Admirable Crichton Report On Leadership And Management Essay Sample For College


The UK restaurant industry has a variety of leadership styles. Democracy, autocracy, laissez-faire, and participatory leadership styles are among the most common leadership styles in this sector. This paper examines the relationship between the Admirable Crichton company’s leadership style and staff motivation. These leadership styles will be examined for their effect on employee motivation in a number of UK businesses. To ensure the success of various employee motivating tactics, this paper examines how to assist various UK restaurants in effectively implementing the most reliable leadership style. The managerial issues that Admirable Crichton is facing, as well as possible remedies, will be examined in this study.


This part will discuss the strategic issue, challenges, implementation and solution on leadership and management in Admirable Crichton organization.

2.1. Strategic Issues

2.1.1 Management

Factors Affecting Working Performance

Menu Items

The number of hours required to produce a menu depends on its complexity and the number of menu items. Companies will need more time to prepare each item on their menu if they use complicated production techniques. It will take less time for a company to prepare a number of items if the menu is simple.

Consumption of Convenience Food

Prepared foods, such as pre-portioned meats and desserts, take longer to prepare than similar menu items made with pre-packaged ingredients. Convenience foods can help companies save money on labour costs (Fransen et al., 2022.p.440). Other factors must be taken into account as well: Convenience foods can drive up food costs for businesses and have an impact on the final product’s quality.

The second factor, which has an impact on the quality of the product, is not always obvious. It is possible to get consistent, high-quality portions from convenience foods if they are prepared precisely as the manufacturer recommends.

Types of Providers

When compared to a fast-food joint or a cafeteria-style operation, a restaurant serving more complicated dishes will require more staff. In addition, a restaurant’s staff will be paid more, on average, if they have more experience preparing the restaurant’s more complex dishes.

Size of Meals as well as the Number of Mealtimes

As the volume of business increases, so does the need for labor. Each restaurant has a bare-bones personnel need, below which it will be unable to function. The labor costs will be extremely high if the facility serves fewer clients than it can handle with this bare-bones staffing level (Ayachit and Chitta, 2022.p.132).

Restaurant productivity can be affected by the number of meal periods if various menus need set-up and tear-down time for each meal period. Changing menus also means adding more items to the menu, which increases the amount of labor required to prepare them.

Hours Worked and the Work Environment

The discomfort and stress caused by a hot, humid, and noisy environment may significantly impact performance. Working long hours without taking adequate breaks might have a negative impact on productivity (Kars-Unluoglu et al., 2022). If a company is understaffed, the same holds true. Having too few employees forces everyone else to work longer or harder, resulting in fatigued workers and decreased output.

Productivity Goals & Objectives

In order to determine the number of employees required, it is necessary to first define productivity standards. The time it takes to create food of the acceptable quality must be taken into account while setting these requirements (Tuomi et al., 2022). The methods specified by standard recipes form the basis of the standards.

Labour dollars or labour hours are used to calculate productivity benchmarks. A company’s productivity is measured in terms of the amount of money it costs to produce a specific amount of revenue in terms of wages. To make comparisons easier, budgets and financial accounts are expressed in dollars, which is an advantage of this technique. Calculating the labour dollars, on the other hand, can take a long time because of the wide range of wage and salary scales. Because salaries are based on the number of hours worked, it is still necessary to compute labour hours.

2.1.2 Based on Food Service

Disruption in the flow of goods

Each and every one of the industry’s players is reliant on its suppliers. Natural disasters, infrastructural issues, and price spikes can all disrupt that supply chain in a matter of minutes. Even a single supplier loss can have a significant impact on product quality and reliability and eat away at the bottom line of a firm (Ekwugha, 2022p.37). In the event of a major supply line breakdown, business revenue and additional expenses can both be covered by business interruption insurance.

