Adolescence, Gender Norms And Sexual And Reproductive Health Writing Sample

Adolescence is the transitional period between childhood and maturity, and its definition has long been a mystery. Adolescence comprises both biological development and substantial social role shifts, which have both evolved over the previous century. Earlier puberty has expedited the commencement of adolescence in practically all populations, while the awareness of ongoing development has raised the endpoint age far into the 20s (Berman et al., 2021). Delay in role transitions, such as finishing school, getting married, and starting a family, is also changing people’s ideas about when adulthood really starts. At a time when new societal influences, such as technology and media, are impacting health and well-being throughout these years, it’s possible that the era between adulthood and childhood now comprises a larger share of the lifespan than it ever has. Adolescence must be defined broadly and inclusively if laws, social policies, and service systems are to be developed in a way that is developmentally appropriate. Rather than using the age range of 10–19, a definition of 10–24 years is better in line with adolescent development and common conceptions of this life stage, making it easier to expand investments across more contexts (Sawyer et al., 2018). Specifically, while examining teenagers, the emphasis will be on gender norms and roles, the implications of these norms and roles on individual, reproductive and sexual health, gender relations, and how to address these norms and roles in youth programs.

We define gender roles in our society by how we are expected to act and express ourselves based on our gender identification. Dressing in typically feminine ways, being polite and obedient, and being loving and compassionate are all expected of girls and women as a general norm Men are generally judged on their power and violence. Despite the fact that gender roles are anticipated in almost every society, ethnicity, and culture, they may differ widely from one group to the next. Even within the same civilization, they may evolve. As an example, in the United States, pink was traditionally seen as a manly hue, whilst blue was seen as a feminine one. Gender roles have a negative effect on society and families. A study clarifies that when it comes to a child’s development, gender biased parenting may have a long-term impact (Molu et al., 2018). Gender stereotyping is more prevalent in the minds of children who grow up in households where gender norms are still strictly observed.

Gender norms are society’s unwritten and explicit guidelines for how girls, boys, women, and men are expected to behave, look, think, and feel. As a result, no one can say that gender norms are ever static or universal. Some conventions, such as the one that children should not smoke, are beneficial. Inequality is the result of a different set of standards. Girls are more likely than males to do household activities, such as cleaning the house or doing the laundry. Most of the children who have to do housework for at least 21 hours a week are girls, which might have a severe influence on their education. Similarly, women put in two to ten times as much time caring for others and doing household chores uncompensated as men do. Armed groups, on the other hand, are more likely to target men and boys for active combat roles because masculinity is associated with protecting families and communities.

Adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) constitutes a significant portion of the worldwide burden of sexual ill health among adolescents. International organizations are increasingly concentrating on ASRH improvement and programmatic financing, despite the fact that it was traditionally disregarded. Various legal instruments, including the UN General Assembly Special Session on Children in 2002, and the Committee of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 2003, recognize the unique health and development needs of adolescents and young people. Some other supporting instruments include CEDAW and the right to health, that is included in multiple international agreements such as Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Millennium Development Goals, that include markers to decrease pregnancy rates among 15–19 year olds and increase HIV knowledge among young people.

Men and women are governed by these gender norms and roles, which dictate what is acceptable and what is not. In most countries, traditions tend to place more importance on men than women, which legitimizes patriarchy and hides its inequity. These gender norms and roles may have impact on sexual and reproductive outcomes in adolescents. In six cities around the world (Nairobi in Kenya, Baltimore in the United States, Shanghai in China, Ghent in Belgium, Asy’t in Egypt, and Ile Ife in Nigeria), researchers studied young teenagers (10-14-year-olds), and found that there are distinct expectations for boys and girls as they enter puberty (Mmari et al., 2018). When it comes to their looks, movement, and access to knowledge, girls’ worlds are constrained, whereas males’ worlds grow. Young women are expected to be virgins, symbolize family or clan honor and submissive in intimate relationships and not have any knowledge or information on the nature or process of reproduction in various cultures throughout the world.

