Addressing Biases And Privacy Risks: Advocacy Efforts For Equitable Facial Recognition Technology Sample Paper

Introduction

Facial recognition technology has become increasingly prevalent in various domains, from law enforcement to consumer applications. While this technology provides efficiency and convenience, there are concerns about its impact on marginalized communities, especially minorities (Gong et al. 2020, 255). Research has indicated that when identifying individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups, facial recognition algorithms frequently display biases and inaccuracies. To enhance the accuracy and equity of said algorithms, it is emphasized that a more diverse and comprehensive set of data be utilized. Efforts for advocacy have emerged to deal with these issues and encourage equality in using facial recognition technology (Lee et al. 2019, 3). This essay presents a clear and compelling argument about the advocacy efforts to tackle biases and privacy risks on minorities, highlighting the significance of dataset diversification, policy interventions, and algorithmic improvement. By examining the insights and solutions provided by different scholars, this essay advocates for a holistic and multi-faceted approach to ensure a more equitable future for minorities.

Algorithmic improvement

Algorithmic improvement is a significant aspect of addressing the effects of facial recognition technology on minorities. (Lee et al. 3). According to Innovatrics’ Trust Report, the accuracy of face recognition technology has improved significantly. Their analysis shows that the technology has achieved higher accuracy rates, reducing errors and improving the reliability of identification. Below is a figure that visually represents the improvement in the accuracy of face recognition technology over time. The figure shows the years on the x-axis, representing when each new algorithm was measured. Each vertical line in the graph represents the latest algorithm developed at that particular time. On the y-axis, the figure represents the accuracy ratio of the False Reject Rate (FRR) and the False Accept Rate (FAR). This ratio is used to assess the accuracy of face recognition systems, with a lower ratio indicating higher accuracy (Rusnáková 2021)

accuracy of facial recognition

Scholars from various fields have conducted comprehensive studies that detail various strategies being developed to address this and provide vital perspectives worthy of the attention of the government and all parties involved. Among the suggested methods is Wang et al.’s information maximization adaptation network geared towards reducing racial biases linked with imaging technologies. Their approach aligns distributions of facial images from different racial groups, showing promising results in reducing bias and improving accuracy. Another study by Wang et al. (2020) on mitigating bias in Face Recognition suggests a skewness-aware reinforcement learning method to address bias. Considering class imbalance during the learning process, their approach aims to reduce bias and enhance performance, particularly for underrepresented groups (Gong et al. 2020, 255).

Dataset Diversification

Dataset diversification is another pivotal approach to tackling the adverse effects of facial recognition technology on minorities (Karkkainen and Joo 2021). Scholars from multiple academic fields like social sciences and engineering have extensively studied the issue and underscored its importance. Significantly Buolamwini and Gebru’s (2018) groundbreaking research highlights the critical need for dataset diversification as an effective means to address bias issues associated with these technologies effectively. The researchers’ study titled “Gender Shades: Intersectional Accuracy Disparities in Commercial Gender Classification” reveals the discrepancies in gender classification accuracy across different demographic groups. They contend that incorporating a wider variety of facial images representative of marginalized communities would help mitigate biases in algorithms resulting in vastly improved performance of facial recognition systems.

Additionally, there have been attempts to compile data sets that offer an assortment of races and ethnicities aimed at addressing under-representation in facial recognition technology which includes Parliamentary Digital Service’s Pilot Parliaments Benchmark Dataset with pictures featuring parliamentarians from numerous backgrounds (Raji et al. 2020). Through these varied datasets, machines could learn to distinguish faces from communities often left out by classification methods. Nevertheless, making data collection diverse involves difficulties and expenses, such as privacy concerns involving individuals’ permission when having their faces included while collecting representative datasets could be laborious and pricey. Therefore, it is essential to fully ensure ethical methodology when obtaining such data alongside proper documentation on labeling processes for all images used. Additionally, being mindful of securing individual privacy rights goes hand-in-hand with executing responsible use practices during surveillance (Raji et al., 2020).

Other scholars have also emphasized the need to diversify training datasets, as shown by Buolamwini and Gebru’s study (“Gender Shades: Intersectional Accuracy Disparities in Commercial Gender Classification,” 2018). Diversifying datasets with representative images can help mitigate biases and improve performance for marginalized communities. These algorithmic improvements have short-term benefits but require ongoing refinement and adaptation for long-term effectiveness. The following table by Kimmo Karkkainen and Jungseock Joo summarises the FairFace dataset. The table includes the number of images in the dataset, the distribution, and annotations for each image, including race, gender, and age.

FairFace dataset

The table shows the FairFace dataset. The FairFace dataset is an elaborate and diverse set with ideal characteristics for training and evaluating algorithms for face recognition (Kimmo Kärkkäinen and Joo 2021). Notably, the dataset has been designed with balance across race, gender, and age groups, reducing bias against any particular group of people in algorithm outcomes. The annotations for each image are also high-quality, which helps to ensure that the algorithms are trained on accurate data.

Policy Implementation

Crafting well-informed policies requires understanding the potential dangers of facial recognition technology for disadvantaged communities. Experts, by way of diverse scientific disciplines and social sciences, argue that policymakers should remain cautious. Doing so permits authorities to devote attention to ensuring marginalized voices are heard while providing solutions for all groups regarding cutting-edge technologies. For example, Nissenbaum and Introna (2010) claim that policies should prioritize privacy, consent, and accountability when protecting the rights and interests of individuals belonging to underrepresented communities.

Still, regarding privacy, The European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is another notable policy intervention. The GDPR sets guidelines for collecting, storing, and processing personal data, including biometric information used in facial recognition systems. Its provisions require explicit consent, purpose limitation, and transparency, aiming to protect individuals’ privacy and prevent the discriminatory impact of facial recognition technology (Ferguson and Guthrie 2020, 105). In the United States, the Algorithmic Accountability Act (AAA) has been proposed to regulate the use of facial recognition technology. The AAA calls for companies to assess their algorithms’ fairness, accuracy, and potential biases and disclose their findings (Ferguson and Guthrie 2020, 105). This policy intervention addresses the disproportionate impact on minority communities by holding companies accountable for developing and deploying facial recognition systems.

Different studies have also highlighted the importance of community involvement in policymaking processes. Incorporating community perspectives into policymaking advocated by Ferguson and Guthrie (2020), ratifies the pressing need to validate affected populations’ needs and values. By working hand in hand with communities through robust engagement practices, policymakers can acquire greater insights into marginalized groups’ issues while forging equitable solutions.

Alongside this strategy, reducing surveillance is another good measure involving evidence-based interventions that confront biases and safeguard privacy concerns among minority users utilizing facial recognition technology (FRT). The studies have found clear evidence indicating a strong racial and gender bias in current facial recognition technology resulting in an unfair targeting or profiling of minority groups (Bacchini & Lorusso 2019). To curb such discriminatory outcomes effectively requires implementing measures that reduce indiscriminate deployment practices of FRT systems within public spaces. It is significant to note that reducing ubiquitous surveillance activities must be considered because it poses severe ethical dilemmas for minorities’ rights and interests. The increasing usage of FRT technology without appropriate consent raises serious questions about ethics and privacy (Wang et al., 2020). Therefore initiating policies and regulations that aim to restrict intrusive surveillance activities with comprehensive privacy protections are essential to safeguard the civil liberty and privacy rights of minority communities.

