Addressing Mental Health In Schools Writing Sample

Children are much more vulnerable to various adverse effects of the environment than adults. Therefore, meeting the needs of a younger generation in the psychological sphere is a crucial element of their successful growth and development. A school period is a time when many boys and girls face considerable mental issues, such as bullying, self-perception, peer pressure, and others. Frequently, the school environment is the trigger of negative emotions. However, at the same time, schools can and should become the settings in which children’s psychological issues would be resolved. Teachers, parents, school administrations, and local authorities need to realize the utmost importance of addressing mental health in schools.

Psychological health is a problem of high concern among adolescents. The majority of psychological issues have their onset during one’s school-age (Liddle et al. 93). Nearly 14% of youths aged between 12 and 17 are reported to experience a mental health problem at least once a year. At the same time, only 65% of them address someone to receive help (Liddle et al. 93). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among school-aged individuals is a growing concern not only in the USA but also globally (O’Reilly et al. 647). Annually, nearly 10-20% of children and adolescents have a mental disorder of some kind, and this number is constantly growing. Furthermore, research findings indicate that about half of adults with mental disorders experienced them earlier at some point, typically, before they turned 15 (O’Reilly et al. 647). These numbers serve as the rationale for paying more attention to schoolchildren’s mental health.

Mental health promotion interventions should be conducted in schools because these institutions serve as a perfect basis for this purpose. Schools are viewed as “pervasive environments” (O’Reilly 648) and “the most critical” venues for promoting the psychiatric health of children and adolescents (Benningfield and Stephan xv). Researchers argue that it is easier to identify mental illnesses at schools and, as a result, it is possible to address them promptly. U.S. children attend school for many years during their developmental period, which makes educational establishments “an unparalleled location for identification and implementation of mental health supports” (Benningfield and Stephan xv). Therefore, apart from focusing on children’s academic achievement, schools should pay attention to learners’ mental health as a crucial indicator of achievement.

Historically, children’s and adolescents’ mental health issues have been addressed at schools with the help of child psychologists. However, it was typically the case that only individual children’s needs were met, based on their behavior’s impact on the process of schooling. Meanwhile, school officials must understand that they are responsible not only for teaching children but also for “producing well-rounded, well-adjusted citizens prepared to live happy, meaningful lives and to contribute successfully to society” (Benningfield and Stephan xv). Benningfield and Stephan argue that it is not enough to engage psychiatrists when schoolchildren become ill or when they have complex mental issues to address (xv). Rather, it is necessary to apply psychiatric practice at various stages, informing children and adolescents about the opportunity to receive help whenever they need it. Integration of schooling and psychological health promotion is, therefore, a prerequisite of children’s successful development not only in learning but also in social accommodation.

One of the best ways to address mental health at schools is through sport. According to Liddle et al., many sports organizations realize their potential in promoting good mental health (93). Taking part in sports activities during school years has a positive effect not only on children’s physical health but also on their social, cognitive, and psychological development (Liddle et al. 93). Frequently, mental disorders are closely associated with one’s physical health, including such issues as cardiovascular disease and obesity. Children suffering from excessive weight have enough problems already, but their peers can exacerbate the situation by making fun of obese classmates and causing them psychological discomfort. Therefore, school-based sports organizations have the potential both to boost children’s self-confidence and enhance their physical health.

Another viable option to implement at school is mindfulness interventions. As Carsley et al. note, children’s wellbeing and mental health can improve considerably with the help of this approach (693). Mindfulness interventions have the potential to relieve depression and anxiety in school students. Kabat-Zinn defines mindfulness as “the act of nonjudgmentally and purposefully paying attention to and being aware of present moment experiences (qtd. in Carsley et al. 693). The inclusion of mindfulness interventions in school programs has the potential to improve students’ attendance problems, decrease dropout rates, and enhance academic performance.

Whereas schools are institutions primarily aimed at giving knowledge to children, these institutions should not neglect their potential to affect children’s mental health. Schools may serve as places where children’s mental issues emerge and develop, but they can also function as locations where psychological problems can be prevented and mitigated. It is, therefore, crucial to address mental health at schools since the timely identification of problems contributes to searching for appropriate treatment measures faster and gaining the best outcomes for children and adolescents.