Because of gender roles and norms, adolescent girls are at risk for getting sexually transmitted diseases. For the most part, adolescent girls are underserved when it comes to sexual health education, and this is especially true when it comes to reproductive health services (George et al., 2020). Hazardous sex is also more likely to occur when individuals have less control over their reproductive and sexual decisions. In addition, the risk of unsafe sex is heightened by the high risk of sexual assault and violence in the close relationships of young girls. They are also explicitly target of harmful customs like child marriage and, in certain countries, female genital mutilation.

When individuals embrace gender roles and norms as their own gender identities, sex variations in behavior are created as a result. Masculine and feminine identities govern behavior via self-regulatory mechanisms. In other words, individuals use their gender identification as a personal standard against which to assess and steer their actions and decisions.

The study (Salgado et al., 2019) highlighted various areas where gender inequalities and societal norms linked with conventional masculinity had a negative impact on men’s health, such as greater risk-taking, adherence to the breadwinner model, and a pervasive stigma associated with seeking health care.

Efforts to combat gender inequity and negative gender stereotypes should be implemented in youth programs. The following are examples of possible interventions. “Know your rights” campaigns aimed at educating the public about their legal rights and the options available to them in the event of human rights breaches are known as “legal literacy” initiatives. In the case of discrimination and human rights abuses on the basis of sexual orientation or sexual identity, legal assistance services are available to assist in accessing remedies. Assisting law enforcement in the fight against sexual violence against sex workers and transgender people by working together to combat gender-based violence. A similar importance should be accorded to initiatives aimed at empowering young women and girls and improving their socioeconomic conditions. They might include the following. Building leadership and community mobilization in the AGYW ( Adolescent Girls and Young Women) community and among young men, in order to increase their involvement in confronting detrimental gender stereotypes. Cash transfers and social subsidies to cover basic survival requirements, keep females in school, and discourage Adolescent Girls and Young Women from engaging into transactional sex or making partner choices based on economic necessity are all part of the strategy. efforts to retain girls in school, minimize early marriages, and improve possibilities for Adolescent Girls and Young Women are supported.

Individuals must cease discriminating and categorizing others according to their gender in order for society to reach its ultimate objective of complete gender equality. Adolescents must be taught and educated about the importance of possessing characteristics and activities that are uniquely human, rather than male or female. Only by abolishing gender norms and roles can a society attain equality between men and women.


George, A. S., Amin, A., de Abreu Lopes, C. M., & Ravindran, T. S. (2020). Structural determinants of gender inequality: why they matter for adolescent girls’ sexual and reproductive health. bmj368.

Mmari, K., Moreau, C., Gibbs, S. E., De Meyer, S., Michielsen, K., Kabiru, C. W., … & El-Gibaly, O. (2018). ‘Yeah, I’ve grown; I can’t go out anymore’: differences in perceived risks between girls and boys entering adolescence. Culture, Health & Sexuality20(7), 787-798.

Molu, E. F., Taylor, L. M., Yaman, K. G., Basman, M., & Tezel, M. (2018). Gender stereotypical toy preferences in children 3-5. In Early childhood education from an intercultural and bilingual perspective (pp. 243-259). IGI Global.

Salgado, D. M., Knowlton, A. L., & Johnson, B. L. (2019). Men’s health-risk and protective behaviors: The effects of masculinity and masculine norms. Psychology of Men & Masculinities20(2), 266.

Sawyer, S. M., Azzopardi, P. S., Wickremarathne, D., & Patton, G. C. (2018). The age of adolescence. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health2(3), 223-228.

Adolescents’ Intense And Problematic Social Media Use And Their Well-Being In 29 Countries Essay Example

Article Critique

Boer, M., Van den Eijnden, R. J., Boniel-Nissim, M., Wong, S., Inchley, J. C., Badura, P., Craig, W. M., Gobina, I., Kleszczewska, D., Klanšček, H. J., & Stevens, G. W. (2020). Adolescents’ intense and problematic social media use and their well-being in 29 countries. Journal of Adolescent Health66(6), S89-S99.

