Free health care means citizens of a particular country or region receive medical care freely or at a very minimal cost. These costs are incurred by the local government, which collects the funds through taxes from its citizens. It means that the services are not entirely free, but citizens pay for them indirectly. The end goal of free health care is to provide residents, regardless of whether they can afford it, with health services and the means to access them (NewDick, 2006, p.1965). Free health care has several advantages and disadvantages, which are discussed below.
The first advantage of free healthcare is increased access to health services and facilities, usually associated with free or at a very minimal cost. The governments have subsidized the health sector by providing resources like health facilities, and medicine and offering of health services to the citizens (Acharya and Kumar, 2012, p. 255). This has enabled access across all regions, even in the most remote areas, these services are available.
With this type of improved healthcare, seeing a doctor has become very easy and affordable, increasing the number of times people visit doctors. This has dramatically improved the health of citizens as it has eliminated illnesses related to avoiding doctors due to their high costs of treatment (Frist, 2005, p. 270). Children can lead a healthy life and contribute to economic development due to the health incentives available. Also, the availability of free and cheap medicine at health centers has greatly improved the health status of citizens.
Free healthcare eliminates the need for companies to compete for money. The free-market systems target the wealthy to provide health services, neglecting the poor, the more significant percentage of the population (Acharya and Kumar, 2012, p. 256). Here, the focus is on the number of patients of patients served rather than the quality of services provided. Free health care focuses on providing quality health services regardless of how much one has, thereby eliminating competition.
On the other hand, a free healthcare system caters to everybody, but if not planned well can be stressful for doctors and patients. Understaffing of doctors and health providers can lead to low-quality services. An increase in the number of patients needing attention makes doctors work on busy schedules, shifting their goal to attending to huge numbers of patients rather than properly treating them, resulting in the quality of services significantly decreasing (Kirchhoff et al., 2012, p.5966). Also, there is a possibility of a shortage of medicines due to the increased demand, which most often is not reciprocated with supply, thus adding to the declining quality of services. Most importantly, the ratio of doctors to patients is paramount when planning such health programs.
Due to the availability of free healthcare services, people tend to be careless and ignorant about their health. Rather than focusing on keeping fit and taking precautions, people lead unhealthy lifestyles because they have access to healthcare (Frist, 2005, p. 268). This has posed a major challenge to the health sector because there has been a rise in chronic and infectious diseases, which could have been avoided by simply citizens taking precautions.
Health care program takes around 30% of the country’s budget to provide free medicine, labor force, and other costs of associated parties, which is a considerable proportion to give freely. In return, this weight may be felt on citizens by the government increasing the taxes or neglecting other sectors like education to cater for the same (Frist, 2005, p. 269) When most of a country’s budget only goes to the health sector, it calls for debt acquisition to provide for other sectors, which places a country’s economy on the verge of collapsing.
In conclusion, free health care has been a major drive in improving the health of citizens. Governments have been providing the necessary incentives to achieve this goal. The major challenge facing this program is that citizens have become reluctant about their health, neglecting to take precautions that keep them safe from contracting diseases, pushing the government to dig more to cater for the same.
Acharya and Kumar V., 2012. Mobile broadband-based healthcare management: advantages, issues and challenges. International Journal of Computers in Healthcare, 1(3), pp.254 – 268.
Bataineh, H., Devlin, R. and Barham, V., 2019. Unmet health care and health care utilization. Health Economics, 28(4), pp.529-542.
First, W.H., 2005. Health care in the 21st century. New England Journal of Medicine, 352(3), pp.267-272.
Kirchhoff A.C., Lyles, Fluchel, M., Wright, J. and Leisenring, W., 2012. Limitations in health care access and utilization among long‐term survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer. Cancer, 118(23), pp.5964-5972.
Newdick, C., 2006. Citizenship, free movement and health care: cementing individual rights by corroding social solidarity. Common Market L. Rev., 43, p.1645.