Works Cited

Benningfield, Margaret M., and Sharon Hoover Stephan. “Integrating Mental Health into Schools to Support Student Success.” Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 24, no. 2, 2015, pp. xv-xvii.

Carsley, Dana, et al. “Effectiveness of Mindfulness Interventions for Mental Health in Schools: A Comprehensive Meta-analysis.” Mindfulness, vol. 9, no. 3, 2018, pp. 693-707.

Liddle, Sarah K., et al. “Addressing Mental Health Through Sport: A Review of Sporting Organizations’ Websites.” Early Intervention in Psychiatry, vol. 11, no. 2, 2016, pp. 93-103.

O’Reilly, Michelle, et al. “Review of Mental Health Promotion Interventions in Schools.” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 53, no. 7, 2018, pp. 647-662.

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Industrial Psychology And Labor Interviews


The branch of industry, or industrial-organizational (I-O), psychology studies employee behavior in the workplace. According to Farndale et al. (2020), it shifts its focus towards studying a company’s culture and working processes to improve business performance and individual behavior. Labor interviews are an integral part of the employee selection process for most organizations. In this regard, applying the principles of I-O psychology can be beneficial in terms of improving job interviews and the overall recruitment process for companies. This paper aims to discuss the changes that industrial psychology brought into labor interviews and the effectiveness of such an approach to human resources management (HRM).

How did Industrial Psychology change this issue?

To begin with, the practice of conducting employment interviews needs to be considered. As Aamodt (2010) states, a job interview is a common method of selecting employees, which can be divided into two types: structured and unstructured. For structured interviews, HR uses specific job-related questions and a standardized evaluation procedure, which allows for conducting a job analysis and estimating whether an applicant is a good fit for the position. In turn, unstructured interviews do not require consistency and a planned set of questions, enabling an interviewer to evaluate applicants at their discretion. Each type has its advantages and disadvantages; however, structuring the process is viewed as superior and more difficult in terms of preparation (Aamodt, 2010). Overall, labor interviews are an efficient practice used to help a recruiter decide between hiring a candidate.

Globally, I-O psychology aims to improve the company’s performance based on employee productivity. As Lefkowitz (2017) states, industrial-organizational psychology deals with such processes as recruitment, training, performance management, employee motivation, and organizational development. The complexity of areas where it can be implemented indicates how effective the strategy is for companies. Applying psychological theories to employee behavior assessment helps a company identify issues and take measures for their correction.

Among other fields of application, the principles of industrial psychology changed the approach to labor interviews since they shifted focus to identifying whether an applicant’s characteristics match the job requirements. The estimation involves a job analysis and requires an accurate description of the tasks an employee will be performing. Industrial psychologists work to improve the company’s HR department and recruitment process (Langer et al., 2020). In particular, they can assist with defining the primary qualifications required for a job, creating job announcements, and developing selection assessments. Hence, it can be stated that industrial psychology is widely applied in labor interviews.

At the same time, I-O psychology can be applied to the onboarding and training of new employees, along with the evaluating of their performance along the way. In particular, job analyses need to be performed to establish the skills and abilities required. Then, the data can be used for the development of training programs and the evaluation of employees’ skills. Therefore, I-O psychology is efficient for different kinds of organizational practices.

What led us to this conclusion?

To understand how industrial psychology changed the method of labor interviews, one needs to have a closer look at the psychological perspective on the recruitment process. As Troth and Guest (2020) mention, “HRM inevitably draws on a range of disciplinary and subdisciplinary perspectives such as industrial relations, strategy, sociology, and economics as well as psychology and OB” (p. 34). Besides, thorough research is required to improve practices related to human resources. I-O psychology is known for its adoption of the scientific model that allows for hypothesis testing (Troth & Guest, 2020). However, it applies both deductive and inductive research methods, offering multiple stakeholders’ perspectives on the issue. As a result, the application of I-O psychology proves to significantly contribute to HRM research and, in turn, labor interviews conducted by companies.

