Active Citizenship University Essay Example

An active citizenship is someone who makes a difference by benefiting our environment and helping people locally, nationally and globally.

Hornsey School for Girls provides its students with many opportunities to participate as an active citizen. Some examples of these activities are peer mentoring, mock elections, prefects and school council. I took part in the mock elections which were held earlier this year. This activity relates to active citizenship because voting is something that changes many things in our surroundings and it’s very important because it helps us gain new skills and knowledge.

Every person’s opinion has to be expressed and considered. This is why I wanted to contribute towards the mock elections. Elections are something really important for our community and future but many people do no realize it. By giving your vote you also take part in active citizenship because voting is a responsible and mature activity which builds up our country’s future.

However Hornsey students are still under age to vote, but mock elections prepare us for the future and help us to understand that each vote counts. In a while we will be the one voting and choosing the future of our society and country. The decrease in voting activity is a major problem around the world because many people do not realize the power they have and they do not vote. This is why I decided to get involved in the campaign in which I was part of – to learn how important and responsible elections are and why people should express their opinions so that they are heard and considered in a future.

My active role in campaigning for my party was to create posters with the party’s emblem and pictures of the candidate and its manifesto and policy. I also designed leaflets explaining what the party was about, and what it intends to do for people’s benefit. We put these posters and leaflets on the school walls so people was be able to see and read them so that the campaign had bigger impact on them . I helped student understand the importance of choosing this party and what the part wants to achieve(what its aims are).

I have realized how hard and stressful the whole process was to the candidates and this is why I helped them to write their speeches and gain more confidence by supporting them in their campaign.The other people in the campaign contributed to the activity by many other ways such as: informing people about our party’s aims and manifesto, writing speeches, supporting our candidate, make presentations about the party and what it intends to do to benefit our school environment and by helping designing good quality posters and badges so people are informed and show their support through badges they wear by making us more confident in our mission.Students became more interested in politics and they have understood the how big is the responsibility their vote carries. The activity helped all of us to influence decisions and views in our school and to realize that every vote is essential in an election and it is important to vote.

People in Hornsey now know that voting is important because it part of democracy and prevent dictatorship.The importance of participation in the activity changed my views about the importance of expressing your opinion and voting at all. Before taking part in the mock elections I was not acquaint with the campaign and its purpose. There are many advantages of participation but the main one is to learn how to be more confident and how to stand by your opinion and defend it.

The importance of campaigning taught me to support my party and my interests.I have developed many skills during my contribution in the activity including ICT skills, creativity, and confidence and to co-operate with people I am working with and respect their different opinions and views. I have gained presentation skills and I have learned how important the support can be in some tough situations. Everything I did was challenging my opinion.

Next time I will be more organised and I will plan my work better soothe results would be even better and I will also be more confident expressing my opinion even when it is different from the other people’s one.I have really enjoyed contributing in this activity and I will participate again next year. The things I have learned are useful and will help me the next time. In future I would take more important and challenging role in the campaign, I may even try to be one of the candidates.

I have learned so many things such as how to be supportive and how to co-operate and work in a team. The activity enriched my knowledge and now I have basic politic understanding that will be useful later on in my life, I have also became more confident and learn how to defeat my viewpoint by debating and arguing which is always useful in life because we all have to make sure our opinions are heard and considered because this is a respectful human right. This experience of active citizenship has been of great value for me and my future because I will continue to participate in activities such as mock elections and try to be more active citizenship in a future.

Stakeholder Report

A stakeholder is a person or a group of people that affect or are affected by a business or organisation either from inside or outside the organisation. Stakeholders can affect a business or organisation internally or externally, this means that stakeholders can be from inside the business or organisation or they could be from outside the business or organisation, for example, at out school; teachers, students and the student council will be internal stakeholders whereas parents, governors and the local community will be external stakeholders this is because they are affected by and affect the organisation from outside the organisation.

An example of stakeholders at my school is students because they affect what happens in the school for example what the school teach and they are also affected by the school, this is an internal stakeholder. Another example may be the exam board; this is because they affect what the school teach and what students have to do to qualify for GCSE grades.Stakeholders at school may include:Internal StakeholdersExternal StakeholdersStudentsGovernorsTeachersParentsHead TeacherGovernmentTeacher AssistantsLocal CommunityStudent CouncilOther SchoolsSuppliersExam BoardsNHSOFSTEADBoard of EducationTransport ServicesI will now explain stakeholders at Chester Zoo.Some examples of stakeholders at Chester Zoo are: charities such as the RSPCA and the WSPA, other Zoos, the government, local residents and banks.