Failure of a piece of equipment

When a company’s equipment fails, the company’s operations are put on hold. The consequences of this could include production and supply lines being disrupted, employees being dissatisfied, damaged food, and a plethora of other concerns (White et al., 2022). Equipment failure insurance can cover technical failures and damage caused by power shocks, operator mistake, and other problems. To ensure that the company has the cash to get back up and running, this insurance, along with business interruption insurance, should be considered.

Infectiousness and decomposition

Risks that a corporation cannot control, such as power outages, might result in food contamination or deterioration, resulting in substantial financial losses. Spoilage insurance is a good idea.

Food recalls and safety

The CDC estimates that foodborne illness causes 49 million illnesses in the United States each year, leading to 128,000 hospitalizations and 4,000 fatalities (He et al., 2022). A severe and potentially costly risk that a corporation face is this one. Liability insurance for product recalls can shield a firm from lawsuits, loss of market share, and bad publicity, as well as assist it prepare for the expenses of recalling a product, compensation for other companies’ recall costs, and other possible liabilities (Kim et al., 2022.p173).

Cyber attacks

Even in the food industry, cybercrime is a growing concern that must be addressed. Due to the number of personal and financial data they maintain on file, businesses like eateries, such as fast-food establishments, are particularly vulnerable. To clean up the wreckage left by computer viruses and hackers can be expensive for companies in the long run (Garnett and Balmford, 2022.p2) Forensic examination, notification, and other costs associated with data breaches are all covered by cyber-liability insurance. Legal and public relations services are also included.

2.1.3 Based on parties and design

New competition

New companies are entering the consulting sector, spurred on by cutting-edge technological advancements that allow them to accomplish more with less. According to Deltek’s poll, 55% of CEOs responded that managing increasing industry rivalry and 33% of COOs said “identifying competitive advantage” were among their top three objectives for the next five years (Self et al., 2022.p113).

Competitive pressure isn’t just coming from boutiques and specialised firms. An increasing number of independent consultants is also a big competitive advantage. There are currently more than 2 million freelancers in the United Kingdom, and that number is expected to keep rising. Professional services, consulting, and project management make up the bulk of these consultants’ work (Yamoah et al., 2022. p.108388). Due to their lower overhead than larger consultancies and their ability to charge significantly less than their established counterparts, they are increasing pressure on prices.

Freelancer portals like Upwork, People Per Hour, Talmix, and Comatch have fueled the rapid development of independent consultants. For example, freelancers in the South Asian region might interact with clients in Europe via these portals, which are connecting millions of experts worldwide (Mrusek et al., 2022.p330). A lucrative element of many consultancies’ previous business was acting as an intermediary. This eliminates the necessity for that Appendices 1.

The biggest players in the market are simply getting bigger. The top ten consulting firms in the world now account for 56% of the market, while the top 200 businesses account for about 80%. In recent years, both percentages have risen, thanks to the Big Four and the increasing number of transactions in the business as a method of expansion (Sorokina et al., 2022.p.100688). The result is a “squeezed middle” in the professional services market, where firms that are both too large and too small to operate at the top of the food chain are under increasing strain.

Automation is also allowing companies to manage more of their difficult problems in-house, thanks to the advent of automation. In addition, this minimizes the need for professional services companies to outsource. Customers can get a better understanding of how their profession works for less money, and they can do it in real time more and more. Additionally, technology is taking on more of professional services organizations’ lower-level jobs – a trend that will likely continue across the ecosystem.

The automation of advisory work may become even more of a reality with the emergence of artificial intelligence. It is now possible for a computer to carry out the same tasks as a team of highly skilled junior analysts within minutes. Celonis, for example, a German software company specializing in process mining, is causing a stir in the consulting market for processes. Supply chain and manufacturing process inefficiencies are typically identified by management consultants using software developed by the company.

