. Web.

Mosser, K. (2013). Understanding philosophy. Web.

Door-to-Balloon Time Reduction: Project Barriers

A concept map is a graphical tool for the organization and presentation of information, which helps to present the relationship between the event and different factors and to display the interaction of several elements vividly (Anderson, Day, & Vandenberg, 2011). In this paper, the concept map reflects the factors that may prevent the implementation of the practicum project and the relationship between different aspects.

The overall aim of the project is to determine strategies that can be executed to diminish the door-to-balloon time in the STEMI patients at Kendall Regional Medical Center (KRMD). As per the evidence analysis, the period between presentation at the hospital and the door-to-balloon time during primary PCI (Percutaneous coronary intervention) should not exceed 90 minutes while earlier intervention leads to better patient outcomes (Ellahham, Aljabbari, Mananghaya, Raji, & Zubaidi, 2015). However, certain external issues can interfere with the successful realization of this strategy. Figure 1 briefly reflects on them:

According to the concept map, the main factor that may significantly affect the implementation of the strategy is the lack of or insufficient funding for the organization by the government. For KRMD to be able to implement this approach, the government should provide financial and other support to the medical center for the training of its personnel and supply ambulances with the necessary equipment and supplementary materials.

If the state does not support the health care institution, KRMD will not have an optimum pre-hospital system for STEMI patients (Fergusson, Spies, Hong, Young, & Beauvallet, 2012). One of the important aspects of the insufficient financing is the inability of the company to provide its paramedics and EMS operators with protocols and to train them in the pre-hospital fibrinolysis and reperfusionstrategy, which is an essential part of the proposed solution (American College of Cardiology Foundation & American Heart Association, 2013).

Concept map of external factors.
Figure 1. Concept map of external factors.

Emergency medical services are financed from the state budget, and the implementation of the new strategy requires significant investment in equipment and communications. Also, the presence or lack of equipment and supplementary forms suggests that the state does not cooperate with suppliers effectively, which could negatively affect the experience and anticipations of the stakeholders.

Furthermore, in conditions as sharp as STEMI and stroke, patients require immediate medical attention; the absence of comprehensive strategy will lead to the situation when the care providers cannot furnish a timely aid to patients (Wilson et al., 2013). In this regard, regional health authorities can facilitate the implementation of pre-hospital strategies. It will enforce higher integration with hospital services, which in turn, will assist in reducing the time of reperfusion.

According to the Lean concept, all stakeholders involved in the care provider should be empowered and subsequently, take active roles in improving quality (Lawal et al., 2014). Every nurse and physician should be vigilant to identify and address poor quality services and waste that lead to longer D2B time. However, there are external factors that can significantly complicate or postpone the implementation of the strategy to reduce the door-to-balloon time in the STEMI patients at Kendall Regional Medical Center. Consequently, the company should determine the exterior obstacles and reconsider its strategy to refine and remove the barriers that prevent the best clinical outcomes.

References

American College of Cardiology Foundation & American Heart Association. (2013). 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Circulation, 127(1), e362-e425.

Anderson, L., Day, K., & Vandenberg, A. (2011). Using a concept map as a tool for strategic planning. Preventing Chronic Disease, 8(5), A117.

Ellahham, S., Aljabbari, S., Mananghaya, T. H., Raji, S. J., & Zubaidi, A. A. (2015).

Reducing door to-balloon-time for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction in primary percutaneous intervention: Transformation using robust performance improvement. BMJ Quality Improvement Programme, 4(1), 1-4. DOI:10.1136/bmjquality. u207849.w3309.

Fergusson, D., Spies, C., Hong, R., Young, C., & Beauvallet, S. (2012). Door-to-balloon time in acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Hawaii Journal of Medicine & Public Health, 71(11), 320–323.

Lawal, A., Rotter, T., Kinsman, L., Sari, N., Harrison, L., Jeffery, C.,…Flynn, R. (2014). Lean management in health care: definition, concepts, methodology and effects reported. Systematic Review, 3, 103.

Wilson, B., Humphrey, A., Cedarholm, J., Downey, W., Haber, R., Kowalchuk, G.,… Garvey, L. (2013). Achieving sustainable first door-to-balloon times of 90 minutes for regional transfer ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, 6(10), 1064-1071.