CustomersCustomers are an important stakeholder because if there were no customers there will be no Zoo, this is because the Zoo will not have any money and will be unable to carry out its main aims such as conservation.Customers may also provide more money for the Zoo by visiting souvenir shops and by buying refreshments at the Zoo, this is known as the second spend, this is because it is something that customers have to spend apart from the entry fee.However if Chester Zoo increase their entry fee they may lose customers because some people may not have the money to visit the Zoo.Also it is easier to keep an existing customer than to attract new customers, so Chester Zoo should concentrate on keeping existing customers rather than trying to gain new ones.

They may do this by providing special offers to existing customers to persuade them to visit again.Customers are also an important source of advertising because if a customer has a good experience at Chester Zoo they will recommend it to friends and family therefore attracting more customers to the Zoo. This is the cheapest form of advertising as it does not cost the Zoo anything. Also if a customer enjoyed their visit they may have a repeat visit to the Zoo, however if they do not enjoy it they will not visit again.

Or they may wish to complain. This will affect the Zoo because it will tell the Zoo what they can do to improve the Zoo in order to attract more customers. However if customers complain, they may not visit the Zoo again and may visit Chester Zoos competitors. This will affect the Zoo because they will be loosing customers.

Where as their competitors will be gaining customers.By doing market research the Zoo will know what the customers want and the ways in which to keep attracting new customers. The Zoo is affected by this because the Zoo will have to change or alter itself to attract more customers and to provide customers to come on a repeat visit.Customers are also stakeholders in the Zoo because they wish to visit the Zoo for enlightened leisure; therefore the Zoo is affecting them, so if the Zoo does not provide good services to their customers, the customer will see it as a waste of time because they did not enjoy themselves.

Also by people visiting the Zoo they are providing funding for conservation work, so if the Zoo needs to do more conservation work they would need to increase the amount that they charge customers to enter the Zoo. Also if the Zoo does not pay attention to conservation work customers may feel that their money is going to waste because the Zoo does not care about the animals.EmployeesEmployees are a stake holder in Chester Zoo because they may effect what happens at the Zoo and they are also affected by what happens at the Zoo. Employment affects the Zoo because the Zoo provides employees with money/wages so they control how much the employees can get paid.

Also the Zoo cannot function without employees. This is because if there are no employees there will be no one to work at the Zoo and no one to do the jobs that need to be done.Furthermore employees may request a pay rise, this will affect the Zoo because as the Zoo is a charity and most its funding comes from customers, the Zoo may have to increase the prices and therefore less people will be able to visit the Zoo, because they may be unable to afford it. In addition if the Zoo gives employees a pay rise the Zoo’s profit will decrease and therefore may not be able to achieve its aims.

Employees may also influence decisions that are made at Chester Zoo, this is because if they have ideas to improve the Zoo, they can contribute their opinions and can then help to improve the Zoo. They can also lead do the Zoo making decisions at the Zoo, for example if an employee was to get injured and was to clam the Zoo would look into improving health and safety.Employees working standards and quality of work are also very important because if employees’ working standards and quality of work drop, it will create a negative image about the Zoo. For example if a Zoo keeper was to drop their standards of work, the animals will not be well kept; this will discourage people to visit the Zoo which will lead to the Zoo losing profit.

Employees may also help and deal with customers; if visitors are approached in a good manner it will create a positive image for the customers whereas if they are approached negatively visitors may not visit again or may complain, this will lose customers for the Zoo.Attendance and punctuality are also very important as if employees at the Zoo do not have good attendance and punctuality, the animal’s health may deteriorate, because the Zoo will not be able to meet the animals needs. For example some animals may get attached to certain Zoo keepers and if that Zoo keeper does not have good attendance and punctuality the animal may not cooperate as well with other Zoo keepers.Working hours and holidays are also very important because some animals are nocturnal so the Zoo will have to arrange specific feeding times, but if Zoo keepers cannot attend at these times the animals will not be feed at appropriate times.