Policy Interventions

Policy Interventions

This map shows that many countries are enacting laws or regulations governing the use of facial recognition technology. These laws and regulations can help to protect privacy and civil liberties, and they can also help to ensure that facial recognition technology is used fairly and equitably (Anderson, 2023).

When policy interventions are undertaken, it is common for them to yield positive short-term outcomes as they tend to increase awareness levels while at the same time establishing legal standards. However, policy effectiveness over time depends mainly on its successful implementation and enforcement in practice. Despite potentially bringing about multiple advantages, said interventions face various challenges along the way; among them is industry stakeholders’ resistance alongside an increasing necessity for ongoing adaptation due to rapidly advancing technologies.

Therefore, implementing policy interventions involves investing resources in crafting policies that consider stakeholder input while monitoring compliance. Despite these costs, there are numerous benefits to introducing policy interventions, such as improving transparency and accountability alongside protecting individual rights. By regulating facial recognition technology, policies promote fairness by reducing prejudices that impact minorities significantly. Intervening in the effects of facial recognition technology on minority groups requires policy measures that are informed by quality research, morally conscious, and receptive to input from different participants. Academics bring vital perspectives and profound views that enhance the formulation and execution of policies, so they reasonably accommodate all society members.

Recommendation and Review

While significant efforts have been made to address the effects of facial recognition technology on minorities through dataset diversification, policy interventions, and algorithmic improvement, it can be argued that none of these efforts alone is fully effective in solving the problem. This viewpoint arises due to several challenges and limitations associated with each approach. Recognizing these shortcomings and exploring alternative and complementary next steps to advance toward a more equitable and fair landscape becomes crucial.

Although promising, Dataset diversification encounters representativeness, scalability, and ongoing maintenance challenges. Despite efforts to include a broader range of facial images, it remains challenging to capture the full diversity of racial and ethnic groups. Additionally, as demographics evolve, datasets need continuous updates to remain current and relevant. To overcome these limitations, future steps could involve expanding collaborations and partnerships with communities, research institutions, and advocacy groups to ensure ongoing collection and annotation of diverse datasets. Engaging individuals from marginalized communities in the dataset creation process can help address privacy and consent concerns and ensure ethical practices (Van 356). Policy interventions also need help implementing, enforcing, and keeping pace with technological advancements. The complex legal and political landscapes often need to be revised to ensure the swift development and implementation of robust policies.

Finally, algorithmic improvement is the most promising solution, but it can only partially solve the problem due to inherent limitations and potential unintended consequences. Although machine learning and reinforcement advancements can squash biases in some cases – biases could be embedded right within the data, which may pose a challenge (Lee et al. 3). Moreover, improving algorithms frequently requires expertise, high computing power loads, and continued modifications. Mitigating these challenges requires ongoing research into alternative algorithmic practices that are interpretable and explainable models that could help reduce bias while promoting transparency. Also, fostering collaboration between researchers, ethicists, and industry experts can lead to the development of comprehensive guidelines for responsible algorithmic deployment (Lee et al. 3). In light of the limitations of individual efforts, a holistic and multi-faceted approach is necessary.

Conclusion

In conclusion, addressing the impact of facial recognition technology on minorities requires a multi-faceted and holistic approach that combines dataset diversification, policy interventions, and algorithmic improvement. Each of these efforts has its strengths and limitations, emphasizing the need for collaboration, ongoing refinement, and adaptation. Dataset diversification aims to mitigate biases by including a more comprehensive range of facial images, but challenges such as representativeness and scalability must be addressed. Policy interventions provide legal frameworks and accountability, but implementation and enforcement can be challenging in a rapidly evolving technological landscape. Algorithmic improvement can reduce bias, but inherent limitations and unintended consequences necessitate ongoing research and responsible deployment.

Furthermore, alternative and complementary next steps are needed to advance toward a more equitable and fair landscape. Expanding collaborations and partnerships with communities and research institutions can ensure ongoing collection and annotation of diverse datasets, addressing privacy and consent concerns. An interdisciplinary collaboration involving policymakers, legal experts, technologists, and community representatives can develop comprehensive and adaptive policies. Continued research into alternative algorithmic approaches and collaboration between researchers, ethicists, and industry experts can lead to responsible and transparent algorithmic deployment.

Therefore, it is essential to recognize that more than these efforts alone can fully solve the problem. A comprehensive approach that integrates these efforts fosters collaboration and prioritizes inclusivity, transparency, and accountability is necessary. Ongoing monitoring, evaluation, and audits of facial recognition systems and focusing on minimizing harm, protecting privacy, and promoting social justice are crucial. By embracing this comprehensive approach and considering the needs and aspirations of affected communities, significant progress can be made in mitigating the effects of facial recognition technology on minorities and promoting a more equitable future.

Works Cited

Anderson, Larry. “Map Illustrates Usage of Facial Recognition around the World.” Sourcesecurity.com, 2023, www.sourcesecurity.com/insights/map-illustrates-usage-facial-recognition-world-sb.1591782979.html?utm_source=SIc&utm_medium=Redirect&utm_campaign=IntRedirectPopup. Accessed 24 May 2023.

Bacchini, Fabio, and Ludovica Lorusso. “Race, again: how face recognition technology reinforces racial discrimination.” Journal of Information, communication, and Ethics in Society (2019).

Buolamwini, Joy, and Timnit Gebru. “Gender shades: Intersectional accuracy disparities in commercial gender classification.” Conference on fairness, accountability, and transparency. PMLR, 2018.

Ferguson, Andrew Guthrie. “Facial recognition and the fourth amendment.” Minn. L. Rev. 105 (2020): 1105.

Gong, Sixue, Xiaoming Liu, and Anil K. Jain. “Jointly de-biasing face recognition and demographic attribute estimation.” Computer Vision–ECCV 2020: 16th European Conference, Glasgow, UK, August 23–28, 2020, Proceedings, Part XXIX 16. Springer International Publishing, 2020.

Introna, Lucas, and Helen Nissenbaum. “Facial recognition technology a survey of policy and implementation issues.” (2010).

Karkkainen, Kimmo, and Jungseock Joo. “Fairface: Face attribute dataset for balanced race, gender, and age for bias measurement and mitigation.” Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision. 2021.

Kimmo Kärkkäinen, and Jungseock Joo. FairFace: Face Attribute Dataset for Balanced Race, Gender, and Age for Bias Measurement and Mitigation. Jan. 2021, https://doi.org/10.1109/wacv48630.2021.00159.  Accessed 24 May 2023.

Kortli, Yassin, et al. “Face recognition systems: A survey.” Sensors 20.2 2020: 342. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020342

Lee, Nicol Turner, Paul Resnick, and Genie Barton. “Algorithmic bias detection and mitigation: Best practices and policies to reduce consumer harms.” Brookings Institute: Washington, DC, USA 2 2019.

Raji, Inioluwa Deborah, and Genevieve Fried. “About face: A survey of facial recognition evaluation.” arXiv preprint arXiv:2102.00813 2021.

Raji, Inioluwa Deborah, et al. “Saving face: Investigating the ethical concerns of facial recognition auditing.” Proceedings of the AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society. 2020.

Rusnáková, Barbara. “How the Accuracy of Facial Recognition Technology Has Improved over Time.” Innovatrics, 20 Mar. 2021, https://innovatrics.com/trustreport/how-the-accuracy-of-face-recognition-technology-has-improved-over-time/

Van Noorden, Richard. “The ethical questions that haunt facial-recognition research.” Nature 587.7834 (2020): 354-359.