Project complexity

Companies in the consulting industry face a gradually difficult macro-environment in which to continue to give the finest advise. It’s complicated by the fact that businesses are increasingly completing projects in other countries, often in partnership with subcontractors or other businesses outside of their corporate structure (Kang et al., 2022 p.130626). Delivering a project isn’t the problem; the task is completing faster, more accurately, and on a tighter budget while still meeting the needs of the customers.

In addition, clients are becoming more aware of their initiatives and requesting greater control. Stakeholders may now access project information on the go thanks to mobile technology, which has made a huge impact on the industry (White et al., 2022). There is a greater need than ever for project managers to keep up with the ever-changing data landscape.

In addition, there is a price to pay for the intricacy of the project. Resourcing volatility has increased as a result, making it more difficult for project managers to plan in development. Changes that come up unexpectedly late in the course of a project can put a company’s finances at danger Appendices 2. 

At least 52% of project management consultants polled expect the complexity of projects to be the biggest issue for project managers in the next five years. According to research conducted by executives, project complexity is the top operational problem that the organization expects to face over the next five years (Maduka-Eze et al., 2022.p.12). Customers must have a thorough grasp of their projects in terms of estimated costs, timelines, risk, resource requirements, and revenues in order to deal with the complexity. This enables teams to allocate their resources in the most efficient manner possible.

2.2. Challenges

2.2.1 Leadership

On March 15, 2020, the global epidemic of coronavirus dramatically changed the UK foodservice business forever. Along with the harrowing death toll, the stutter-stop business openings and closings required by states and municipalities, and the spiraling job loss numbers, COVID-19 left many UK restaurant companies—especially full-service operators—with bottom lines smaller than the period that ends this sentence..

In a group, the role of the leader is critical. A competent supervisor is a leader who can bring the team together and create an environment in which the team can work together successfully. A leader is a representative of management, a role model, a problem solver, a motivator, and someone who oversees the day-to-day activities.

It is not necessary for a group leader to undertake all of these duties on a continuous basis. Behind-the-scenes leaders can be extremely effective. They quietly guide the group, sharing the burdens and benefits of leadership.

That doesn’t imply they aren’t doing anything, however. They put up considerable effort to “catch people doing things well” and to recognize those individuals. Taking into account everyone’s input, they work collaboratively to reach a common goal. As a result, they know when it’s time to step in and take control.

Employees might be influenced by a strong leader’s ability to provide ideas and guide conversation. All supervisors have lawful power, which is the authority of being a boss, at their disposal. Effective leaders have the ability to influence and persuade others on top of their authority. If the employee believes the boss is trustworthy and deserving of their respect, they will have this power.

Even though employees are required to comply with orders from higher up, they will go above and beyond for someone who has clout. A supervisor must, of course, have both authority and sway. Work can’t be done effectively if the supervisor doesn’t have the authority to make judgments. That person will lose the respect and acceptability that comes with being able to have an impact.

Instead of making employees feel at ease and making the workplace a nice place to work, supervisors should focus on the group’s responsibilities and make sure they get done. Unless the company’s owner gets the required performance, the company will not succeed. Both the bottom line and the quality of the client experience will take a hit. Even if the organization expects its employees to be happy, they will have no pride in their work if they are not. Morale will be affected.

2.2.2 Based on Management


Consulting businesses are tasked with handling a large amount of sensitive information about their clients. There is a wide range of information here, from strategic to commercial to personal data, which is utilized for anything from strategic discussions to M&A transactions (employee data as part of reorganisation and cost-cutting exercises). Information of this importance might have disastrous consequences if it is misused (San Juan et al., 2022). As a result, consultants face a particularly grave risk from data breaches because they are such clear targets for hackers.

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that went into effect last year in Europe, for example, increased the emphasis on cybersecurity. As well as suffering significant financial penalties, the unfavorable publicity would have a negative impact on the businesses’ reputations and their ability to secure future contracts. The penalties of noncompliance with GDPR have already been felt by a number of consulting firms. As a result, the company owes hundreds of thousands of pounds in fines and has been barred from pursuing new business opportunities in the industry.