Also if the employees that operate the second spend facilities do not have good attendance and punctuality, they will not be able to open these facilities at the specific times, this will reduce the amount of people that spend money on their second spend so the Zoo will lose out on its profits. Also customers may also complain or not visit again if the amenities that they want to use are not available. If the Zoo does not keep to opining hour’s visitors may not visit the Zoo on a repeat visit or they may not recommend it to friends and family, this will make the Zoo lose out on funding from customers.Training is important because the Zoo are required to provide training for new employees, and so have to make specific dates when trainees are able to come but also when the Zoo is able to provide training.

In addition training will cost the Zoo money; therefore the Zoo will lose out on its profits.Holidays and working hours also apply to both the Zoo and employees because the Zoo will have to provide working hours that are suitable for the animals as well as their employees. Therefore the Zoo will need to hire specific staff to do work at specific times. The Zoo also provide seasonal and all year/Full time and part time jobs.

This is because during the summer the Zoo is busiest there fore every year the Zoo needs to hire an additional 180 staff and have 320 permanent staff. The Zoo may also provide voluntary work; this is good for the Zoo because it may attract new customers if the person advertises it to friends and family. Also it will provide free staff for the Zoo so the Zoo will be saving money that it could then spend on conservation.OwnersChester Zoo is governed by the North of England Zoological Society.

The North of England Zoological Society is also a stakeholder in Chester Zoo. This is because they own the Zoo and will tell employees what to do. And make sure that the Zoo is running efficiently. This will be done to make sure that the Zoo makes enough profit so that they can look after the animals and carry out its aim of conservation.

However if the Zoo is not making enough profit or if they need more funding the North of England Zoological Society may secure extra funding for example from other charity’s or from the national lottery. It may even find other companies to sponsor the Zoo e.g. the Jaguar car company sponsors the jaguar enclosure at the Zoo.

However Chester Zoo is not a business so profit is not its main aim. All the profit that the Zoo makes is invested back in to the Zoo to make the better.The Zoological society may also keep in contact with other Zoos and arrange breeding programs. This will benefit the Zoo because it could help save endangered animals, therefore attracting new customers to the Zoo because people will be interested in helping save endangered animals and baby animals.

The North of England Zoological Society also determines the direction that the Zoo is going to go in, for example they will plan what the Zoo will do and what animals the Zoo will get, as well as what the Zoo will spend money on.The Zoological society may also communicate with other Zoos and may arrange breeding programs. This will affect the Zoo because they will be working with their competitors therefore they will also be advertising the other Zoo and may consequently lose customers because they may visit the other Zoo.Local communityThe local community are a stakeholder in Chester Zoo; this is because they are affected by the Zoo.

For example Chester Zoo has applied for planning permission to build a tropical rainforest for the Zoo where gorillas, chimpanzees and other tropical animals could move freely. The local community will be affected by the dome because it may spoil the residents view and may contribute to visual pollution. Also some of the locals may be against the idea of a tropical rainforest. However the Zoo have tried to consult with the local residents by holding drop-in sessions for people to come top and provide their views on the new dome that they are going to build.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/merseyside/8122980.

stmThe local community may be affected by the Zoo because of pollution. The community may complain about the Zoo that it smells or that it is very noisy also by people visiting the Zoo there will be a lot of noise and traffic from Chester Zoos customers. Chester Zoo could tackle this by introducing new roads that will lead straight to the Zoo without disrupting locals. Also the Zoo could invest in a bigger car park so the customer’s have more space to park their cars.

Therefore local people are affected less.Local residents may also be customers at the Zoo or may be employees. Therefore the Zoo will be providing jobs for locals. Because people live locally they may also visit the Zoo regularly therefore provide income to the Zoo?Because local people will work at the Zoo some people may benefit from the Zoo, however others may be against the Zoo this is because they may be against Zoos or may not like the impact the Zoo has on their lives.

Employees may also recommend the Zoo to other people and locals may also recommend the Zoo. Therefore the Zoo will benefit form the locals. Employees may also want more people to visit the Zoo because it will increase stability of the Zoo therefore it may provide more jobs for locals and will make employees jobs more necessary.By other people visiting the Zoo, local business such as hotels and local shops may also benefit from people visiting the Zoo.