Wang, Mei, and Weihong Deng. “Mitigating bias in face recognition using skewness-aware reinforcement learning.” Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF conference on computer vision and pattern recognition. 2020.

Wang, Mei, et al. “Racial faces in the wild: Reducing racial bias by information maximization adaptation network.” Proceedings of the IEEE/cvf international conference on computer vision. 2019.

Alternative Fuels For Private Cars On Gotland Essay Example

Introduction

The desire to transition from conventional energy fuels to sustainable energy systems is urgent and evident in the research objectives. This thematic analysis evaluates complex factors influencing Gotland residents’ decisions to adopt alternative motor fuel. It explores the current and prospective motor vehicle fuel for the population surveyed and the primary factors influencing their transition. Moreover, the study explores alignment issues between actions and alignment intentions and the factors contributing to the inconsistencies. The study offers meaningful insights for scholars and administrators seeking to explore opportunities and address challenges in transitioning to sustainable energy options. It emphasizes the interplay of effective factors such as infrastructure education and awareness, convenience and social norms, which determine the migration of the population to greener fuel options. This analysis sheds light on multiple audiences, including industry stakeholders’ government agencies, researchers and policymakers, on implementing interventions that eradicate barriers and realize the region’s patience for a sustainable future.

Current fuel alternatives for passenger vehicles in Gotland and preferred alternatives for the next vehicle

This research question explores current fuel alternatives for Gotland residents utilized in their passenger vehicles. It provided insights into passengers’ preferred fuel alternatives and their next vehicle. A holistic exploration of the research question involved incorporating the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), offering criteria for understanding Gotland residents’ attitudes, perceived behaviour control and subjective norms inherent in the choices, intentions and actions regarding selecting fuel alternatives for their vehicles.

A thematic analysis of the findings shows that several residents in Gotland prefer convenience over environmental consciousness. Consequently, citizens rely on conventional fuel alternatives at the expense of environmentally friendly alternatives. According to the surveyed residents, these findings are evident in resident behaviour, where 42.10% rely on petrol vehicles as their alternative passenger vehicles. It shows the prevailing situation where traditional fossil fuel dominates residents’ attitudes and behaviour when selecting fuels for passenger vehicles. Moreover, diesel-powered vehicles account for 19.30% of the surveyed residents and their preferred vehicles. These statistical findings underline the substantial dependence on diesel fuel for Gotland residents. The findings underline subjective norms and attitudes towards traditional fuel alternatives of petrol and fuel for Gotland residents. The residents prefer conventional petrol and diesel fuel alternatives due to factors such as pre-existing infrastructure, perceived affordability and familiarity, which indicate an inclination towards convenience.

Table: Findings of Preferred Current and Next Cars with Alternative Fuels for Gotland Residents

Type of private cars Percentage
Today Next cars
Diesel vehicle 19.30% 15.8%
Petrol vehicle 42.10% 26.3%
Electric vehicle 17.50% 49.1%
Hybrid electric vehicle 14.00% 36.8%
Hydrogen vehicle 0.00% 12.3%
Compressed natural gas vehicle 5.30% 3.5%
Liquefied petroleum gas vehicle 0% 1.8%
Ammonia vehicle 0% 0%
Methanol vehicle 0% 1.8%
Others 22.80% 3.5%

Despite Gotland residents preferring conventional fuel alternatives of petrol and diesel, notable indications for shifting to environmentally friendly alternatives is evident. Residents are likely to shift away from conventional fuel for their next vehicle. Preferences for the next vehicle dropped slightly for diesel and petrol vehicles at 15.8% and 26.3%, respectively. The decline in resident preference for the next vehicle indicates an intention to continue relying on petrol and diesel fuel but gradually shift to other alternatives. The theory of planned behaviour provides a perspective and the decline in intention to adopt environmental consciousness and sustainability options in vehicle fuel. Moreover, the theory shows that Gotland residents need more consciousness over environmental consequences such as carbon emissions arising from conventional fuel alternatives and underwhelming intention to adopt alternative fuel options.

Given 17.5% of residents in Gotland prefer electric vehicles (E.V.s), the electric fuel option emerges as an alternative promising to address environmental consequences. The 17.5% figure highlights a significant attitude and adoption rate, with residents showing the potential to shift to alternative fuels. It shows residents’ willingness to adopt environmental consciousness in their vehicle fuels and a growing motivation to adopt environmentally-friendly energy and fuel for the transport sector that guarantees sustainability. The TPB offers a framework to analyze the potential interest in electric vehicles for the residents. This theory highlights the positive attitudes among Gotland residents to embrace electric vehicles. Several factors contribute to this change in attitude, including government incentives, cost-effectiveness, increased accessibility to charging infrastructure and increased awareness of the environmental impact of fossil fuels (Golbabaei et al., 2020). These factors sway residents ‘ mindsets leading to increased adoption of electric vehicles. Statistical findings for residents’ preference for the next vehicle stood at 49.1%. This finding highlights increased awareness and the possibility of shifting from diesel and petrol fuel to electric vehicles. It suggests increasing awareness about environmental impact and a robust inclination towards a green economy. Gotland residents have adopted positive attitudes and subjective norms towards environmentally friendly fuels, particularly shifting to electric vehicles.

Preference for hybrid electric vehicles in Gotland stands at 14.00% among the surveyed population and their current vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles combine an electric motor and an internal combustion engine using petrol or diesel fuel. Incorporating electric motors in the internal combustion engine reduces carbon emission levels while improving vehicle efficiency. This improvement represents a positive step in environmental consciousness and a foundation for achieving full electrification (Golbabaei et al., 2020). Hybrid electric vehicles represent an attractive alternative to Gotland residents compared to fully electric vehicles or petrol or diesel fuels that are environmentally disastrous. The theory of planned behaviour highlights the possible increase in adopting hybrid electric vehicles owing to their substantial convenience and significant reduction of carbon emissions. Residents prefer the performance and familiarity of the vehicle, which indicate their preference for hybrid electric vehicles for fuel-saving and perceived environmental benefits. The attitude of hybrid electric vehicles as the next vehicle for Gotland presidents stands at 36.8%. This percentage increase in referring to hybrid electric vehicles highlights a change in behaviour and attitudes with increasing awareness of the environmental impact of fossil fuels and inclining towards cost-effectiveness in fuel consumption.

The absence of hydrogen vehicles in Gotland indicates underlying factors hindering residents’ adoption of hydrogen fuel. It shows the limited availability of hydrogen fuel and vehicles and the lack of infrastructure supporting hydrogen cell fuel technology. The lack of infrastructure and availability of hydrogen cell fuel technology is evident when statistical findings show it as the next vehicle preference at 12.3%. It indicates an emerging interest among Gotland residents in adopting hydrogen cell fuel technology and vehicles using hydrogen cell fuel. Residents are interested in its potential for longer driving ranges and zero-emission properties.

Moreover, residents are interested in hydrogen cell fuel due to its capacity to improve infrastructure. The theory of planned behaviour highlights the value of perceived environmental benefits, energy diversification and cost-effectiveness as significant in attitude and behaviour change among Gotland residents. It shows the subjective norms arising from an inclination towards technological advancements and exalting social factors pushing residents to adopt hydrogen cell fuel vehicles.