2.3. Solutions

2.3.1 Leadership

Consider the company’s personality and the demands of its employees when deciding on a style for a given situation. Authoritarian leaders, for example, may try to project a more collaborative image. Despite the fact that a choice has been made, they make it appear as if they are conferring with others.

2.3.2 SWOT Analysis

People’s sluggishness has been exacerbated by technology, which has led them to seek for ease and convenience in everything. The process of going shopping and finding a place to eat used to take a long time. Customers can purchase food from their smartphones and have it delivered to their homes via an internet service. It makes things faster and gives individuals more options.

A lot of people and businesses have been interested in it because it provides an alternative for convenience and quickness that consumers seek. According to Statista, the UK’s online meal delivery industry has generated an estimated $486 million in sales. There will be an 8.3 percent increase in sales by the end of 2023, with a market share of 6703 million dollars in the United Kingdom (Simons et al., 2022).


Extensive experience and a well-established method of delivery

An exceptional cook, decent packaging, and an efficient delivery system are all that are required for a company to provide a quality product. The advantages of doing business with a corporation are as follows. Because we live in a time where everyone is extremely busy and wants things to be as easy as possible. People will favour a company’s goods if it offers high-quality food that tastes great and is delivered on time.

Recognized Trademark

Since they’ve been in the hotel and restaurant business for a long time, a well-known company’s brand would be beneficial when they open their internet business. Because of the prices and flavors of their items, their brand would be instantly recognizable. Rather than wasting time looking into other options, they’ll just order it and have it delivered.

Lower Costs

To attract price-conscious customers, a new company would benefit from low prices. Because of the low rates, businesses will have to perform extensive research in order to locate the most cost-effective suppliers; this will not be an easy task. After that, they’ll be able to provide discounted prices on company goods. Any other way, companies won’t have the resources, which means they shouldn’t be offering low prices out of their own pockets.

Fresh Food

All of us enjoy home-cooked meals. In the case of an online food delivery business that provides consumers with fresh meals. Many people, particularly those who have used other internet services in the past, would then be interested. A lot of referrals will come if they are able to provide the advertised service.

Modified Menu

The Modified Menu company’s menu list should not have only a few items. People should be able to choose from a number of things on the menu. A company’s brand would benefit from a tailored menu. When people see a selection of products on the company’s website, they assume that it is a well-known brand.


Limited Capacity

Starting an online food delivery service is obviously less expensive than building a hotel. There is no guarantee that the service would be free. Advertising, billboards, and online adverts would necessitate financial resources on the part of the business. Referral and word-of-mouth marketing is good, but it won’t generate a lot of sales for company firm. To reach a larger audience, the company would need paid media techniques.

Costly Food

Adding value-added costs to the cost of food items has made them more expensive. The ultimate pricing of the product doesn’t give the corporation much of a price edge over its competitors. It will be tough for the new brand of the company to entice the price-conscious market if it offers the same food items with the same taste as the old brand. What the corporation needs is a lower-cost supplier so that it may provide lower prices to its customers.

High turnover

It’s rare for someone to work in a meal delivery service for the remainder of their lives. In-between-jobs and part-timers tend to fill these positions. As soon as a better chance arises, they quit their food delivery employment promptly. For this reason, there are a lot of reasons why people don’t want to work in the construction industry.

Lack of Public Confidence

Customers can’t see what’s going on in the kitchen when they order food online. People are less likely to put their faith in new establishments if they aren’t able to verify the quality of the ingredients.

The well-known hotels, on the other hand, have their own kitchens and quality systems. For convenience, they would always go to the stores they had previously visited.


Food Trucks and Wagons

Since individuals have trust difficulties, food trucks and wagons are a perfect option for new internet food delivery firms. Company’s trust concerns can be reduced if they use food trucks to present their products and meet customers face-to-face. People have a better idea of the type of firm they’re dealing with when they see how the kitchen is run.