This is because they may also spend money at local shops therefore providing more income for the locals. Also some visitors may use local hotels.Also around Chester Zoo it is a rural area so there will be farmers that live locally. By visitors shopping at local shops it will be better for the environment because the food will not need to travel as much to reach its destination.

In addition it will not cost the farmers as much because they will not have to pay for as much travel expenses.GovernmentThe government are a stakeholder in Chester Zoo; however there are different types of government for example local Chester council, national (Westminster) and European parliament. The government will affect Chester Zoo Chester Zoo in many ways. For example the government introduce legislation that will affect Chester Zoo.

E.g. the minimum wage will affect Chester Zoo because as it has employees therefore it will have to use the national minimum wage when it pays people. Also the government have introduced legislation that all employees have to be trained in health and safety, this will affect the Zoo because they will have to pay for people to come and train their employees, therefore the Zoos profits will decrease.

Consumer protection legislation.Chester Zoo are planning to build a rainforest resort where animals such as monkeys will live, therefore Chester Zoo will need planning permission. In order to get planning permission the Zoo will need to contact their local council (Chester council) and apply for planning permission. This may be a disadvantage because the council may decline their application; furthermore by applying for planning permission it will take time therefore it will take longer for the Zoo to build its rainforest attraction.

Even though Chester Zoo is a charity and therefore does not pay tax, it is affected by tax because Chester Zoo receives gift aid. Also when Chester Zoo pays their employees the employees will also pay tax.Gift aid is when the Zoo can clam back tax from the government to increase their funding. Therefore if the government change legislations the Zoo may not be able to clam money and therefore will be unable to receive gift aid.

National insurance is money that employees pay to the government, which is innately used to pay benefits and other expenses. This as well as tax will affect Chester Zoos employees because they will have to pay part of their wage/salary to the government.The economy will also affect Chester Zoo; this is because if the economy is in a recession, people will not have a lot of extra money to spend on luxuries such as visiting Chester Zoo. Therefore the Zoo may lose customers doe to the economy.

However if the economy is going through a boom people will have more money to spend and therefore will have extra money to spend on luxuries such as visiting the Zoo, so the Zoo may see an increase in customers during a boom.The Zoo will also affect their stakeholders because the Zoo employs people and therefore reduces local unemployment. This may benefit the government because less people will be living off benefits and employees will be paying tax.Pressure groupsPressure groups are groups of people that put pressure on other people, businesses and organisations.

For example pressure groups at Chester Zoo are green peace, PETA and Advocates for animals. These pressure groups will pressure Chester Zoo in improving animal welfare.Pressure groups may also cause bad publicity about the Zoo which will lead to the Zoo losing customers. If the Zoo is published negatively, people will not want to visit the Zoo.

They may also put customers off visiting the Zoo by protesting. If pressure groups protest less people will want to visit the Zoo. Also by protesting, they may lead the government to changing its policies and therefore causing a loss to the Zoo.Damage/vandalism will also affect the Zoo because they will have to pay to remove and fix the problem also if visitors were to see vandalism and damage to the Zoo they may be put off the Zoo.

The Zoo may also work with the pressure groups to show them that animal welfare is the Zoo’s priority. They may do this by inviting them to the Zoo and showing them around and showing them how they take care of the animals. And if successful, they could work together to improve the Zoo and to attract more customers.SuppliersSuppliers at Chester Zoo will affect the Zoo because they will be able to control how much the Zoo will charge people to enter the Zoo and how much the Zoo will charge on products that they sell at the Zoo.

Also the prices that suppliers charge will affect the Zoos profits and if suppliers charge a lot of money, the Zoo will have less profit left over to invest back into the Zoo.If suppliers relocate it will affect the Zoo because suppliers will have to travel further to provide for the Zoo. And therefore the Zoo may have to pay them more for them to deliver, and therefore the Zoo may be losing profit. The Zoo may even have to change suppliers to someone closer so that deliveries are more reliable and on time.

Also if the suppliers start to charge more Chester Zoo may need to find new suppliers in order save more money.If Chester Zoo has fewer customers there will be less of a demand from the Zoo for stock. This is because they will need fewer supplies because there will be less of a demand for them from customers.Some suppliers may be dependent on the Zoo for example if the Zoo closes or changes supplier the supplier may close.