Statistical findings for compressed natural gas (CNG) in Gotland is 5.30%. This statistical finding is relatively insignificant compared to conventional diesel and petrol fuels among residents. Compressed natural gas is fuel for vehicles with lower carbon emissions than conventional fuels. The statistical findings show a decline in residents’ preference for compressed natural gas as fuel for their next vehicle. This alarming decline indicates waning interest in compressed natural gas as a vehicle fuel in Gotland. TPB offers perspective showing potential attitude and behaviour change in adopting compressed natural gas. The theory outlines accessibility to infrastructure, long-term sustainability and availability of compressed natural gas as factors hindering its adoption and causing negative resident attitudes and behaviour. It shows a preference for other alternative fuels, such as hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles, which have become popular and convenient for utilization to achieve significant environmental benefits.

Gotland residents shy away from methanol vehicles, with the statistics showing a 0% adoption among surveyed residents. Methanol is a renewable energy source emanating from captured carbon dioxide for biomass. The promising energy fuel shows significant environmental benefits of reducing carbon emissions and air pollutants. However, the absence of methanol fuel among Gotland residents is a concern and underlines factors hindering its adoption. The primary Factor hindering methanol fuel in the region is inadequate understanding and lack of awareness among residents on the availability and applicability of methanol fuel in vehicles (Swaroop et al., 2022). Methanol vehicles have substantial benefits to the users and environment owing to their cost-saving benefits, improving air quality and reducing carbon emissions. It offers opportunities for residents to utilize renewable sources. Technically methanol can serve as a blended fuel in an internal combustion engine or be utilized as a sole fuel. Gotland residents show interest in methanol vehicles, with a 1.8% indication of owning them as their next vehicle. This percentage represents emerging interest among residents in methanol vehicles, highlighting the necessity for increased awareness through campaigns and education programs. Policymakers and stakeholders should address underlying misconceptions and disseminate information on methanol fuel as a viable alternative.

The findings indicate other females attract 28.80% of interest among Gotland residents, according to surveyed vehicles. It encompasses diverse alternative fuels, including minor alternatives such as bioethanol and biodiesel. Besides biofuels, this category covers other alternative fuels under experimentation, including synthetic fuels and fuel technologies. This category highlights existing alternative fuels beyond conventional fuels among region residents. Despite residents showing interest in using other alternative fuels, they demonstrate an underwhelming likelihood of adopting other females for their next vehicles. The 3.5% interest for other females for the next vehicle indicates limited knowledge and underwhelming appeal of other options among the surveyed respondents. Policymakers and stakeholders must invest in subsequent research programs to explore alternative fuels and develop infrastructure for implementation. Moreover, policymakers must address underlying barriers to adopting innovative fuel in transportation while educating the public on the benefits and shortcomings of various fuel alternatives.

The research findings offer valuable insights into the current fuel options Gotland residents adapt. Additional findings outline preferences for the next vehicle for the residents. It shows how residents in the region prefer convenience over environmental consciousness, as indicated by significant reliance on diesel and petrol passenger vehicles. Nevertheless, the findings highlight a potential shift among residents indicated by the adoption of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The theory of planned behaviour provides a framework that visualises factors promoting and hindering the adoption of alternative fuel options. Moreover, the TPB indicates the perceived behavioural control and subjective norms influencing residents in the region to adopt alternative females. Overall the findings underline the increasing interest in electric vehicles and an emerging motivation among residents to adopt hydrogen cell fuel (Swaroop et al., 2022). The theory informs policymakers to adopt measures that promote alternative fuels that are environmentally friendly such as increasing awareness through campaigns and education programs, offering government incentives and improving infrastructure for sustainable fuel options.

Cost environmental impact and convenience factors in deciding motor fuel alternative in Gotland

Cost environmental impact at convenience is primary factor influencing the choice of residence in Gotland to various fuel alternatives. For instance, fuel cost is a crucial factor for residents to decide on vehicles using a particular fuel. Residents prefer cost-saving vehicles and affordable fuel alternatives. High fuel prices for conventional fuel alternatives such as petrol and diesel compel residents to explore cost-effective options such as biofuels and hydrogen cell fuel (Swaroop et al., 2022). Moreover, presidents explore natural gas and electricity over conventional fuels when reducing costs over long distances and sustaining transport services. According to the theory of planned behaviour, policymakers must target fuel costs for changing attitudes and behaviour. It involves providing government subsidies, improving infrastructure, tax incentives and making alternative fuel options readily available to influence their cost. The study findings show the president’s willingness to adopt New Energy fuels by considering the financial subsidy the car (70.2%), reduction in vehicle tax (54.4%), free parking at 38.6% and reduction in road tax at 31.6%.

People's decisions in motor fuel alternatives c

People's decisions in motor fuel alternatives c

People’s decisions in motor fuel alternatives considering their sustainability intentions and factors encouraging alignment and inconsistency of people’s decisions

Gotland residents consider the cost of refuelling vehicles in selecting vehicles with a particular fuel alternative. For instance, the study questioning an individual’s perception of the availability of refuelling facilities for renewable energy sources showed a 77.2% objection and 22.8% agreement. This finding indicates residence preference for readily available refuelling infrastructure on selecting vehicles with alternative fuels. It compels policymakers to reduce the cost of refuelling for renewable energy sources such as electric vehicles and natural gas to lower refuelling costs.

question on refueling facilities

results on question about refueling facilities

The findings show a significant impact attributed to environmental consciousness when selecting vehicles of a specific fuel. Environmental awareness has increased globally owing to increased information flow. Consequently, residents recognize the adverse consequences associated with the excessive combustion of fossil fuels. This situation highlights increased attitudes and behaviour towards renewable sources that reduce carbon emissions and lower air pollutants in the atmosphere. It explains the increasing attitude towards greener alternatives, including hydrogen cell fuel, natural gas biofuels and electricity and ditching petrol and diesel fuels that have high carbon emissions. Individuals have become aware of their environment as evidenced by changes in climatic conditions hence preferring attractive options that have zero or low carbon emissions. Environmental consciousness among Gotland residents is evident in their fuel decision-making and preference for their next vehicle fuel.

Research findings showed reluctance among Gotland residents to adopt environmental-friendly fuel alternatives and retain petrol and diesel as their primary fuel alternatives. This situation was evident in their findings showing several residents’ disagreement with using new energy vehicles as a remedy to environmental problems. Several residents appear to have limited knowledge of the impact of adopting sustainable energy sources in reducing environmental degradation. In the statistical graphs below, 40.4% of surveyed residents neither agree nor disagree on whether new energy sources address environmental degradation. In the findings, 7% and 10.5% strongly disagree and agree on adopting sustainable fuel sources to address environmental challenges bedevilling humanity.

energy vehicles and environmental problems

results on question about energy vehicles and environmental problems

The surveyed individuals indicated concern over environmental consequences when receiving information through a relevant press or online media. It shows 57.9% of residents in Gotland demonstrate environmental consciousness when receiving information from online media or relevant press such as print and broadcasting media. This concern pushes individuals to adopt sustainable fuel choices depending on their relationship with other factors, such as convenience and cost (Yan and Mohamed, 2022). It shows a positive correlation between individuals receiving information from relevant sources and adopting sustainable vehicle fluids such as electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and natural gas. It highlights information penetration for residents’ awareness and education using primary sources of information in changing their attitudes and behaviour toward sustainable vehicle fuel. Nevertheless, this finding shows that cost saving remains a primary motivator in adopting alternative fuels in transportation.

factors of environmental problems

results of question about factors of environmental problems

The strength and direction of the relationship between information flow and awareness of adopting sustainable fuels are evident in other sources of information. Experiencing or seeing environmental consequences first-hand, environmentalists’ warnings and word-of-mouth, our information sources come second to relevant press information. The three sources influence people’s environmental consciousness by 40.4%, 38.6% and 38.6%, respectively. It shows the strength and direction of information flow and reaches as significant determinants of people’s decision in selecting vehicle fuels. However, 38.8% of the surveyed residents demonstrated concern over environmental issues owing to their academic background or working in a related field. Gotland residents expressing a lack of concern at 7% and other factors drawing their concern at 5.3% shows the impact of information in increasing awareness and adopting sustainable practices that reduce environmental degradation. These findings show the value of information sources in swearing the public towards a specific fuel source for their vehicle.