Alliances with Bars

Unless a corporation forms an association with a bar or club to provide other food and beverage options, those establishments will only serve alcoholic beverages. Once the corporation had that ability, they could then turn the bars into dinners. The company’s sales would rise as a result of the additional service, which would attract new clients.

Expansion throughout the United Kingdom

If a company is already performing well in one city, it has a solid reputation and enough money to continue its operations elsewhere. The corporation should then establish additional locations throughout the country. Marketing campaigns in other cities can benefit from the positive feedback from delighted customers.

As long as the company is already performing well in one place, it is quite likely that it will be able to quickly acquire new clients in other cities. A successful company should continue to grow to keep up with demand.

Improved Customer Service

People appreciate and seek for neat and clean service in their dining experience. Goodwill can be generated if the firm provides them with the same high-quality food service that the company promotes. Consumers will be more likely to stick with a company’s brand if it has this quality.


All kinds of public gathering places, such as hotels and restaurants, have been decimated by the pandemic. For internet meal delivery companies, this presents an opportunity for growth. It’s the only alternative for folks who can’t leave their homes because they can’t go out in public.


Competition’s Lower Prices

It’s possible that one of the company’s competitors has discovered some low-cost suppliers that are selling the identical products for a cheaper price. In that case, the company’s survival would be in risk unless it provided a distinctive service or product that set it apart from competitors. When competitors’ prices are lower, they can easily take advantage of price-conscious customers. Businesses must choose between finding new, low-cost suppliers and seeking out innovative ways to differentiate their products.

Food Contaminated

If the firm’s food is tainted and everyone becomes sick at once, it’s not something the corporation wants to happen. Because it would have a detrimental impact on the company’s image and provoke public alarm. Even if it happens all at once, no one will order company meal delivery again. In the end, it doesn’t matter how long the company has been there.

This may spell doom for a start-up’s business if it happens to one of its new brands. Even if they’re an established brand, they’ll have to admit their error, provide an apology to the public, and foot the money for the victims’ medical expenditures. The public would only accept their apologies if they were genuine.

Receding Poverty Line

Since of the current pandemic conditions, economies around the world are experiencing a difficult time. Our nation’s unemployment rate is at its highest point in recent memory (Dahl et al., 2022.p.1269). As a result, less money is available for customers to spend on high-priced meals. People are scarcely able to put food on the table for themselves.


People are spending their funds since they don’t have jobs. There are a lot of players in the online takeaway and meal delivery business. Online businesses are finding it increasingly challenging to stand out from the crowd while still maintaining reasonable pricing.

2.4. Implementation

In order to achieve successful implementation of EBPs, leaders must employ a set of influencing behaviours known as “implementation leadership.” Workers are motivated by what they anticipate in terms of incentives, according to Vroom Expectancy Theory (Brown et al., 2022.p192). The idea uses operant conditioning to support its claims. Employees are focused on the financial incentives. Employees will work harder to achieve a decent reward if it is worth their while. Efforts like this led to excellent results. Employees, on the other hand, want compensation in the form of non-cash benefits. Engagement in major choices, fast and precise input from management, and particular acknowledgment and learning and development are all part of this.

It’s inevitable that an organization will need to change, but the process of doing so might be harmful. For any reason the employee does not want to give up his or her previous job for a new one (Hayes, 2022). Fear of losing his or her place in the organization may be a factor in the reluctance. If the adjustment is implemented, some employees will feel they have lost something important in their lives. It is also imperative that each employee be given the necessary training prior to a change in the company’s structure.


Leadership in the UK can be taught by experience and practice, but it requires greater independence from top leaders who should delegate authority throughout the organization and let employees at all levels to make proper judgments. For those who might take a risk, the allocation of duty will provide them the opportunity to see what might happen if things go awry. Collective intelligence and flexibility, as well as robustness and resiliency of the firm through time, can be increased by harnessing wisdom from those who are not traditionally involved in making decisions.