Apprenticeship In Botanical Garden Sample Assignment
Apprenticing requires one to acquire skills while still on the job. The new Assistant Gardener has an apprentice opportunity with a Senior Horticulturist at a more extensive Botanical garden. According to Nurmamatovich (2022), apprenticing in the horticultural sector increases employees’ productivity. Employees can acquire basic skills crucial to delivering excellent horticultural products (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021).
In almost every field, there is a need to equip workers will excellent skills that will help them to fit in the constantly changing, competitive, and the increasingly innovative world so that the workers continuously remain innovative and competent. To prepare, reliable future workers should adopt apprenticeship, which focuses on competence development and helping nature’s new workers to become innovative and utilize their talent in specific areas (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021). Through apprenticeship, the gardener can combine learning and working, which becomes an essential tool that provides the basis for gaining competence and connection in the working world. In addition, the gardener will benefit from experts and understand their field’s routine.
Sun & Cui (2021) describes apprenticeships as a system where an employee is trained in the workplace and trade or profession by putting together on-the-job training with some accompanying education, technologically supported classroom work, and self-driven reading. Further, Sun & Cui (2021) explain that apprenticeships can also assist professionals such as gardeners in obtaining a license to work in a regulated industry such as horticulture.
Based on Deissinger & Gonon’s ( 2021) views, apprenticeships work well with highly effective learning designs. In addition, apprentices require a well-structured design that includes learning tools (Sun & Cui, 2021). Nurmamatovich (2022) believes that learning tools must be greatly specified to meet the learning needs of the apprentice and achieve the identified learning goals. The gardener will learn through a human-centered design, while online learning will be used as a learning tool to address the gardener’s specific learning problems. Deissinger & Gonon (2021) presents apprenticeships as requiring a combination of a design integrated with a particular theory. The gardener’s human-centered design is integrated with the Educational Theories of Apprenticeship. Deissinger & Gonon ( 2021), the educational apprenticeship theory stipulates that learning takes place in a structured method. Further, the apprentice will benefit from a design that integrates the cognitive apprenticeship approach (Sun & Cui, 2021). The learning cycle that the design used starts with observation as one of the learning methods (Sun & Cui, 2021). Deissinger & Gonon ( 2021), provides that observation entails several phases including, retention, repetition, reproduction,
The gardener will learn and offer their skills at the workplace where they are attached to the senior horticulturist. The gardener will acquire new skills and perfect what he has already acquired at other levels of learning. The gardener will get on-the-job experience in learning practices in the horticultural sector in exchange for continuous labor for a set time once they have demonstrated competence (Nurmamatovich, 2022).
According to Gessler (2019), learning needs can be described as the breach between the apprentice’s current level of understanding and skills that they have acquired and the level of skills and understanding needed to undertake a responsibility or a specific task the apprentice is allocated. Further, Gessler (2019) explains that real needs sometimes differ. The learning needs include the need for arousal that creates curiosity. Other needs include self-determination and competence. Guile & Young ( 1998) explain that there are other learning needs that the gardener will address through an apprenticeship, including oral expression, problem-solving, and self-determination.
Different learning designs, methods, and techniques meet learning needs (Rathore, 2021). The learning design proposed for the gardener, which is human-centered, seeks to improve the gardener’s personal and social skills. Further, the design seeks to train the gardener to understand how the Botanical Garden business works. The learning design and skills seek to address the gardener’s needs in knowledge acquisition and getting the correct workplace values and attitudes (Guile & Young, 1998). By observing experienced people perform the task, the new gardener can do the same, and by reinforcement and motivation, they will become effective.