Convenience was a predominant Factor among Gotland residents’ decision to select petrol and diesel fuels for their current vehicles. This reason highlights the inconvenience associated with adopting alternative and sustainable fuels such as electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. This inconvenience extends to other sustainable fuels, including hydrogen cells and natural gas, whose availability and infrastructure is a barrier to their adoption. Besides refuelling infrastructure, other factors hindering the adoption of sustainable fuels include charging time and upfront costs in acquiring vehicles. Hydrogen cell vehicles require advanced infrastructure for dedicated refuelling, while electric vehicles require specialized refuelling points as their charging stations. Convenience in retaining conventional fuel success is evident in the findings of residents’ perception of the severity of environmental impact (Yan & Mohamed, 2022). Several respondents indicated their perception of the severity of environmental impact, with the majority agreeing with the seriousness of global warming. 56.1% of respondents agreed with the global warming issue against 0%. Additionally, between 26% and 29% of surveyed residents outlined the extreme concern about the severity of environmental impact supporting anthropogenic toxicity, acidification potential, eutrophication abiotic resource depletion, depletion of ozone stratosphere and terrestrial eco-toxicity as factors for the severe impact.

environmental problems

results on question about environmental problems

Despite the surveyed population indicating their perception of environmental impact severity, they remained with petrol and diesel Fuels for convenience.

People’s decisions in motor fuel alternatives considering their sustainability intentions and factors encouraging alignment and inconsistency of people’s decisions

The choice of motor fuel alternatives for Gotland residents did not align with their sustainability intentions owing to an increased preference for convenience. Despite sustainability being a critical concern among residents, the factors determine their toys of motor fuel alternatives. These factors trigger inconsistencies between intentions for sustainability and actual action in purchasing a motor vehicle. Gotland ambition to embrace sustainable vehicle fuel positive attitude from stakeholders to encourage alignment through policy measures and identifying and understanding contributing factors and levels of misalignment. Statistical findings show several residents of Gotland express consciousness of the severity of an environmental impact at 56.1%. Conversely, several residents in the region prefer petrol vehicles at 42.10% and diesel vehicles at 19.30% regardless of their environmental degradation potentials. Residents show a high potential in adopting environmentally friendly options, with 49.1% indicating interest in adopting electric vehicles and 36.8% in adopting hybrid electric vehicles as their next vehicles. These findings show the willingness of positive attitudes, values, and beliefs in sustainability but experiencing barriers to adopting sustainable fuel options.

Multifaceted factors undermine the adoption of sustainable fuel options among the residents despite their awareness of environmental degradation. Knowledge gaps and inadequate information is the first-factor hindering the adoption of sustainable fuel options in Gotland. These factors hinder the understanding of benefits such as cost-saving and environmental conservation when adopting fuel options such as compressed gas and hydrogen cell fuel (Kumar et al., 2017). Consequently, residents make choices to purchase petrol and diesel vehicles without aligning with their sustainability intentions. It requires policymakers, government agencies and other stakeholders to increase public campaigns and education forums to disseminate information on environmental benefits associated with sustainable energy fuels in the transport sector.

Technical and practical constraints represent the second Factor hindering the adoption of sustainable fuels in Gotland. For instance, the insufficient refuelling infrastructure and inadequate availability of fuel options such as compressed gas and hydrogen cell undermine people’s attitudes towards sustainable alternatives. The region has a scarcity of electric vehicle charging stations and specialized facilities for hydrogen cells leading to residents’ intention to retain fossil fuel vehicles. Policymakers and government agencies address infrastructural issues when investing in advanced infrastructure and having adequate charging stations and facilities. Moreover, policy directions that support the implementation of projects aligning with new fuel options are necessary to increase the alignment of residents’ decisions with their sustainability intentions and motor fuel choices.

renewable energy vehicles

results on renewable energy vehicles

Economic considerations are the third Factor determining the adoption of sustainable fuel options that align with residents’ intentions. The higher upfront costs associated with acquiring vehicles and fuel and sustainable options are barriers. For instance, residents prefer petrol or diesel vehicles with lower upfront costs compared to hydrogen and electric vehicles, as upfront costs are higher. This Factor determines the choice of sustainable vehicle fuel, undermining sustainability in tensions among residents, particularly regarding long-term financial benefits (Yan and Mohamed, 2022). Consequently, policymakers and governments in the region must encourage alignment of fuel choices and sustainability intentions by offering tax incentives and extending subsidies to potential buyers of sustainable options and other financial incentives.

The fourth Factor is the peer influence and social norms that influence choices for motor vehicle fuel. The lack of social value and widespread adoption of sustainable options undermine interest and alignment intentions among residents. Individuals develop negative attitudes towards sustainable fuel options if they have limited penetration within the public (Yan and Mohamed, 2022). Consequently, stakeholders must promote a sustainability Culture by using success stories of individuals using sustainable motor fuel options. Additionally, achieving a culture of sustainability requires regular and extensive community engagement and public awareness campaigns. These strategies promote a shift of social norms among individuals, increasing the alignment of actions with their sustainability intentions.

Conclusion

Ultimately, the research offers insights and individual decision-making regarding motor fuel options. It outlines how individuals align their purchasing actions of motor vehicles with sustainability intentions regarding motor vehicle fuel. The findings show individuals’ positive intention towards sustainability as evidenced by their perception of environmental impact severity. However, individuals prefer petrol and diesel fuel options for convenience. This situation underlines existing barriers such as technical and practical constraints, economic considerations, awareness and social norms that hinder aligning actions and sustainability intentions when selecting motor vehicle fuel. Additionally, this research highlights cost, environmental impact and convenience as primary factors determining people’s attitudes towards particular motor fuel options. In Gotland’s case, individuals rely heavily on conventional fossil fuels despite having an interest in sustainable options. Results indicated their interest in adopting electric vehicles and hybrid-electric vehicles in their subsequent purchase of motor vehicles. This situation highlights the role of stakeholders in addressing barriers to adopting sustainable intentions among the residents.