Admirable Crichton’s choice of leadership styles primarily relies on the success of management that a certain leadership style might offer. There is a communication gap when autocratic leadership is used since employees are not enabled to engage in any decision-making process. The degree of motivation of employees in the UK restaurant industry, which is particularly sensitive to market dynamics, may therefore be affected by the use of various leadership styles.


Individualism in the context of a multi-cultural setting can help build a flexible group culture and a feigned community link between the parties operating within a set of assumptions. Individualism is dynamic only if the score is really low. It is therefore important to show respect to everyone, promote unity by repressing negative attitudes, and gradually introduce changes without interfering with the current traditions of the organization.


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Appendices 1

Size of the UK consulting industry

Appendices 2

Project complexity in the consulting industry

Essay On African Literature Free Essay

Amnesty by Nadine Gordimer is known for portraying humanity during apartheid in a non-sentimental manner. The narrative is of a young South African lady with deep compassion, who tells the account of her husband’s release from incarceration. The novel proceeds to explore how politics affects people’s way of living in South Africa.The actual influence of politics on amnesty writing, according to author Gordimer, is the influence of politics transition, racism and Love.

The narrative depicts the significant racial divide that afflicted South Africa during the apartheid era. The storyteller depicts how suppressed the residents of South Africa were, particularly the women, and how they were harmed physically and emotionally. In regards to human rights, Gordimer distinguishes between the individual and the political.

Hello Esther, in response to apartheid in South Africa, there findings to this narrative that show how humanism and theo-centric pictures were used to symbolically express societal distress. Despite this, the two complementary distinct therapies are ultimately the similar pain hidden under cultural and social representations.

Hello Patience, through this narration, I was able to have a glimpse of how life was in South Africa during apartheid. In reaction to this pain, there arose collective performance in the shape of political acts by social entities, which were conducted by the Labor Union. These acts follow socio-cultural steps such as collecting, coordinating, protesting, lectures, protests, tolerating or portraying sorrow, and disseminating social knowledge to come to the conclusion that the apartheid regime is the source of all sorts of misery they feel.

Nadine Gordimer begins the story by introducing the storyteller in a mood of anticipation awaiting her partner’s homecoming. The storyteller talks of her spouse in a compassionate and supportive way, demonstrating her feelings for him to the readers. The reader understands of her devoted compassion for her spouse as he isolates himself away from her for his purpose as the tale continues. One instance is the shift in his demeanor upon his release from detention. They “used to whisper a long time,” the narrator observes, but they no longer hold late-night discussions (Colleran 237-245). His actions have an impact on their main vital component of marital relationship which is communication.

Following his homecoming, the storyteller frequently detects her partner’s uneasiness at nighttime over “things [she] doesn’t know and [she] doesn’t want to] disturb him with discussion.” Even his everyday talks with his partner have lost their appeal for him. When the storyteller tells her partner about the years she passed having to wait for him, he answers with a smile and a node, having a handful of concerns, then standing up and stretching,” which she understands to mean “it’s enough.” This transformation not only have an impact on his marriage, but it also has an impact on his bond with his daughter (Colleran 240). The narrator was startled when the partner, whose is unidentified, returns home in good health. Everybody was content, with exception of their daughter, who had never met his father. Their partnership is on the point of dissolving due to this problem.

The story centers on black individuals who are persecuted, stigmatized against their color, and denied the equal civil opportunities and rights compared to the whites residents. This isolation causes interpersonal anguish, which evolves into cultural trauma as a consequence of visual forms or brain activities that reflect objects experience using linguistic representations. “Neither my parents nor I have any money…. No money is earned here.” Non-white people are forced to live in abject degradation. The governing government has complete control over every area of their life. Most racial racism, systemic racism, and government repression are perpetrated using civil unrest. This is evident in this narrative, when the storyteller acknowledges the plight of her poor rural household. As a result, we might presume that the relative ‘s situation is symbolic of the South African society’s overall hardship (Derrida and Kamuf 290-299). Such hardship, for example—despite the fact that his family and brother are depicted as peasants laboring on property owned by Boers or white landlords, their pay are beyond burnt by fire. Despite this, they stayed mute, as though they were part of a tradition of concealment about the situation they were going through. It seemed as though the landowners’ unequal handling on their native homelands was routine.

