Before 2017, advanced practice nurses (APNs) could not work independently from physicians. However, in 2017, the Illinois Governor signed a law allowing individual nurses to provide services without being dependent on physicians (Korte, 2017). The law amends the Nurse Practice Act to enable APNs and other nurses to work without a written agreement with doctors (“Full practice authority,” 2019). One has to obtain a Full Practice Authority (FPA) license to attain this possibility.
One of the restrictions related to NP practice is as follows: a certified nurse-midwife cannot provide the services of a clinical nurse specialist without attaining a suitable license (“Full practice authority,” 2019). There is a variety of FPA licenses, and certain geographic restrictions are in place as well since a nurse may work independently only in a region in which she is certified (“Full practice authority,” 2019). Another restriction for NPs in the state of Illinois is linked to drug prescription. APNs are not allowed to offer services reserved for physicians and cannot prescribe certain drugs. Another restriction is associated with the delegation of clinical tasks and procedures. APNs are prohibited from delegating drug administration to unlicensed personnel, and delegating care plan development or care evaluation to both licensed and unlicensed staff.
A written collaborative agreement with a physician or a doctor was required for APNs to be able to provide their services. However, the aforementioned law passed in 2017 alleviated this requirement (Korte, 2017). The objective of the legislation is to fill the gaps in the availability of healthcare services. The government of Illinois seeks to maximize the number of professionals and increase the affordability of patient care.
To attain an FPA license, one has to have a national certification document and must have completed 250 hours of additional education (“Full practice authority,” 2019). In terms of residency hours, a candidate must have at least 4000 hours of clinical experience (“Full practice authority,” 2019). New nursing practitioners acquire invaluable experience during their residency hours programs, which equips them with the necessary knowledge and skills. I support this requirement because this period serves as a background for further empowerment of ANPs. A new APN can learn more about the organizational peculiarities and become more confident as well, which will lead to a higher level of job satisfaction. I also think that this requirement is instrumental in decreasing the turnover rate and minimizing the risk of APN’s leaving the hospital or nursing practice.
Korte, A. (2017). Rauner signs bill expanding practice authority for certain nurses. Web.
The Concept Of Involuntary Memory In Proust’s Overture
The concept of involuntary memory has been illustrated in Proust’s Overture by a number of figurative writing styles in the novel. The beginning of the novel is marked by a depiction of involuntary memory. The author ushers in the reader by stating that “For a long time I used to go bed Early” (Proust, 2008). This is a depiction of the past memory in the life of the narrator who is not immediately revealed.
Involuntary memory is also illustrated when Marcel recounts the times he visited his grandmother’s house and the intrigues that surrounded his inability to fall asleep in his bedroom. To make sleep, he would be given a “magic lantern” that had the capacity to project children’s stories on his walls. One of the major motivating factors for the writing of this novel revolves around the relationship between time and memory. According to Mann (2007) “Proust believed that time was not necessarily a linear, clock-like, measure of fixed and unchangeable moments; instead, he believed that time, or duration, as he liked to call it, involved a flowing together of different moments and experiences so that one individual point in time was indistinguishable from any other.”
An illustration of this involved the Madeleine scene where an older Marcel is brought back in the present Combray by simply having a taste of cake dipped in tea. The working of involuntary memory is thus demonstrated when Marcel tries to move back the memory lane when he last had a madeleine; which he succeeds. A clear memory of this is evoked only when he thinks about the taste of cake dipped in tea. The theme of involuntary memory is also illustrated by Mann (2007) in stating that “this involuntary and seemingly random power of the memory to carry a person back in time forms the stylistic and thematic foundation of Overture”.
In addition to the above, Marcel takes the memory journey back to the times through the interaction between routine and memory. The images projected by the magic lantern on the walls of his bedroom at Cambray make him unable to recognize his own room. This portrays Marcel as one who is lost in the time and as such must reorganize his mind to know exactly where he is. The theme of memory from this scene is also illustrated by Mann (2007) who states that “in this instance, breaking with the habit (changing the habitual appearance of his room) causes Marcel anguish, but in the episode of the madeleine, breaking with his usual routine by having tea causes his pleasurable reminiscences of Combray to resurface”.