Reference List

Golbabaei, F., Yigitcanlar, T., Paz, A. and Bunker, J., 2020. Individual predictors of autonomous vehicle public acceptance and intention to use: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity6(4), p.106. retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2199853122010812

Kumar, A., Sah, B., Singh, A.R., Deng, Y., He, X., Kumar, P. and Bansal, R.C., 2017. A review of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) towards sustainable renewable energy development. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews69, pp.596-609. Retrieved from https://tarjomefa.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/8289-English-TarjomeFa.pdf

Swaroop, K.R., Someswararao, K.M., Naidu, N.G. and Nagaraj, K.V., 2022. A Study On Factors Influencing On Purchase Of E-Vehicles With Reference To South India. Journal of Positive School Psychology6(11), pp.200-208. Retrieved from https://ijcrt.org/papers/IJCRT2304681.pdf

Yan, C.W. and Mohamed, M.I.P., 2022. The Factor That Influences Consumers’ Buying Intention of Electric Vehicle (E.V.) In Malaysia. Research in Management of Technology and Business3(2), pp.312-327. Retrieved from https://publisher.uthm.edu.my/periodicals/index.php/rmtb/article/view/9637

American Studies- Why Other Communities/Nations Fall And Others Rise Writing Sample

Introduction

Over the years, there has been a surge of variety of factors resulting in the rise or decline of communities and countries. The growth or decline of a nation or society closely affiliated with its demographic. Studies and philosophers have done a deep dive into the factors impacting the success or failure of a nation or community. There are several aspects, such as natural resources, geographic location, culture, and historical knowledge. For instance, financial challenges, differences in innovation strategies, legal frameworks, level of education, gender and progress, food sources, infrastructure, legal policies, and investments in future innovations. Measures of income are merely one aspect of poverty. There are other key indicators as well, such as those relating to infant and child mortality, illiteracy, infectious disease, hunger, and education. Several nations have achieved outstanding progress in eradicating poverty. While some have seen overall growth, others have made extremely considerable progress in one dimension but regressed in others.

African Americans

For centuries, African Americans have experienced challenges that substantially impact the society’s success or failure. Although African-Americans have lived in the USA for many centuries, they still face racial segregation. For instance, they have stereotypical terms that are offensive and hinder their development. During the early centuries, African Americans were subjected to slavery resulting in increased suicides, diseases, and deaths. According to Britannica, the surge in slavery during the early centuries has greatly impacted the development of the society. Black slaves contributed significantly to building the economic underpinnings of the United States, particularly in the South, despite their unwillingness and general lack of compensation. Blacks also contributed significantly to the creation of Southern dialect, folklore, music, dancing, and cuisine by fusing European and African cultural elements. African and African American (those born in the New World) slaves primarily labored on the Southern seaboard’s tobacco, rice, and indigo plantations during the 17th and 18th centuries. Large cotton and sugar plantations in the South eventually gave rise to slavery. Slavery was never common in the North, despite the fact that Northern businesses generated enormous sums of money from the trade of slaves and from investments in Southern plantations.

Legal Frameworks and Policies

Studies illustrate that most societies are influenced by enforced government regulations. The legal system indicates the type of affiliation between the societies and the government. The systems are put in place by governments to manage, implement, and enforce policies. This impacts the development of the society since it ensures equitable distribution of resources within various societies. However, African Americans were subjected to slave codes impacting their economic development leading to stagnant progression (Goldin, 2019). The slave system was governed by laws emphasizing the master’s entire dominance. These regulations illustrate that a slave was considered chattel, or property and labor that could be purchased and sold like an animal. The slave was not permitted to have a stable household or much privacy. The legislation forbade slaves from receiving an education in reading or writing. The master showed favoritism to the meek slave and meted out harsh punishment to the disobedient slave. They were kept apart by a social structure among the plantation slaves (Lynch, 2023). This demonstrates that the African-American community has been hindered by prior rules and regulations limiting their success.

Poverty& Inequality

This aspect indicates an individual’s financial capability. It enables easy transformation between jobs, residence, and reactions during agile situations. Financial aspects greatly impact a community’s success or failure. This is because it acts as a tool to finance education, stability, healthcare, and pay regular bills. Although various government officials have tried to promote and contribute to the equal distribution of resources between racial segments. There is an unequal distribution of finances and resources among racial segments. For example, white and black families register a large wealth disparity since the government does not equally share resources within the segments. Research suggests that African-Americans have less financial stability compared to their white counterparts because of unequal sharing of resources. This suggests that African Americans are more susceptible to failure since the unequal distribution of finances and resources results in a decline in education levels, healthcare, food sources, and many more. It is a challenge because African Americans experience hindrances to access of finances and resources that would otherwise lead to progress within their community. Furthermore, the community has been facing challenges since time immemorial, leading to accumulated poverty and inequality creating minimal opportunities to advance the community. Stagnant economic development contributes to downward or stagnant economic progress within the community (Hanks, 2018).

Gender

African-American women are expected to conform to certain cultural gender roles. They are highly impacted by sexual conditions compared to women of other races. Over the decades, the healthcare department has implemented policies contributing to healthy sexual and reproductive health for African-American women. However, they still experience and contract HIV and pregnancy affiliated infections. These infections stem from the unequal distribution of resources, poverty, low educational levels, legal policies, and unequal infrastructure; according to t to the Journal of Public Health, African American women make up 60% of the demographic infected with HIV and pregnancy-affiliated infections (Prather et al., 2016). Moreover, instances of racial segregation and discrimination substantially contribute to negative impacts on women’s sexual reproductive health. A study done on the sexual health of African-American women depict that gender and progress contribute to the rise or fall of the African American community. Their access to health is hindered by institutional racism increasing healthcare disparities and leading to a decline in the community since they only have access to low-level healthcare compared to other communities.

Hispanic-Americans

Over the centuries, there has been a surge in Latino demographics in the US. Most studies indicate that the community has greatly contributed to the demographics of the USA. They account for half of the American population. They are the second largest demographic after the whites, and they contributed to 18% of the labor population (Flores, 2017). There are various aspect that impacts the socioeconomic development of Latinos in the country. For instance, regulatory changes, education levels, and poverty and inequality.

Poverty & Inequality

Although the community contributes to half the population in the US, they are more susceptible to poverty and inequality. Studies depict that Hispanic-American families and children reside in poverty compared to their white counterparts. For instance, 23% of their children live in poverty, while 8.9% of whites live in poverty (Weis, 2021). Their socioeconomic development is hindered by the constant experience of poverty, making it hard to accomplish basic needs such as access to amenities, healthcare, education, housing, and nutrition. Furthermore, poverty and inequality substantially impact non-white neighborhoods promoting high crime rates and mortality rates. Poverty and their constant subjection to prejudice and inequality increases fatal physical and mental health issues. The community is more susceptible to acquiring catastrophic health conditions such as diabetes, asthma, and physical injuries. The neighborhoods and residence also contribute to increased crime rates and HIV and pregnancy related infections. This is because the community surrounding frequently experiences violence and low-quality residential areas negatively influencing their health. They also have poor schools, high rates of unemployment, social seclusions, and inadequate positive peer inspiration. The community is also secluded from financial charities and networks in work and schools resulting in poor mental development since they lack support systems. This aspect results in violence, death, substance abuse, incarceration, a high number of juvenile children, and death. Hispanic-American communities have less socioeconomic development compared to whites.