The objective of this study was to identify whether the extreme and challenging use of social media were linked to adolescents’ welfare independently, whether the prevalence of the two factors differed by the countries’ levels, and whether the variance in-country levels were connected to variances in access to the internet. The method used during the investigation was individual-level data from 154,981 youngsters from 29 republics that joined in the 2017/2018 well-being survey on behaviour in school-aged children (Boer et al., 2020). The mean age of the participants was 13.5. Excessive interaction with social media was measured using the time spent on social media, whereas the challenging practice was defined through the level of addiction. There was an assessment of psychological, faculty, and societal well-being. Country-level data was obtained from OECD databases on the internet.

The two-level lapse evaluations showed that prevalence in states having less intense social media uses reported extreme users with decreased family care and life fulfillment and increased mental issues than the less severe users. However, the states with a great incidence of extreme use described increased life contentment and household provision among the extreme users compared to the less severe users and similar psychological issues. The study concluded that adolescents with problematic social media use are at risk of poor well-being. This media use situation may be a normal teen behaviour helping in particular realms of their general health.

The research used data from the survey, which comprised generally demonstrative facts of youths from 47 nations. Their analysis sample included 154,981 adolescents with 29 regions, with 51% girls of mean age and standard deviation of 13.54 and 1.61 respectively (Boer et al., 2020). The procedures of assembling statistics, selection approaches, and questionnaires were identical and firmly complied with study protocol. Participation was anonymous and voluntary, ensuring consent from the participating adolescents, school, and parents. The investigators interpreted the assessment queries into the corresponding state languages of their participants before the survey assessment. Also, the researchers sought institutional ethical consent in each of the 29 regions.

The analysis sample found 22.4% of the participants with omitted figures on a minimum of one individual-level variable (Boer et al., 2020). The challenging public media use had the greatest omitted data (9.8% of the study sample). Absent figures were accredited using the various imputations with M-plus to retain all respondents. The researchers conducted two-level lapse studies on this ascribed data. Representations were predicted using Maximum Probability approximation with stout average errors accounting for the twisted dissemination of the health outcomes (Kelley Pace, 2018). The researchers selected the paramount model appropriate for further interpretation after conducting the analyses.

The study found a positive or negative association between adolescents’ intense use of social media and their welfare and national context. On the other hand, the difficult social media use indicated less comfort in all the studied domains in the countries. Findings for inappropriate use were more dependable than the concentrated use, with minor intensities of educational facility, intellectual, and the collective well-being among the demanding users in all countries. This variance was unexplainable using the national-level occurrence of intense and complex social media use, excluding the undesirable relationship between challenging use and societal security, higher in countries with a lower frequency of inappropriate social media use.

This study has several strengths, such as the conceptual distinction between intense and problematic social media use, the representative nature of the expected data, and the number of included countries. However, the cross-sectional design used in the study lacks causal inferences. Also, the findings would require more caution during interpretation as the social, mental, and school comfort were dignified with few or distinct objects. Using such methods may have restricted representation of the health concepts, hence no dependability for the solo-object measures. Additional study replicating the existing data with more detailed standards would be necessary. Another limitation is that all measurements were based on self-reports, such as actual time on social media among the participants.

The measure of intense social media use was the active use of social media in communication instead of inactive media consumption such as scrolling through profiles of participants. Using the passive method could have produced dissimilar outcomes as investigation proposes that inactive usage largely decreases health. In contrast, active service may improve the well-being of a user. Therefore, significant future research directions require longitudinal research related to the association between problematic and intense social media use and smartphone tracking applications to fill the gaps left out by this study.

Considering the purpose, methods of study, results, and notwithstanding the strengths and weaknesses of this study, this topic was a great choice. Conducting this investigation involving adolescents in the 29 countries who reported problematic social media use and showed that they were at risk of poor well-being will help develop and improve the existing policies and guidelines for healthy social media interaction. Schools, clinical settings, and families were identified as the potential settings to detect adolescents with problematic social media use. These settings could also implement interventions and support to reduce the level of this issue.


