Addressing A Listening Bias Overview Free Essay

A job interview is one of the communication milestones that are faced by every person. This interview largely identifies the decision of an employer to hire a person and the candidate’s willingness to work for the company (Ted Institute, 2013). It is important to choose proper words to answer the questions of the HR manager. For example, often, they ask about previous jobs and the reasons for leaving them. To show that a candidate is not a lazy or irresponsible worker, it is critical to explain the reasons clearly. Such words as a lack of promotion opportunities or a tense working environment can be used to demonstrate that the candidate values workplace culture and relationships between the employer and employees. To emphasize the personal commitment to the work, it seems to be useful to mention compassion, the desire to grow professionally, and teamwork skills. It is better to avoid saying that relationships with colleagues in the previous work were negative since HR managers may understand it as a sign of the inability to build relationships. Instead, the details about misunderstanding should be explained using the interaction of the words, openness to change, and mutual support.

As for the words that the candidate does not want to hear, it can be hard workday-off day offs, the need to learn everything independently, and personal responsibility only. When the employer speaks about responsibility in such a way, potential employees interpret it as a lot of work without any support. To mitigate the listening bias, it is better to ask clarifying questions and try to understand the meaning of the words in a certain context (Parks, 2015). In terms of the workplace, it is important to pay attention to the employer’s words and relate them to personal perceptions to find a mutual understanding.


Parks, E. S. (2015). Listening with empathy in organizational communication. Organization Development Journal, 33(3), 9-22.

Ted Institute. (2013). Tony Salvador: The listening bias [Video]. Web.

Causes Of Youth Unemployment

People need a sufficient income to procure a life of full value, not to mention that self-realization is necessary for stable mental health. However, young people sometimes do not manage to find an occupation when they are at a mature age. The problem of youth unemployment has become a global socio-economic issue nowadays. The current paper investigates the possible causes of youth unemployment.

Many economic processes are inevitable, and so are economic crises causing difficulties with employment. That is why countries with higher rates of unemployment are usually those where a crisis has happened recently. However, it is unclear why there is youth unemployment instead of general unemployment in some communities. It seems that it is easier for employed people to save their job than for a recent student to find a sufficient occupation.

Moreover, immigrants often undergo more hardship in finding an occupation because of discrimination. Furthermore, although youth unemployment is primarily a socio-economical problem, one can also consider the psychological aspects of the issue. People have to overcome the difficult circumstances of being unemployed, which influences their mental state. Youth unemployment is also probably connected with insufficient skills and experience, as well as with the influence of closer relatives and friends. The crucial problem of youth unemployment is caused by a lack of motivation, qualification mismatch, social connections influence, and multicultural issues.

To start with, the lack of motivation for finding and maintaining is one of the reasons for youth unemployment. Young people have an unstable cognitive system, which can prevent them from making important life-changing decisions. Moreover, the anticipating of usual uncomfortable starting conditions can also be a reason for people to avoid any occupation (Hällsten, Edling, & Rydgren, 2017). In other words, young people have an unpleasant image of joining labor, which is why they prefer not to start. This avoidance is probably even stronger in families with a considerable income and where living with parents at a mature age is accepted as normal.

Another probable cause of youth unemployment is the lack of necessary qualifications among young people. This factor can be divided into two aspects, namely, formal education and experience. The educational system in some countries may be insufficient or not up-to-date for the actual job market. It has been shown that low school performance has a strong positive correlation with unemployment in youth (Doku, Acacio-Claro, Koivusilta, & Rimpelä, 2019). Moreover, graduates’ qualifications may be irrelevant to the current market demands, which obstructs school-to-work transition. Thus, if an educational institution does not provide relevant knowledge, young people have fewer chances to get a job.

As to the experience, it is common for firm managers to look for workers with relatively extensive experience in the position. In other words, employers would rather hire an employee with stable skills and abilities because it will save recourses that would have been spent on the training of an inexperienced worker (Dietrich & Möller, 2016). The problem is that young people hardly have an opportunity to get the necessary experience because they have to devote all of their time to studying. The problem becomes even more complicated because they need this education to get access to practice.