Legal Frameworks & Policies

These is important factors providing guidance, insights, formulations, and creating links for several segments. Hispanic Americans utilizes and formed the ECLA and economic doctrine to evaluate its industrilization policies within communities. The government enforced the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act to inhibit undocumented immigrants from seeking some public services. The restrictions greatly influence the development of the community since individuals are scared to seek medical, educational, and other services for fear of deportation. The legal framework has generated stereotypical debates and hate. This framework inhibits public services to illegal immigrants. It can lead to death if an individual can not access healthcare services. It also hinders young undocumented hispanic american children from seeking educational services resulting in illiteracy. High levels of illiteracy within a community hinder its development since education is instrumental in providing knowledge, language proficiency, and social cohesion in school. The act also denies retirement, disability, and welfare services to unregistered immigrants. This impacts the community’s retirees and their welfare, leading to decreased life quality. The policy is ambiguous and enforces penalties detrimental to the development

Gender

Hispanic American women in the community experience inequality in the workplace. The diversity favors the patriarchal system compared to the women. The workplaces are not based on qualifications, but they are based on gender. Moreover, women in the community are given opportunities with poor conditions. They are subjected to violence, underpayment, sexual harassment, dangerous roles, and the negative impacts of teleworking. The women in the community have low motivation levels to work because they are not valued are in vulnerable positions that are detrimental to their health. Most of the women working are not given leadership positions but rather lower positions with less decision makingMoreover, the pandemic increased the inequality within the community, and they were not allowed trade movements. Gender equality within a community is essential for the socioeconomic development of a community. The gender gap and pay gap immensely influence success since it hinders the achievement of Goal 5 of the 2030 sustainable development declining the eradication of gender gaps. Inequality reduces labor participation and economic development. Studies indicate that 47 million women could succumb to extreme poverty in the absence of gender equality within working environments. This also reduces the economic resources they require when facing unexpected disastrous conditions pushing them to extreme poverty (Aliaga, 2021)

China

Studies indicate that China is among the global fastest-developing economy. The country has registered a constant increase in its growth. According to the World Bank, the development has paved the way for a sustainable economy through its progress to double its GDP. This indicates that approximately 800 million Chinese individuals were elevated from poverty. Studies illustrate that the country has been gradually growing at an average of 9.5% since 2018 (Report, 2019). The report has established that a country’s or communities growth or decline is greatly influenced by its level of education, poverty and inequality, infrastructure, financial health, and legal policies. Since 2018, China has been growing and expanding various economic investments to exploit the global markets.

Legal Frameworks & Policies

A nation’s legal frameworks and policies fundamentally influence its rise or failure. The aspect ensures equal and efficient distribution of resources and materials to the most profitable stakeholders. Effective legal policies contribute to the general participation of the citizens during economic development and a sustainable environment. Legal frameworks in a nation is essential since it provides and gathers information on effective strategies and recommendations advancing it’s growth. Moreover, it acts as a regulatory body governing the affiliations between the nation and its citizens. China’s growth goes back to the 1970s reforms leading to economic development in the current century. For instance, in 1970, China eradicated isolation political and economic policies limiting its foreign affiliations. This reform promoted foreign affiliations between China and the US in 1979. Similarly, in the 1970’s, the country implemented the privatization of agriculture and the open door policy, leading to increased profitability and foreign investments (Moiseeb et al., 2019). The privatization of the agricultural field led to increased private foreign investors from other countries. The county and its government officials have been gradually introducing policies supporting economic development. These legal frameworks and policies contributed to the rise of China’s economy by promoting foreign investments and trade. The increase in foreign investments and trade contributes to increased job opportunities leading to increased living standards compared to other countries that enforce legal frameworks limiting foreign affiliations. Currently, China’s President Deng Xiaoping has implemented and enforced legal frameworks and reforms promoting the development and success of the county.

Poverty & Inequality

According to the World Bank, China has registered fewer people under the global poverty line. The statistics indicate that there are averagely 800 million individuals who have improved from extreme poverty. The study illustrates that China makes up 75 % of the population. China’s statistics portray reduced poverty levels with approximately 775 million individuals elevated from extreme poverty. These statistics indicate that China is not experiencing extreme poverty and inequality. Moreover, with global or national contrast, China depicts decreased poverty levels within the last four decades. The nation has been progressing and reducing poverty by eradicating inequality within the country. It has introduced policies reducing inequality, such as increasing the minimum wage of taxes for incomes, eradicating agricultural taxes, improving infrastructure, and introducing social protection.The study depicts that the nation focused on addressing consistent unequal distribution of resources, income, and economic prospects and limiting consequences of susceptible economic transformation. This demonstrates that the nation’s reduction of poverty levels and inequality contributed to a rise in its economic development. The reduction of poverty and inequality facilitates increased income which in turn, in turn increases education levels, healthcare, various development prospects, and gender progress. Moreover, individuals experiencing extreme poverty get an opportunity to gain government support without facing insufficient resources (Bank, 2022).

Different Development Strategies

China is popular globally for its investments and support of innovative strategies promoting economic and political developments. During the Chinese celebration of its 70th anniversary, it identified several development strategies that have facilitated its ample success from a poor country to an average-level county. Most researchers indicate the orthodox of Chinese development strategies differing from that of other countries (Raiser, 2019). Before the introduction of the strategy, China had been experiencing adverse changes due to demographics, innovations, climate, urbanization, and inequality. The nation introduced the structural strategy to counteract the negative impacts of the transformations and gain insights that will help achieve their goals. For example, China uses the 13th five-year plan for economic and social development within the country. Their strategy focused on completing average successful prospects beneficial to the entire nation. It set goals to implement strategies of the CPC to attain precise comprehension of essential changes within national and global surroundings. The identification and comprehension of strategies within its markets promoted the formulation of insights that will aid in easily adapting to various changes within its development. This promotes successful achievement of various goals. The strategy sets the county’s goals, identifies crucial objectives, activities, and prospects that will act as a guidance tool for the government. It will help the government and officials in performing their duties towards a common vision (Stiglie, 2016). According to a study done at Columbia University, the strategy has greatly facilitated its growth toward achieving its goal of being a social market. Moreover, it highlights challenges from prior strategies and recommends appropriate prospects for efficient future plans.

Gender

Gender equality and development is a complex issue facing most countries. China has been promoting Gender equality and development, adhering to its constitution that fixates on equality between the two genders. Although it has been difficult to achieve gender progression among other countries, Over the years, China has been implementing and reforming policies toward gender equality. In 2003, Beijing hosted a UN Conference on Women, which was published during its anniversary. Their publication of the UN Conference talks held in Beijing in 2003 addresses and offers a detailed understanding of the country’s regulation on gender equality. It also analyzes measures that have been implemented over the years. According to China, Chinese women contribute to 1/5 of global demographics entailing conventional contribution to gender development and equity. The nation has strategies focused on promoting women’s development. For instance, The Institutional Foundation for Gender Equality and Women’s Development, which promotes women’s status. The foundation ensures that the government has allocated resources to improve the status of women. Moreover, the NWCCW, which was established in 1990, focuses on organizing departments entailing promotion services for leadership (Embassy, 2023). It also offers charity programs for financially challenged women, which reduces poverty and increases their income. The country uses and allocates resources for women’s development and working measures improving gender statistics. The gender statistics depict that women have registered better health. educational, and equality. These systems also monitor and analyze women’s well-being contributing to equal involvement of women in economic activities. The involvement of women in economic activities promotes the alleviation of poverty among women. The study dictates that China considers gender and progress, which promotes the rise of the nation and reduces poverty among women. When women have efficient income, they can easily access healthcare and reduce HIV and pregnancy affiliated infections.

India

India is considered one of the world’s growing economies. Nevertheless, India registered a drop in the GDP in 2023 from 6.6% to 6% (Times, 2023). According to the Economic Times, India’s GDP drop stem from poverty and inequality, high rates of unemployment, gender inequality, poor development strategies, and legal frameworks.