This may be because they would have enough customers to buy their products.However if suppliers have Fluctuating customer numbers, they may not be able to supply for some of their customers because they may not have enough of the product. Therefore this will affect Chester Zoo because they will be short of stock. Also this will affect the suppliers because they may also lose customers because they are unable to provide for all their customers.

FinanciersFinanciers are groups of people that handle large sums of money usually lending money or funding projects. Financiers at Chester Zoo may include; banks, the government and sponsors. The Zoo may use financiers for loans to improve the Zoo or to extend the Zoo. Also people or companies that sponsor the Zoo will provide money for the Zoo.

North of England Zoological Society secures additional funding for the Zoo. So the Zoo will always have funding from the Zoological society. This is because they own the Zoo and have to make sure that the Zoo can run properly. The North of England Zoological Society may provide money for large projects at the Zoo such as the rainforest attraction.

The government are also a financier at Chester Zoo. This may be because, the Zoo receive gift aid which is tax that the Zoo clam back from the government. Therefore the Zoo receives additional funding from the government through gift aid.Banks would be financiers because the Zoo would receive loans and mortgages from banks.

Therefore the Zoo will be borrowing money from the bank. This will affect the Zoo because they will have to pay the bank back. Also they will have to apply for a loan and when the Zoo pay+s money back they will have to pay back with interest.Other organisations such as Jaguar and the national lottery also fund the Zoo.

Jaguar affects the Zoo because they fund the jaguar enclosure at the Zoo and therefore the Zoo is receiving money from their company.People that sponsor the Zoo or animals at Chester Zoo are also financiers. This is because they will donate money to the Zoo. Chester Zoos customers can adopt or sponsor animals at the Zoo.

By sponsoring or adopting they will be donating money to the Zoo for that specific animal.ConclusionOverall I believe that Chester Zoos main stakeholder is employees. This is because I believe that they will affect the Zoo the most and will be affected the most by the Zoo. This is because if there were no customers at Chester Zoo the Zoo will have no funding and will have less of an income.

However the Zoo also receives funding from other organisations and from its owners (The North of England Zoological Society). Also without employees the Zoo will not be able to operate.However, I believe customers are also a very important stakeholder in Chester Zoo. This is because they provide constant funding to the Zoo.

Also if the Zoo had no customers the Zoo will be unable to receive gift aid. This is because they will have no ones tax to clam back. And therefore the Zoo will lose out on a lot of funding.Conflict of interestA conflict of interest occurs when different groups of people have different views or are affected in different ways by the same issue.

I will now outline different scenarios that will affect Chester Zoo and the different stakeholder groups it will affect and how it will affect them. The scenarios I will use are;”The Zoo wishes to expand to include a theme park on newly acquired land around the Zoo” and “Health and Safety inspectors enforcing Government legislation have ordered an increase in the distance members of the public have to be kept from potentially dangerous animals”CustomersIf Chester Zoo builds a theme park at Chester Zoo it will affect customers because they may have to pay more to enter the Zoo or will have to pay more to go on the rides. And therefore during a recession even less people will be able to visit the Zoo. However customers will be affected because they will have more things to do at the Zoo and will improve their leisure time.

Also if some of the customers don’t enjoy looking at the animals they could still go to the Zoo and enjoy them self.EmployeesEmployees will be affected because the Zoo will need more employees to work at the Zoo and therefore stabilising jobs. Furthermore some employees may have to work over time or longer hours to get all the work done, and this may cost the Zoo extra because they may have to pay employees for overtime.In addition Chester Zoo will need to employ new employees that are trained to operate the rides and to run the theme park.

OwnersOwners will be affected because they will have to authorise that the Zoo can build a theme park. Also they will have to provide funding for the Zoo to build a theme park. The owners will also have to make sure that the theme park runs properly and that it is health and safety approved.Local communityLocal community will be affected because there will be a lot more traffic around the Zoo and there will be a lot more sound pollution.

Also locals may complain that rollercoaster’s cause visual pollution as well as damage the atmosphere.Further more they may complain about noise from Chester Zoos customers that are on the rollercoaster’s, that they make too much noise.GovernmentIn order for Chester Zoo to build a theme park that part of Chester Zoo will have to be a business not a charity for that bit of the Zoo (the theme park). Therefore they will need to pay back tax to the government.