The social environment may also cause low employment of young people because they tend to repeat after each other. That is why if most of the people in a company of young people have a job, each of them will likely try to get an occupation more eagerly (Hällsten et al., 2017). Furthermore, examples of relatives and previous generations can be implicitly acquired by children. For instance, a significant correlation between parental socio-economic status (SES) and employment has been shown in the study by Doku et al. (2019). Moreover, the initial occupational contacts are often determined by the connections that closer employed relatives, such as parents, possess (Hällsten et al., 2017). Thus, youth unemployment is reproducible among close friends and relatives, and individuals’ careers can influence the occupation of other people.

Furthermore, multicultural issues can be considered as a possible factor of youth unemployment. Migration is happening worldwide, and immigrants in many countries are trying to find an opportunity to get money and homes. For young people, this aspect is of particular significance because they not only have to acquire professional skills but also to adapt to a foreign culture. Such conditions are often hardly bearable, which serves as an obstacle for both tasks. Consequently, young people from immigrant communities have to manage multiple issues that slow down their development. Moreover, it is more likely that local people will be hired in overpopulated places with a lack of jobs (Hällsten et al., 2017). Therefore, young immigrants face discrimination, even when they possess the necessary qualifications.

However, in some countries, it can be the case that youth unemployment is not a problem but a statistical description. Young people frequently change their jobs because they are in search of the working conditions they desire. According to Dietrich and Möller (2016), the constant changing of a workplace results in a higher aggregated unemployment rate. Therefore, young people may be in a reasonable process of searching for the place they belong to because there is no other way to get a vivid idea of a suitable occupation.

It is important to note that most of the studies are correlational and that is why caution should be taken when deriving conclusions about causal relations. Distinguishing between causes and effects is not a trivial task. When a correlation is made between young people’s unemployment and their friends’, it is hard to say if friends influence their unwillingness to be unemployed, or if they just befriend unemployed people. Most of the factors suggested in the literature are connected, and it is unclear which one is primary. For example, SES is connected to access to technology, quality of education, and mental health. Suggesting one factor as the main cause must be done by someone who is competent enough and has clear reasoning.

To conclude, the problem of youth unemployment is multimodal because it includes economic, social, and psychological factors. There has been thorough research on the problem, and some presumable reasons were outlined. The prospect of looking for a job and starting from a low position causes anxiety about working and lowers motivation to make a career. Moreover, some educational systems provide irrelevant skills for current job demands, yet students spend most of their resources on studying and cannot get experience in their profession either.

This situation worsens in numerous multicultural societies because most employers prefer to hire local citizens instead of young immigrants. Although youth unemployment can sometimes be considered as a normal process of youth immersion into the labor market, it is crucial to take action to improve the situation where the situation is undoubtedly unfavorable.


Dietrich, H., & Möller, J. (2016). Youth unemployment in Europe – Business cycle and institutional effects. International Economics and Economic Policy, 13(1), 5–25.

Doku, D. T., Acacio-Claro, P. J., Koivusilta, L., & Rimpelä, A. (2019). Health and socioeconomic circumstances over three generations as predictors of youth unemployment trajectories. European Journal of Public Health, 29(3), 517–523.

Hällsten, M., Edling, C., & Rydgren, J. (2017). Social capital, friendship networks, and youth unemployment. Social Science Research, 61, 234–250.

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Effects Of Exercise On Obesity Reduction In Adults


Obesity is a condition that results from accumulation of fat in the body. It has severe health effects on children and adults. Obesity predisposes victims to risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The main causes include lack of adequate physical activity, consumption of foods rich in high-energy content, and susceptibility due to genetic makeup. One of the major causes of obesity is lack of adequate physical exercise. In the modern world, many people have shifted to less physically demanding careers that have eliminated physical activity. According to the World Health Organization, more than 30% of people in the world do not engage in adequate physical exercise. Technological advancements such as mechanized transport systems prevent the participation of people in physical activities. One of the most effective methods of managing obesity is physical exercise. Physical exercise promotes weight loss and helps individuals to manage obesity.