Boer, M., Van den Eijnden, R. J., Boniel-Nissim, M., Wong, S., Inchley, J. C., Badura, P., Craig, W. M., Gobina, I., Kleszczewska, D., Klanšček, H. J., & Stevens, G. W. (2020). Adolescents’ intense and problematic social media use and their well-being in 29 countries. Journal of Adolescent Health66(6), S89-S99.

Kelley Pace, R. (2018). Maximum likelihood estimation. Handbook of Regional Science, 1-17.

Adult Assessment Tools Or Diagnostic Tests Essay Example For College

Diagnostic tests are essential for identifying whether a patient has a particular disease or not. An effective diagnostic test should help to improve patient care and reduce healthcare expenditure due to the early detection of the disease and the start of treatment. Globally, healthcare expenditures are rising at a very high rate, and unnecessary diagnostic tests contribute to the increased cost of healthcare; thus, there’s a need for identifying an appropriate diagnostic test for various screening (Chaudhary & Nisar, 2017). In the screening of colorectal cancer, colonoscopy tests have been highly effective in detecting any abnormalities and cancerous tissues in the colon and rectum of adults.

Description of how Colonoscopy is used in Healthcare

Colonoscopy is a diagnostic test that checks the patients’ colon and rectum to help detect any causes of symptoms such as abdomen pain, bleeding in the anus or diarrhea. The test is widely recommended for adults as they are at increased risk of having colony problems. The test also helps check the causes of any changes in the body, including unexplained weight loss. Unexplained sudden weight in a patient might result from inflammatory bowel, which might hinder the body from digesting food normally, resulting in unexplained weight loss (Herndon et al., 2021). Irritable bowel Syndrome is a chronic condition that affects the gastrointestinal system’s normal functioning, leading to abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea. It is believed to affect around 10% of its population (Herndon et al., 2021). IBS negatively impacts patients’ quality due to the chronic nature of the disease. With a colonoscopy, the healthcare professional can detect any changes in the bowel and recommend the best treatment option for the patient.

Purpose of Colonoscopy Test

A colonoscopy helps detect colon cancer and reduce the mortality rates of patients with colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer is a life-threatening disease and is considered the second leading cause of cancer deaths globally (Kastenberg et al., 2018). Early detection is one of the essential approaches in reducing the mortality rates of colorectal cancer, and colonoscopy is regarded as the most effective screen test that helps to reduce the mortality rates. A colonoscopy can help detect the polyps, and the medical professional can remove the polyps before they become cancerous, thus reducing the risk of cancer. A study conducted by Doubeni et al. (2018) showed that colonoscopy reduced the mortality rate in the right colon by 65% and 75% in the left colon. Detecting symptoms at the early stages of colon cancer might be difficult; thus, colonoscopy help to detect and prevent the growth of polyps which become cancerous if not detected and removed at the early stages. This helps reduce the mortality rate of patients with colon cancer and reduce the financial burden of treating colon cancer.

How Colonoscopy is conducted

During a colonoscopy, the healthcare professional uses a colonoscope, a long tube that has a camera attached to it to help detect any changes in the colon or rectum of the patient. The tip of the colonoscope is inserted into the anus and advanced into the colon with the help of the visuals from the camera (Kastenberg et al., 2018). The camera allows the healthcare professional to view the inside of the rectum or colon and detect any abnormal changes. The healthcare professional can also put air through the tube to help with a better view inside the colon. During the procedure, the healthcare professional can take out any abnormal growths on the rectum and collect tissue samples to test cancer in the colon. The doctor might insert other instruments to help extract sample tissues or polyps from the colon. After removal of the abnormal tissues, the healthcare professional conducts a biopsy to determine if the tissues are cancerous or not (Kastenberg et al., 2018). Before the procedure is done, the patient is advised on the foods to eat and which to avoid so that the procedure can be effective. This ensures adequate bowel preparation to ensure proper visualization of the colon and detection of any abnormal changes, and the presence of polyps in the colon (Kastenberg et al., 2018). Colonoscopy can lead to feelings of bloating and cramping. The patient is given medications and sedatives to help ease and control the pain. Depending on the magnitude of the damage in the colonoscopy, the test might take longer than 30 minutes. After the procedure and the successful removal of polyps from the colon, the patient is advised to eat a special diet to help with the recovery process.