While the narrators father and brother, worked for landowners, the narrator’s mother was also a farmer and cared for a variety of animals, including farm animals like cattle, as well as cultivating a patch of farmland that is “authorized” to be handled by government municipalities. Vegetables are grown on the farm. It’s only that “no money is produced” from these attempts to meet their necessities (Derrida and Kamuf 290-299). which means that , farming provides simply enough supply to meet their everyday consumption. Aside from this melancholy, the story of “being permitted to graze some cattle and farm a portion of farmland” is fascinating to investigate. As contrasted to whatever the narrators father and brothers go through, this story portrays a much humane vision of pain. The two supposedly distinct remedies, on the other hand, are ultimately the equivalent pain hidden by cultural and social symbolism.

Gordimer tells the narrative of apartheid from the eyes of a young South African lady who lives with her relatives in deplorable circumstances. The speaker, who remains anonymous, serves as a gardener on property owned by white settlers. Aside from that, she has an additional occupation for the man who had initially engaged her but had gone to serve at a construction company in town (Jeffrey). When the narrators partner is actively participated in a labor union or labor union, coordinating and mobilizing a large number of employees, the woman’s expectations are shattered. Due to political involvement, he found himself in trial and eventually jailed on an island distant offshore. They couldn’t see one other until he was liberated a few years afterwards.

As a result, apartheid has become the primary trauma in causing societal misery and forming South Africa’s postmodern community. Apartheid is an idea that flows through the mind like awareness. People and families cannot just be “conscious” while also being “aware of.” Awareness is fully mindful of something, and this was done on purpose. Apartheid is the division of race groups based on the belief that every race has its own fate, background, faith, tradition, ethics, and so forth, and that they must be divided as a result. Imperialism not only acknowledged the presence of tribes, but also strengthened and divided them. Violence is widespread and national in scope (Jeffrey). Jointly encountered pain in community and the government might obfuscate the significance of an unique personality or togetherness. These experiences become profoundly embedded in African culture as a result of a systematic and strong cultural and social dynamic, producing communal or historical trauma.

Based on the discussion and evaluation shown previously, it is considered that Nadine Gordimer’s short tale “Amnesty” clearly depicts the profound racial differences that plagued South Africa during the apartheid era. She demonstrates how the inhabitants of South Africa are struggling either psychologically and physically using a protagonist, who is represented by a young lady. By using symbolic depictions of societal pain, Gordimer attempts to illustrate a different perspective of the inverse correlation between the black population and the few white colonial. The native black individuals were therefore drawn into the communal trauma as a result of their agony. They are impoverished despite their best intentions. The white dictatorship, which is in authority via civil unrest, racial prejudice, stigmatization, and government repression, has total authority over all elements of their life.

Societal post structuralism arises as a result of collaborative human sociopolitical acts, as exemplified by the Workers Union. Distress that had before been expressed metaphorically started to acquire sympathy and consideration using a range of communal activities such as assembling, coordinating, riots, statements, and marches. This administrative activity grew not just for the advantage of the employees, but also as an ethical, civic, and sociological force for the community members, including both villages and cities. To put it another way, they operate as sociological actors. This organization has the ability to accept, express, and disseminate social consciousness to the point in which the apartheid regime is the source of all sorts of public misery.

Work Cited

Colleran, Jeanne. “Archive Of Apartheid: Nadine Gordimer’S Short Fiction At The End Of The Interregnum.” The Later Fiction of Nadine Gordimer (1993): 237-245. Web. 19 Feb. 2022.