Physical exercise

The main effects of physical exercise on obesity reduction include promotion of weight loss, maintenance of healthy body weight, suppression of appetite, and regulation of insulin levels in the body. Weight loss is an important aspect of reducing obesity in adults. It controls body weight in several ways that include consumption of excess calories in the body, promotion of metabolism levels, and decrease in insulin levels. Bodyweight is primarily determined by the difference between calorie intake and calorie consumption by the body. Obesity is caused by high-calorie intake and low-calorie consumption. Any physical activity that consumes calories aids in reducing obesity. Examples of activities that consume calories include sleeping, walking, breathing, washing, and cooking. However, the intensity of physical activities determines the number of calories used by the body. High intensity activities consume more calories than low-intensity activities (Thompson et al, 2011). Research has shown that physical exercise is the most effective method of managing obesity.

Reduction of body weight

Physical exercise helps adults to reduce obesity through weight loss (Hill & Wyatt, 2005). This is the mainstay of managing obesity. Research has revealed that women who engage in regular physical exercise lose more weight compared to women who lead sedentary lifestyles. The intensity and duration of physical exercise determine the amount of weight lost (Hill & Wyatt, 2005). For example, twenty minutes of moderate-intensity exercise might not be effective for obese people whose aim is to lose weight. On the other hand, high-intensity physical exercise for about an hour is effective in helping individuals lose weight. Physical exercise is most effective when it is combined with good dieting. It is important for obese adults to control their calorie intake in order to benefit fully from physical exercise (Thompson et al, 2011). Dieting is important because it prevents replacement of body fat with muscles. Another effect of physical exercise on obesity reduction is replacement of sedentary lifestyles with active lifestyles (Hill & Wyatt, 2005). One of the main causes of obesity is leading a sedentary lifestyle that eliminates any kind of physical activity. For example, adults who spend a lot of time watching television or sitting in their offices working are at more risk of becoming obese than those who are active. It is important for obese adults to shift from sedentary to active lifestyles. When adults take part in physical exercise, they replace their sedentary habits with active and healthier habits that help them to reduce obesity (Hill & Wyatt, 2005).

Maintenance of healthy body weight

One of the vital aspects of reducing obesity is body weight management. An important effect of physical exercise on obesity reduction is maintenance of healthy body weight (Jakicic & Otto, 2005). Physical exercise helps adults to maintain healthy body weight only if performed consistently. Adults who work out for a certain period and abdicate training do little towards reducing obesity. Results of training are observed several weeks or months after commencement. Therefore, it is important to remain persistent and consistent with training. After reducing obesity and achieving a healthy body weight, the greatest challenge becomes how to maintain that weight without gaining more. Maintaining a healthy body weight after weight loss is achieved through participation in more physical activities. In addition, physical exercise improves mood and energy levels that motivate obese people to stick to their training regimens (Jakicic & Otto, 2005).

Appetite suppression

Some research studies conducted on the effect of physical exercise on obesity reduction have revealed that it suppresses appetite (Martins et al, 2008). This is contrary to popular belief that exercise increases appetite because it makes people hungry after working out. Research has revealed that physical exercise lowers the levels of a hormone known as ghrelin. Ghrelin decreases appetite by increasing the production of a hormone known as peptide YY that represses appetite (Martins et al, 2008). Appetite repression mainly occurs after engaging in intense workouts. During intense training, the body requires circulation of blood to active body organs in order to prevent overheating. As a result, blood flow to the stomach is subdued. This reduces appetite because low volumes of blood move to the stomach and slow down digestion (Martins et al, 2008). In adults, the effects of appetite repression are different. Women can go for longer periods with repressed appetite than men can. Since men are more muscular than women are, they need more energy.