The Information that Colonoscopy Test Gathers

A colonoscopy checks for polyps in the colon. At the early stages of colorectal cancer an individual might not show any cancer symptoms; thus, a colonoscopy helps detect any polyps and remove them, thus reducing the risk of an individual getting colorectal cancer (Doubeni et al., 2018). Polyps take several years before they become cancerous, and with colonoscopy, the healthcare professional can remove these polyps before they become cancerous. A colonoscopy helps to check any abnormalities in the colon. It helps to detect and understand the colon and rectum problems, thus ensuring that the patient undergoes the most appropriate form of treatment. An individual experiencing bowel movements, unexplainable weight loss, diarrhea, and bleeding might have problems with their colon. With a colonoscopy, the healthcare professional can check changes in the colon to determine the causes of these symptoms (Kastenberg et al., 2018). Additionally, a colonoscopy helps to detect serious diseases such as colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer is one of the deadliest cancer in the world as it does not have symptoms thus can quickly progress to the last stage without detection. Colonoscopy is an effective method for screening cancer in the colon tissues, thus helping the individual start treatment options as early as possible when cancerous tissues are detected in the colon.

Colonoscopy Validity, Reliability, Sensitivity and Predictive Values

According to various research on colonoscopy, the test is highly effective in detecting any abnormalities in the colon and reducing the mortality rates of patients as a result of colorectal cancer. Based on the research conducted by Doubeni et al. (2018), colonoscopy leads to a substantial decrease in mortality risk of colorectal cancer in both the right and left colon of the patient. This proves the validity and reliability of the colonoscopy test in measuring what it purports to measure. The chance of early detection and prevention of colorectal cancer is associated with early colonoscopy tests.

Colonoscopy is regarded as the standard tool for screening colorectal cancer with high sensitivity and predictive values compared to other tools. The test is considered highly effective, safe, and available for most people who want to perform the test. A meta-analysis conducted to determine the sensitivity of the colonoscopy test showed a 94.7% sensitivity (Jahn et al., 2019). This supports the claim that colonoscopy tests are high sensitivity tests. A medical test should have a high sensitivity as this ensures that there are few cases of inaccurate results. A test that has a high sensitivity will help to ensure that no disease is missed, thus ensuring that the patient receives the most appropriate treatment (Ball et al., 2017). Tests with low sensitivity can lead to inaccurate results as diseases are missed. When diseases are not treated at the early stages, they can become fatal, thus increasing the mortality rate of patients.

Conclusively, colonoscopy is a highly effective tool for diagnosing colorectal cancer. Although colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in cancer patients, the disease can be treated and managed with early detection and removal of polyps through a colonoscopy test. Considering the nature of colorectal cancer as having undetectable symptoms, tests conducted need to have high reliability and sensitivity to capture any abnormal tissues in the colon before they become cancerous. Thus the use of appropriate diagnostic tests such as colonoscopy is recommended to reduce the rate of mortality of patients.


Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2017). Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination-E-Book: An Interprofessional Approach.

Chaudhary, M. A. I., & Nisar, A. (2017). Escalating health care costs due to unnecessary diagnostic testing. Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering & Technology36(3), 569-578.

Doubeni, C. A., Corley, D. A., Quinn, V. P., Jensen, C. D., Zauber, A. G., Goodman, M., … & Fletcher, R. H. (2018). Effectiveness of screening colonoscopy in reducing the risk of death from the right and left colon cancer: a large community-based study. Gut67(2), 291-298.

Herndon, C. C., Wang, Y. P., & Lu, C. L. (2020). Targeting the gut microbiota for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences36(3), 160-170.

Jahn, B., Sroczynski, G., Bundo, M., Mühlberger, N., Puntscher, S., Todorovic, J., … & Siebert, U. (2019). Effectiveness, benefit harm, and cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening in Austria. BMC gastroenterology, 19(1), 1-13.

Kastenberg, D., Bertiger, G., & Brogadir, S. (2018). Bowel preparation quality scales for colonoscopy. World journal of gastroenterology24(26), 2833.