And will be unable to receive gift aid for that bit of the Zoo.Also the Zoo will need to have a health and safety check from the health and safety officer. This may also cost the Zoo and if the health and safety office don’t approve then the Zoo will not be able to expand the Zoo. .

And the Zoo will only be able to expand if the health and safety office approve.By Chester zoo building a theme park, the zoo will be providing jobs for people and therefore this will help the current economic state (the recession). This will be good for the government because it will mean that more people will have jobs and therefore more people will be paying tax.Pressure groupsPressure groups may pressure the Zoo to build more efficiently.

Other pressure groups may displease of the Zoo building a theme park at the Zoo because they may believe that it will distract the animals. Also they may say that the animals have to be the main aspect of the Zoo and that the Zoo has to pay more attention to the animals or the Zoo should rather improve animal facilities rather than building a theme park.Furthermore, if the Zoo was to build on newly acquired land around the Zoo the Zoo may have to cut down trees and therefore pressure groups such as green peace may be against this. This can cause havoc for the Zoo and may lead to a loss in customers.

Some pressure groups want cleaner air and therefore may be against a theme park because of pollution. This could lead to protests outside the zoo which will lose Chester zoo its customers. Also Chester zoo will then be unable to build a theme park.SuppliersIf the Zoo was to expand the Zoo will need more supplies.

Therefore the suppliers will be selling more to Chester Zoo.Moreover Chester Zoo may need a different supplier to provide new merchandise and therefore the Zoo may change suppliers.FinanciersIf businesses or people sponsor the Zoo and the Zoo was to build a theme park which would be a business, it may put people off sponsoring the Zoo because they may believe that the Zoo should use its profits for the animals or may believe that their money is going into the business rather than the animals.If Chester Zoo was to build a theme park, financiers would be involved because the Zoo will need funding from other organisations or banks to support building the theme park.

The Zoo will also have to pay tax to the government because the theme park would be a business.”Health and Safety inspectors enforcing Government legislation have ordered an increase in the distance members of the public have to be kept from potentially dangerous animals.”CustomersThis will affect customers because if the Zoo was not to follow the legislation the Zoo will have to shut down and therefore Chester Zoos customers will have nowhere to go.Also some people may want to get closer to the animals rather than further away, and so may decide to visit a Zoo that will allow them to get closer to the animals, consequently resulting in Chester Zoo losing customers.

This may also portray a negative image about the animals at the Zoo that they are dangerous. And so some people may not visit because they may see it as a dangerous hazard.Owners/shareholdersOwners will be affected because they will have to make sure that the zoo makes the changes that it needs to.Also both owners and shareholders will be affected because it will cost the zoo money to increase the distance between the public and animals and therefore the zoo will need funding and support with costs.

Local communityThe local community will be affected by this because the animals will have to move habitats within the zoo. This will affect the local community because if loud/noisy animals are moved closer to peoples homes they may complain.GovernmentThe government will be affected because if legislation is not followed it could have consequences for the zoo. For example the zoo could receive a fine or could be forced to shut down.

FinanciersFinanciers will be affected because the zoo may receive loans to provide habitats further away from the public for the animals.Also if someone was to get attacked by an animal they would sue the zoo and thus more financiers for the zoo. This will give the zoo a bad reputation and may lead to the zoo losing customers.

Who Is Responsible For Desdemona’s Death? Analysis

The responsibility of Desdemona’s death falls on many different individuals throughout the play. Othello feels that it is entirely his fault and commits suicide while Cassio, Rodrigo, Emilia, and Brabantio all contribute to Iago’s plot and Desdemona failed to save her own life.

However, one character, Iago, manipulated all of them. Othello was driven to his decision to murder his wife at no fault of his own. Instead it is Iago’s ability to persuade the other characters and manipulate them by using their weaknesses that makes him responsible for Desdemona’s death.To start off with, Othello himself is the most to blame since he was the one who physically strangled his wife.