Repressing appetite is important in reducing obesity because it controls the amount of calorie consumed. In order to manage obesity, it is important for the body to use more calories than those consumed. Repression of appetite reduces calorie intake and as such reduces obesity (Martins et al, 2008). Physical exercise increases the sensitivity of brain neurons that are in charge of satiety (Martins et al, 2008). This implies that frequent physical exercise enables obese people to control their hunger signals. Another study revealed that moderate physical exercise increases feelings of satiety after extended periods of exercise (Thompson et al, 2011). According to a study that sought to find out the relationship between hunger and physical exercise, repression of hunger triggers change in the levels of hormones that control satiety. High levels of PYY and GLP-1 hormones increase satiety and as such suppress hunger (Martins et al, 2008). Another study on the relationship between physical exercise and hunger revealed that participants in an aerobics exercise regimen experienced high levels of satiety after intense training.

Reduction of insulin levels in the body

The level of insulin in the body is one of the determining factors of obesity in adults. In order to reduce obesity, it is important to maintain healthy levels of insulin. It is easy for adults to achieve healthy insulin levels because their bodies are not very active. Therefore, they can control their intake of foods that contain fats. Healthy insulin levels can be achieved through physical exercise (Thompson et al, 2011). Research has revealed that adults who have low levels of insulin are less likely to become overweight because their body cells burn more energy and leave little for storage (Fisher et al, 2011). Obesity results from high levels of insulin that is introduced in the body through consumption of foods that contain high quantities of fat. This implies that adults can avoid gaining weight by maintain healthy levels of insulin in the body and as such reduce obesity.

Research has shown that physical activity aids in maintenance of healthy insulin levels in the body (Schmitz et al, 2003). Physical exercise increases the levels of adiponectin in the body as well as insulin sensitivity. One of the characteristics of obesity is low-grade inflammatory state, which has significant influence on the body’s sensitivity to insulin (Thompson et al, 2011). Constant physical exercise improves the body’ sensitivity to insulin, which is important for reduction of obesity in adults. Recommendations of the World Health Organization indicate that adults need a minimum of between 2 and 3 hours of physical exercise every week, which should range from moderate to vigorous (Thompson et al, 2011). Unlike children, adults need less hours of exercise because they have low levels of metabolism. However, they should determine adhere to the recommended number of hours that are needed for maintenance of healthy body weight. Participating in aerobic training maintains the body’s sensitivity to insulin for a period of 12 months after successful weight loss (Fisher et al, 2011).


Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods of reducing obesity. It has four main effects on obesity reduction in adults. These include reduction of body weight through loss of fat, maintenance of healthy body weight, suppression of appetite, and regulation of insulin levels in the body. It is important for obese adults to control the duration and intensity of physical exercise. In addition, controlling calorie intake is important for reduction of body weight. Dieting is important because it prevents replacement of body fat with muscles. On the other hand, replacement of fat with muscles increases the body’s energy consumption. This leads to oxidation of stored fat thus reducing obesity. Repression of appetite reduces food intake and helps to reduce obesity. Physical exercise helps adults to maintain a healthy body weight only if it is performed consistently. Adults who work out for a certain period and abdicate training do not receive the full benefits of physical exercise. Physical exercise increases the levels of adiponectin in the body as well as insulin sensitivity.


Fisher, G., Hunter, G., & Gower, A. (2011). Aerobic Exercise Training Conserves Insulin Sensitivity for 1 Year Following Weight Loss in Overweight Women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(40, 688-693.

Hill, J., & Wyatt, H. (2005). Role of Physical Activity in Preventing and Treating Obesity. Journal of Applied Physiology, 99(2), 765-770.

Jakicic, J., & Otto, A. (2005). Physical Activity Considerations for the Treatment and Prevention of Obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82(1), 2265-2295.

Martins, C., Morgan, L., & Truby, H. (2008). A Review of the Effects of Excessive Exercise on Appetite Regulation: An Obesity Perspective. International Journal of Obesity, 32, 1337-1347.

Schmitz, K., Kugler, K., & Leon, A. (2003). Strength Training for Obesity Prevention in Midlife Women. International Journal of Obesity, 27, 326-333.

Thompson, D., Karpe, F., & Frayn, K. (2011). Physical Activity and Exercise in the Regulation of Human Adipose Tissue physiology. Physiological Reviews, 92(1), 157-191.

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