Overture is different from a more realistic novel because whereas Marcel Proust is the narrator, it is hidden from the reader. In addition to the above, the parallels in the novel are too great, and the writings are over-personalized. The third factor that differentiates it from a normal novel is that its details are too overlapping. For example, by the time the author is writing the first paragraph of the Overture, the narrator is asleep. This is demonstrated by the extract “it seemed to me that I myself was the immediate subject of my book” (Proust, 2008). When the narrator wakes narrator wakes up, he says “As he comes more fully awake, he says” (Proust, 2008). This demonstrates the relationship between the narrator and the novel. The narrator is Proust who observes his reflection in a mirror or a dream as projected in the wall by the magic lantern.
Mann, M. (2007). Swann’s Way~Overture. Web.
Proust, M. (2008). Overture. New York: BiblioBazaar, LLC.
The Gospel Of Matthew Vs. The Gospel Of Mark
How and why would Matthew have edited Mark 6:45-52 contrasted with Matthew 14:25-27, 32-33?
First and foremost, the Gospel of Matthew refers to the study of the life and preaching of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. The features of the Gospel stem from its intended purpose for the Jewish audience – the Gospel often refers to Old Testament Messianic prophecies to show the fulfillment of these prophecies in Christ (Martin 106). Matthew wrote for the Jewish people, and one of his aims was to show from the history of Jesus and the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies that Christ was the long-awaited Messiah and therefore deserved their trust (Gospel of Matthew, 9:27). Like Matthew, Mark was the witness to events in the life of Christ, and also the friend of the apostle Peter. Mark wrote to a Gentile audience, which is evident in the fact that he does not mention events of particular importance to Jewish readers: the genealogy and Christ’s disagreement with Jewish leaders. Mark stresses the role of Christ as a suffering servant who did not come into the world to be served, but to help others (Gospel of Mark, 10:45). Fragments of the Gospels reveal a difference in the story told about Jesus’ ability to walk on water. Mark consciously does not mention the name of Christ in the episode, indicating by an attractive pronoun (Gospel of Mark, 6:45). Unlike Mark, Matthew explicitly says the name of the Messiah. Matthew portrays the story better because he describes more details, while Mark speaks more superficially about the incident. Moreover, in the Gospel of Matthew, more emphasis is placed on the astonishment and defeat experienced by miracle witnesses. The narrator plays on the contrast between faith and unbelief, showing how Jesus’ disciple, Peter, walked on water. Matthew did not describe this scene by chance: he set out to demonstrate the power of faith and its victory over rational consciousness.
How and why would Matthew have edited Mark 9:2-10 contrasted with Matthew 17:1-13?
The Transfiguration of Jesus is mentioned in the three Gospels, but the text from Matthew and Mark is examined as part of this analysis. The primary line of the evangelists is very similar, but there is a noticeable difference in the details described (Muddiman and Barton 56). Matthew writes about the episode in a more familiar and detailed way, adding dialogues and actions, while Mark is more concise. When Jesus climbed the mountain, he left the three disciples of Peter, James, and John and stepped aside and shone (Muddiman and Barton 56). A study of the first lines of the original texts determines the clarifying detail given by Matthew but missing from Mark. John, according to Matthew, is the brother of James (Gospel of Matthew, 17:1). This refinement allows readers to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between the sometimes-confusing figures of the gospels.
Comparative analysis of the two passages reveals other discrepancies between the texts. Mark writes that Christ’s garments became whiter than snow, but Matthew adds that not only the clothes but also the face of the Messiah shone brighter than the sun (Gospel of Matthew, 17:2). This is a generally subtle detail, but it allows us to emphasize the holiness of Jesus. Another difference refers the reader to the original mission of the two texts. Both authors represent Peter among the apostles who climbed the mountain, but the disciple’s address to the teacher is transmitted in different ways. In Matthew, Peter calls Jesus Lord, who is divine, while Mark writes about Jesus as a Jewish rabbi (Gospel of Mark, 9:5). The voice from the dispersed clouds presents Christ to the apostles as the Son of God but does so in different versions. Thus, in the Gospel of Matthew, God’s attitude towards His son is transmitted more tenderly and carefully, which elevates Jesus in the eyes of his disciples and readers. Taking into account the properties of Matthew to worship the Messiah to a large extent, it becomes clear why the narrator decided to edit the texts of the mark.
Gospel of Matthew. The New International Commentary on the New Testament. Edited by Richard France. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2007.
Gospel of Mark. Catholic Commentary on Sacred Scripture. Edited by Peter Williamson. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2008.
Martin, Dale B. New Testament History and Literature. Yale University Press, 2012.
Muddiman, John, and John Barton. The Gospels. Oxford University Press, 2010.