Segregation In “Disgrace” By J. M. Coetzee

Disgrace is a novel written by J. M. Coetzee at the very end of the 20th century. It was awarded several times and received positive feedback from numerous critics. With his work, the author urged society to pay attention to the morality of their actions. He depicts the life of David Lurie, a male professor over 50-years-old who has an unstable sexual appetite and satisfies it through relationships with surrounding women regardless of their social status. Coetzee introduces the theme of disgrace in his work, focusing on racial issues and Lurie’s interactions with female characters; he uses Soraya to emphasize the fact that they are treated not as unique individuals but as faceless objects of sexual gratification.

The events discussed in the novel take place in South Africa, where the rights of Africans were limited. Coetzee wanted to attract the public’s attention to the issues faced by his society. The author describes the situation experienced by the population several years after the end of racial segregation. He speaks about the echo of oppression and submission that remained in the country and affected power dynamics. Coetzee reveals the peculiarities of the relationship between genders and races, emphasizing that people remain segregated even though they are expected to become equal.

In the text, disgrace is applied to numerous characters. For example, David makes others and himself disgraced. He puts shame to Melanie and loses his job in front of the university. Lucy experiences another kind of disgrace, as she does not just deal with it because of her actions. She constantly lives in this condition because of being raped and unable to overcome shame (Barnard 20). Even the dogs on the farm are disgraced because of the way they live and die. Thus, disgrace is a thing that unites all characters of the novel, regardless of their characteristics. In this framework, there is no segregation. All people are equal, and blacks are not the only deprived population of the novel’s world.

Disgrace starts with the introduction of David, who “has solved the problem of sex rather well” (Coetzee 1). In particular, this solution for him is Soraya. She is a Muslim prostitute who meets with David twice a week and spends an hour and a half with him. She appears to be a rather exotic character not only because as a Muslim she is expected to have a rather conservative way of living. Being a prostitute is already a disgrace for her. In the novel, she represents a used woman. Moreover, she is black, which may make the readers see her as a representation of the whole disgraced community. Such an assumption can be supported by the fact that Melanie is one more female character that is both dark and “used” woman.

The relationship that exists between Lurie and Soraya starts with the condition when the white man turns into an oppressor who controls the actions of the black woman and disgraces her through their interactions. However, at the end of the story, both of them become in the same position. It is also vital to mention that Lurie engages in this relationship because of his wishes and desires, while Soraya is led by the necessity to earn money for living.

Soraya is a woman who has two lives. She is a wife and a mother of two boys on the one hand, and a prostitute that serves Lurie, on the other hand. As he says she “transforms herself into just another woman and him into just another client” (Coetzee 4). Lurie’s suppression can also be observed through his arrogance. When Soraya rejects his dominance, the man re-asserts it asking her rhetorical questions: “what should a predator expect when he intrudes into the vixen’s nest, into the home of her cubs?” (Coetzee 4). In this way, it can be seen that she is not able to control the situation and yields to his will.

Soraya is affected by Lurie’s dominance all the time. He pays her money, forms their relationship, and tracks her to her home. He does not consider her opinion at all, and when she claims that she does not like nude beaches, the man does not care about her ideas (Hahn 179). In addition to that, he is not interested in the fact that she works at Discreet Escorts. Lurie pays her directly, which seems to show that he cares about her and treats her not just as a received service. However, his actions disgrace her, as he does not accept the fact that she is an employee who performs her duties.

In this way, it can be concluded that Coetzee focused on the theme of disgrace in his novel, describing the ways various people experience it. He used a setting that had been previously segregated and united its inhabitants with this condition, showing that they all are the same. Moreover, the author attracted attention to the power of gender and race. Through the relationship between Soraya and Lurie, Coetzee revealed that white men dominate dark women and suppress their individualities.

Works Cited

Barnard, Lianne. “The Politics of Rape: Traces of Radical Feminism in Disgrace by J. M. Coetzee.” Tydskrif vir Letterkunde, vol. 50, no. 2, 2013, pp. 19-29.

Coetzee, J. M. Disgrace. Penguin, 2017.

Hahn, Robert. “Arias in the Prison of Opinion: Coetzee’s Late Novels.” The Kenyon Review, vol. 34, no. 1, 2012, pp. 176-196.