Derrida, Jacques, and Peggy Kamuf. “Racism’s Last Word.” Critical Inquiry 12.1 (1985): 290-299. Web. 19 Feb. 2022.

Jeffrey, Alexander. “Trauma: A Social Theory..” Trauma: A Social Theory. (2012): n. pag. Print.

Annotated Biography On Air Pollution And Healthcare Free Sample

Usman, M., Ma, Z., Wasif Zafar, M., Haseeb, A., & Ashraf, R. U. (2019). Are air pollution, economic and non-economic factors associated with per capita health expenditures? Evidence from emerging economies. International journal of environmental research and public health16(11), 1967.

Usman et al. (2019) found that Carbon (iv) oxide (CO2) production, the index of environment, and financial and non-aspects are reviewed in this article. In rising countries, governments and public healthcare officials face a significant problem due to the fast rise in healthcare costs caused by overall environmental degradation, extensive economic activity, and other social variables. According to the authors, air pollution is the primary social and ecological cost. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most common greenhouse gas (GHG) in the air causing environmental damage and endangering public health. I believe this journal provides excellent information that ties air pollution and healthcare in a seemingly endless circle in which air pollution increases healthcare cost and healthcare increase air pollution because of it’s release of greenhouse gases. I think this can tie will tie well with my presentation.

Slama, A., Śliwczyński, A., Woźnica, J., Zdrolik, M., Wiśnicki, B., Kubajek, J., … & Franek, E. (2019). Impact of air pollution on hospital admissions with a focus on respiratory diseases: a time-series multi-city analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research26(17), 16998-17009.

Slama and colleagues (2019) argue that it is well accepted that air pollution harms human health. Salma et al., 2019 points out that studies conducted around the world have found links between rising pollution levels and various diseases, including asthma, increased COPD exacerbations, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases—including stroke—in the respiratory tract. Air pollution is harming people’s respiratory systems, as seen by the rise in hospitalizations. I think this article can be of great use if compared to another article that explains how an increase in air pollution is increases in hospitalization. Which thus increases air pollution because of the need for more hospitals.

Cheung, C. W., He, G., & Pan, Y. (2020). Mitigating the air pollution effect? The remarkable decline in the pollution-mortality relationship in Hong Kong. Journal of environmental economics and management101, 102316.

Because the effects of pollution on vulnerable people are more severe in places without a hospital with Accident and Emergency services, Cheung et al. (2020) emphasizes the need for immediate medical attention in averting pollution-related mortality. There are several other possibilities, such as smoking, a non-linear dose-response, and avoidance behavior. A well-established medical system may mitigate the immediate health effects of air pollution. As the authors pointed out, those who have quick access to medical treatment in case of an emergency are less vulnerable to the impact of air pollution. This article provides correlations between areas that have hospitals and those that do not. These correlations significantly impact how care is provided to vulnerable people affected by air pollution. I can use this as a medium to possibly compare and contrast how the air pollution is significantly higher or lower in areas that have hospitals in my presentation

Coccia, M. (2021). High health expenditures and low exposure of population to air pollution as critical factors that can reduce fatality rate in COVID-19 pandemic crisis: a global analysis. Environmental Research199, 111339.

According to Coccia (2021), it is possible to reduce the number of people who die from infectious diseases in society, according to Coccia, via planning for the healthcare sector and the environment. Considering that a significant part of the population is above the age of sixty-five, the authors believe that high health expenditures may be helpful in terms of decreasing disease mortality in the future. This article provides excellent information in regards to what is currently happening in the environment now. I can use this as a means to explain how because air pollution is the cause of many respiratory illnesses such as COVID-19, which increases hospital admission, all the while increasing greenhouse emission. Thus, causing a revolving door effect between the two. I believe this can also be a great article to use as a way to provide conclusive evidence on how air pollution and healthcare work hand in hand.