He admits this when he says “Twas I that killed her” to Emilia at the end of the play. I feel that Othello is more responsible than Iago perhaps because even though it was Iago that had planned this all along, it was actually Othello who did the deed. It could be argued that it wasn’t really Othello’s fault because Iago drove him to it but he could have not listened or trusted his wife so in the end it was still him that did it.However, he should not have so readily believed Iago, even though he is his good friend if he really did love Desdemona.

He was pushed to believe that Desdemona was unfaithful with Cassio and halfway through the play, he had already made up his mind that he was going to kill her. He said that he was going to do it many times and planned about how to do it “I will chop her into messes” and “yet she must die, else she’ll betray more men”. He admitted this to Iago and Desdemona herself.It could be argued that Othello’s only crime was being too trustworthy, for he truly believed Iago and calls him “Honest” fifteen times through the play.

Another character that contributes the most of the murder is Iago because he was the one who had entrapped everyone in his web of lies. It is his ability to persuade that gives him so much power over everyone else. Othello believes that Iago is a good friend and trusts him above all others, including Cassio who is his lieutenant, “..

. f exceeding honest, knows all qualities, with a learned spirit” He hinted to Othello that Desdemona was unchaste and from there went on to provide “proof” of his claim, pretending the whole time that he was doing this because he “loves Othello”. Othello takes his word for it and trusts him right to the end and constantly calls him “honest Iago” Whereas really he wanted to ruin Cassio because he was angry that he got the job of being Othello’s lieutenant.He subtly starts off by asking seemingly innocent questions such as “Did Michael Cassio, when you wooed my lady [Desdemona], know of your love? ” and in doing this, he knew that Othello would pursue with further questions.

His evil planning is shown when he says “Myself the while to draw the Moor apart, and bring him jump when he may Cassio find soliciting his wife”. He is therefore also holds some “responsibility” since he was the one who drove Othello to murdering Desdemona. Without him trying to ruin things, their relationship would have most likely worked and they would have lived happily.In being responsible for Desdemona’s death, Iago is also responsible for other’s downfall, such as Cassio.

He doesn’t care how many people he effects and ruins as long as he gets his way “And I will turn her virtue into pitch and out of her goodness make the net that shall enmesh them all”. He didn’t really justify his reasons for all his doing very well at all. The only hint of reason the audience receives is that he “hates the Moor”. He is portrayed as being heartless and uncaring for anything or anyone.

With his motivation of revenge, jealousy and ambition, Iago destroys the lives, and eventually caused the death of the people who trusted him, such as Othello and Desdemona, without any show of remorse or regret. Another character who contributes towards Desdemona’s death at the end of the play is Roderigo simply because if he wasn’t so infatuated with Desdemona then Iago would have never found the chance to use him as a pawn in his catastrophic plan. Iago is fully aware of Rodrigo’s desperation to gain the love of Desdemona and he uses this knowledge to get Rodrigo’s money, and to drag Rodrigo to Cyrus to do his dirty work for him.It is shown at the start of the play when Iago is persuading Roderigo to go with him to Cyprus: “It cannot be that Desdemona should long continue/ her love to the Moor- put money in thy purse-/ nor he his to her” Iago also uses Cassio because he knows of his weakness with drink and gives the illusion that “real men drink” so that Cassio will not want to be left out.

He uses Cassio’s vanity because he knows that Cassio gets drunk easily and then the next phase of his plan comes into effect.Also, because Cassio is very proud, Iago knows that he will not stand to be insulted and so puts his plan into action by getting Roderigo anger him. Because Cassio is a true Venetian gentleman, he acts very familiar with women, without intending harm but this has been interpreted by Iago and used as more evil “proof” for Othello to see that Desdemona is unfaithful. Emilia plays a small but noticeable part in Desdemona’s death for if she had not picked up her mistress’ hanker chief, then Iago would have had his main proof.

In deceiving her Desdemona to try and please her husband, she has unwillingly also been a pawn in Iago’s wicked scheme. “My wayward husband hath a hundred times Wooed me to steal it, but she so loves the token”. Emilia doesn’t know what she is doing the moment she picked up the hanker chief but she did know that she would be deceiving Desdemona, however, she was too anxious to please Iago: “I nothing but to please his fancy. ” And so in conclusion, many different characters contributed towards the undeserving death of Desdemona, mainly Iago, but in the end, only Othello can be help solely responsible.