Job specification allows the recruiter to plan employment interviews more efficiently. I-O psychologists are tasked with completing a job analysis and compelling a list of job-related responsibilities and characteristics required from a candidate to perform the job (Troth & Guest, 2020). With this approach, an HR manager is better prepared for interviewing applicants since both the interviewer and the interviewee have a clear understanding of each other’s expectations. According to Troth and Guest (2020), even though some criticism is directed at such a practice for its guitarist and decontextualization of HRM, research shows that I-O psychology helps improve managerial decision‐making. Therefore, a psychological theory has revolutionized employment interviews and the field of HRM.

Can you work well if you don’t use this concept?

Considering the positive effects of I-O psychology on labor interviews, a question arises whether efficient work is possible without the implementation of psychological principles. In this regard, one can compare research findings on automatically evaluated job interviews as opposed to the one assessed by a human rater. As Langer et al. (2020) report, a study was carried out where some participants tasked with answering interview questions were informed that their answers would be evaluated automatically. The findings of such an experiment are significant since they indicated that automatically evaluated interviews might influence the response behavior of interviewees (Langer et al., 2020). In particular, the participants gave shorter answers and felt limited in terms of their performance during the interview. Therefore, the study results indicate that labor interviews can be conducted without human participation; however, I-O psychology principles prove to be more efficient when selecting candidates.

Explain whether or not you agree with this concept and what the reason is

In my opinion, industrial psychology is a powerful tool for recruitment practice. I agree that applying psychological theories is beneficial for a company on all levels, from recruitment to overall organizational development. First of all, psychology is a study that can incorporate its knowledge of human behavior into other fields, including HRM. Besides, recruitment and associated research tend to be multidisciplinary and multilevel. In this regard, I-O psychology can offer a multi-stakeholder perspective on the issue (Troth & Guest, 2020). An effective selection of personnel can improve a company’s performance and corporate culture. Therefore, industrial psychology is widely applied in HRM as it is beneficial for organizational performance.

To summarize, industrial psychology has changed labor interviews and proven to be efficient in the field of HRM. It applies the knowledge of human behavior to various organizational processes such as labor interviews, employee training and motivation, performance management, and structural development. Such an approach is used when conducting job analyses, identifying key tasks and skills required, and creating a description of responsibilities. I-O psychology is concerned with human behavior in the workplace, and it allows for developing practices aimed to improve the company’s productivity and performance.


Aamodt, M. G. (2010). Industrial/organizational psychology: An applied approach (6th ed.). Cengage Learning.

Farndale, E., McDonnell, A., Scholarios, D., & Wilkinson, A. (2020). Human Resource Management Journal: A look to the past, present, and future of the journal and HRM scholarship. Human Resource Management Journal, 30(1), 1-12.

Langer, M., König, C. J., & Hemsing, V. (2020). Is anybody listening? The impact of automatically evaluated job interviews on impression management and applicant reactions. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 35(4), 271-284.

Lefkowitz, J. (2017). Ethics and values in industrial-organizational psychology (2nd ed.). Taylor & Francis.

Troth, A. C., & Guest, D. E. (2020). The case for psychology in human resource management research. Human Resource Management Journal, 30(1), 34-48. Web.

Cyber Violence: Structures And Effectiveness

Recently, social media has become a platform for cyber violence. This issue primarily concerns public health and is associated with adverse mental or physical outcomes. As a result, cyberbullying is one of the top contemporary problems that needs to be approached from different angles to be resolved entirely. The purpose of this paper is to review several articles concerning cyber violence and draw a conclusion about their structures and effectiveness.

The first article is named Cyber violencitsat do we know and where do we go from here? and written by J. Peterson and J. Densley. The report is published in a journal called Aggression and Violent Behaviour in May 2017. The primary method the authors use is the selection and analysis of the already extant materials and sources related to the topic. It denotes that the authors resorted to the second type of research, which represents utilizing the existing articles and library sources to provide evidence-based theory. The material is well structured and has all the organizational components (introduction, main body, and conclusion). The authors introduce the acuteness of cyber violence to the reader, represent individual, group, and environmental explanations of the phenomenon, and investigate different approaches towards the issue (Peterson & Densley, 2017). Therefore, to my mind, this article is wisely structured, and all the elements are interrelated. I find it appealing due to the authors’ ability to apply theoretical material to ground their standpoint.