Poverty & Inequality

According to the International Monetary Fund, there are high levels of extreme poverty and inequality within the nation. Although India is considered one of the fastest-growing economies, there are high levels of inequality. They have a massive wealth gap between the rich and the extremely poor. The huge rates of inequality impact the growth of the country since the rich continue gaining resources while the poor fall back into more poverty (Bhaila, 2022). This is a major impact on the fall of a nation since it promotes the transmission of unequal economic and social prospects. Studies indicate that poverty and inequality contribute to disasters. This is because the poor are more susceptible to disasters since they have inadequate access to healthcare, education, insurance, and protection. They can not afford measures to counteract the catastrophes, and they are driven to utilize their minimum resources, leading them to extreme poverty. In India, the high rates of poverty and inequality result in unemployment and wide income gaps. Studies illustrate that there are huge wealth gaps between the rich and poor. This substantially influences financial stability and growth. Moreover, it contributes to less foreign investment, concentrated political and decision-making, and increases risks during disasters (Norris et al., 2015). All the aspects mentioned result in a surge in the informal economy and a decline in capital accumulation leading to excess employment opportunities for inadequate professionals.

Legal Frameworks & Policies

A nation’s legal framework is an essential aspect of every country since it substantially impacts its development. According to the Legal Service India, the nation depicts an inadequate legal framework that has been negatively impacting its rise. For instance, its legal framework enforces rigid trade regulations, has many pending cases, and does not grant the judiciary the power to evaluate its impacts on economic development. Moreover, the judicial system has slow procedures impacting its output and employment in the industry. This legal system leads to a fall in its development since the legal system can not adequately interpret policies. The policies have rigid trade restrictions intended to protect domestic markets, hindering foreign investors and markets. Correspondingly, after COVID-19, their legal system enforced policies that led to a massive economic shutdown, and approximately 10 million people lost their jobs. Moreover, approximately 400 million individuals were vulnerable to poverty after the pandemic (Sinha, 2020). A county’s legal framework is important to its development since it is instrumental in supporting sustainable development and mitigating disputes. The regulations offer justifiable principles important in creating stable environments befitting growth.

Difference Developmental Strategies

Developmental strategies are fundamental to a nation’s management and allocation of resources. They include education, knowledge, and labor advancements. These strategies ensure that a nation identifies, researches, and evaluates various prospects to select the most beneficial prospect. It enables a country to recognize and exploit available and emerging resources. It also helps in providing insights to identify efficient plans (Hanushek, 2020). India utilized the import substitution strategy for its trade policies. Import substitution refers to economic policies that substitute foreign imports with domestic productions. This is not an efficient strategy compared to other trade policies, such as tariff transference. This strategy did not work efficiently in India since there has been a lot of constant changes in the industry, access to supply chains, and the presence of WTO. Although the nation set up the strategy to protect its domestic market from foreign players, it closes off its markets by learning other strategies from the foreign markets. Moreover, this led to the failure to gain revenue to pay for goods acquired from foreign markets. For instance, in 2015 and 2016, the nation registered a decline in its exports due to the introduction of import substitution (Panagariya, 2017). Studies indicate that important substitution is a tried and failed policy that creates inefficient economic developments that do not acquire or have the basis to adequately compete with foreign markets.

Gender

Gender equality is closely affiliated with economic development and financial stability. This can promote private and public organizational performance and reduce income inequality. Research denotes that high levels of gender equality within a nation contribute to increased economic growth by providing better strategies for resource allocation. Concurring to the International Labour Organization, there are high levels of gender pay gaps in India. During the COVID pandemic, women’s pay was reduced compared to their male counterparts. Although India has been constantly introducing policies to mitigate gender inequality and promote progress, the pandemic facilitated pay gaps. For instance, women earn 48% less compared to men; by 2018, they earned 28% less, but the pandemic led to a pay gap increase of 7%. The gender pay gap in India relates to discrimination and undervaluation of women. Moreover, there is also a pay gap between mother’s and non-mother’s wages. This results in unequal prospects for women in the healthcare, education, and others resulting in women’s poor development. Gender inequality and lack of progress in its development impact a country’s GDP. The promotion of gender equality contributes to greater economic development within a country since it promotes and supports opportunities, resources, and choices for both genders.

Recommendations

The presence of poverty and equality among nations and communities is a complex issue that needs to be addressed to promote socio-economic development. Poverty is a socio-economic issue prevalent in most developing and third-world countries; This is because poverty and inequality impact a country’s development. They are portrayed by inadequate access to healthcare, education, shelter, food, education, and high death rates. The countries can introduce strategies focusing on increasing income, introducing policy reforms, expanding employment options, adequate allocation and management of resources, and prioritizing the needs of the poor. The countries can introduce strategies such as

  • Inspiring, comprehensive economic growth for the poor, allowing them to use the materials to increase their incomes- providing agricultural products and credit programs
  • Investing in Technological advancements and efficient management
  • Investing in developing infrastructures such as schools, hospitals, and water systems
  • Offering power to impoverished individuals
  • Introducing institutional and economic reforms creating conditions attracting foreign investors.

Gender and its progress is a vital aspect of promoting socio-economic development.

  • Introducing policy reforms campaigning for women’s development
  • Increasing women’s representation in leadership positions
  • Promoting foundations addressing equal pay for both genders reducing pay gaps
  • Introducing supporting programs empowering women

Development strategies are effective for a country’s political development. Most times, a nation’s legal system fails to implement subjective policies necessary for sustainable development. Countries should implement policies that empower and support development. Most legal frameworks have enforced inflexible regulations hindering its success.

  • Introducing trade liberisations
  • Encouraging the implementation of FDI
  • Introducing promotion and marketing strategies for exports
  • Regulation of government subsidies
  • Introducing floating exchange rate systems and microfinance schemes

References

Aliaga, M. B. (2021). Gender inequality during the pandemic perspectives of women workers in Latin America and the caribbean. International Journal of Labor Research.

Angela Hamks, D. S. (2018). Systematic Inequality. America’s Structural Racism Helped Create the black white wealth Gap. American Progress.

Bank, W. (2022). Four Decades of Poverty Reduction in China. The Docs World Bank.

Cynthia Prather, T. R. (2016). The Impact of Racism on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of African American Women. National Library of Medicine, 664-671.

Embassy, C. (2023). Gender Equality and Women’s Development in China. China Embassy.

Era Dabla-Norris, K. K. (2015). Causes and Consequences of Income Inequality: A Global Perspective. International Monetary Fund.

Eric A. Hanushek, L. W. (2020). Education Knowledge and Capital Growth. The Economics of Education, 171-182.

Flores, A. (2017). How the US Hispanic population is changing. Pew Research Centre.

Goldin, I. (2019). Why do some countries develop and others not? Development in Turbulent Times, 13-30.

Lynch, H. (2023). African Americans. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Brittanica.

Panagariya, A. (2017). The wrong way to Make In India: Why we must resist the temptation to return to import substitution mirage. Times of India- Opinion.

Raiser, M. (2019). Chinese Fits Every Development Model. Brookings Ed.

Report, E. (2019). China’s Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States. EveryCRSReport.com.

Sinha, M. K. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 and the policy response in India. Brookings Edu.

Stiglie, J. E. (2016). Reflection on China’s 13th Five-Year Plan. Columbia University.

Surjit s Bhaila, K. B. (2022). Pandemic,Poverty, and Inequality: Evidence from India. International Monetary Fund.

Times, T. E. (2023, May Tuesday). Economic Times, Indian Times. Retrieved from Economic Times: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/indicators/indias-economic-growth-projected-to-decelerate-to-6-in-2023-from-6-6-in-2022-un/articleshow/99441791.cms?from=mdr

V.V Moiseeb, E. K. (2019). Main Factors of Economic Growth In China. Atlantis Press.

Weis, J. (2021). Many Latino Children Live in Poverty Even in the “Healthiest Counties. Salud America.