The second article is named Adolescent cyberbullying: A review of characteristics, prevention, and intervention strategies. It was posted in the journal Aggression and Violent Behavior in 2015 by R. Ang. The methods used in the text include firm reliance on secondary scientific research. The article has a logical organization of paragraphs, and it is easy to navigate throughout the whole paper. The author investigates adolescent cyber violence and thinks of it in terms of adults’ tendency to be involved in high-risk behaviors (Ang, 2015). While explaining the point of view, the author uses different variables associated with cyberbullying and parent-adult behavior to establish the relation between them. In the climax part of the article, the author suggests the strategies for better protection of adolescents online. I found this article quite convincing due to the strong scientific base, the author’s ability to analyze the dependence between the variables, and present the guidelines for the issue which were presented in an understandable manner.

The third article is entitled Cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts: current knowledge and future direction and was issued in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry in 2016 by D. Espelageand J. Hong. The methodology comprises the implementation of scientific articles that include results of surveys and experiments and theoretical underpinnings. The structure of the material seems well organized as it contains the main elements. Though the introduction and the conclusion are missing, the reader can clearly understand that other paragraphs substitute these parts. The authors described the present situation concerning the spread of cyber harassment, explained the extant preventive methods, exemplified the efficacy of school-based cyberbulextentinterventions, and expressed their attitude towards future prevention programs. According to Espelageand and Hong (2016), future researches must attract health care workers to prevent long-term health consequences. Thus, I consider this article relevant as it gives much information to reflect upon and has strong scientific underpinnings.

The fourth article stands under the title Out of the beta phase: Obstacles, challenges, and promising paths in the study of cyber criminology. The paper was issued in 2015 in the International Journal of Cyber Criminology by B. Diamond and M. Bachmann. The article’s organization follows the standards of a scientific article outline; therefore, one may orientate well throughout the paper. The methodology implemented relates to the second type of research, which is based on using extant scientific evidence. The article provides an overview of the present state of cyber criminology and views it from the aspects of teaching, research, and theory. The author suggested that there are still not enough pieces of evidence concerning the behavioral side behind cyber violence. In my opinion, this article is decent as it vividly discloses the study of cyber criminology and significantly explained why cyberbullying will be the main focus of it.

The fifth article is called the Effects of the cyberbullying prevention program media heroes (Medienhelden) on traditional bullying. The paper was published in the journal named Aggressive Behavior in 2016 by several authors: E. Chaux, A. Velásque, A. Schultze-Krumbholz, and H. Scheithauer. The authors used the methods of pretest–post-test quantitative experimental evaluation of the program, and to underpin the results, they use the theoretical base. The paper’s structure is well organized and comprises additional elements for the experiment part. The study focuses on analyzing the spillover effects of the cyber violence preventive programs named Media Heroes on conventional bullying. This prevention program aims to promote empathy, awareness of risks and their repercussions, and strategies that would help to defend the victims. In my opinion, this article may be an excellent example of a research work that other researchers may use to support their evidence.


Ang, R. P. (2015). Adolescent cyberbullying: A review of characteristics, prevention, and intervention strategies. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 25, 35–42. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2015.07.011

Espelage, D. L., & Hong, J. S. (2016). Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 62, 6, 374–380. doi:10.1177/0706743716684793

Chaux, E., Velásquez, A. M., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., & Scheithauer, H. (2016). Effects of the cyberbullying prevention program media heroes (Medienhelden) on traditional bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 42(2), 157–165. doi:10.1002/ab.21637

Diamond, B., & Bachmann, M. (2015). Out of the beta phase: obstacles, challenges, and promising paths in the study of cyber criminology. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 9, 1, 24–34.

Peterson, J., & Densley, J. (2017). Cyber violence: What do we know and where do we go from here? Aggression and Violent Behavior, 34, 193-200.

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