The gardener will be attached to the senior agriculturalist, where the gardener will acquire new skills. The gardeners learning needs will include physical training on preparing for planting and taking care of seeds, seedbeds, and seedlings. According to Tedesco-Schneck (2021), other learning needs include operating various equipment available in the garden. Learning needs include caring for plants, which entails watering, fertilizers, and pesticides. The gardener’s specific learning needs and problems will be addressed during the apprenticeship. The gardener will grow socially and will also contribute his ideas which can be adopted by other people working with him. The ideas learned in class can be discussed and implemented with the help of experts.
In addition, apprenticeships provide an excellent system of gaining relevant work experience ( Kirkwood, 2009). The apprentice’s basic learning needs, such as competence, will be addressed through apprenticeship. National Research Council (2000) provides that the need for a learner to be competent is addressed through interactive learning, where the learner is exposed to materials related to their field of operation.
Tedesco-Schneck (2021) believes that the gardener’s competence will be improved through online platforms such as youtube. The learning materials, such as journals, books, and articles, will make the learner competent and also arouse the learners’ conscience. The learner will seek to apply the new knowledge gained. Thus, their arousal need will be met through the e-learning tools provided. The gardener will be able to watch youtube videos on watering and create a schedule for irrigation and watering of plants. If a learner has questions, they will directly pass them to the senior horticulturist, who will address them on time, making it a perfect opportunity for learning new ideas.
The need to solve problems will be addressed through training on problem-solving that will be done through an online classroom with the senior horticulturist. The actual learning contents will include a section on problem-solving skills such as The Art of Problem Solving (AoPS) (Guile & Young, 1998). The human-centered learning design will help the gardener to get information that is needed for excellent performance at the workplace. The survival skills include continuous personal development in the post-apprenticeship period at the workplace (Nurmamatovich, 2022). To address the apprentice’s need for record-keeping, the senior horticulturist will apply the techniques used in learning numeracy and literacy. Further, the learner will access e-books on record keeping and maintenance and knowledge management.
The senior horticulturist will address the need for self-determination by setting targets to be attained in every stage of learning and the execution of duties. Setting targets help the apprentice to develop time management skills and to increase their self-drive and self-determination (Guile & Young, 1998). Through the entire apprenticeship, the gardener will acquire skills that fully develop their capabilities. The gardener will be able to work with dignity since they will learn to use technology at the Botanic garden.
According to Deissinger & Gonon ( 2021), through social dialogue between the gardener and the senior horticulturist, the gardener can get one-on-one training that will enable the apprentice to live well and create a balance between social life and work. Further, the worker will be able to learn about social protection and financial management in the interactive forums with the senior horticulturist. According to a report by National Research Council (2000), interactive learning that is done physically helps to mitigate and improve the apprentice’s self-esteem.
At the end of the apprenticeship, the gardener will be able to relate well with colleagues, management, relatives, friends, and the entire workplace community since the need for relatedness will be addressed. Tedesco-Schneck (2021) believes that the relatedness need is addressed through learning on YouTube videos about establishing and maintaining social boundaries and emotional intelligence.
Learning Design and Tools
Nurmamatovich (2022) describes learning designs as various techniques for delivering student learning capabilities. Deissinger & Gonon ( 2021) state that learning designs entail various active interactions and a schedule of activities. Learning designs are integrated into a system based on the apprenticeship program’s subjects or content. The content of the design may be at the level of a subject or subject components (Sun & Cui, 2021). For the gardener, the learning design will be a framework that will be considered the order in which the gardener will undertake learning experiences guided by the senior horticulturalists.
Deissinger & Gonon ( 2021) pronounces that a learning tool is a mechanism designed to be applied by learners. The learning tools create a system with structures to develop learning skills (Sun & Cui, 2021). Further, the learning tool shapes the learners’ behaviors (Tripathi & Maktedar, 2020). Yang & Xu (2021) have emphasized that selecting appropriate learning tools enhances systematic thinking and the collection of crucial information.
Learning tools incorporating technology facilitate students to advance operative self-driven knowledge acquisition skills (Tripathi & Maktedar, 2020). The learners develop their capacity to identify the particular themes they need to study (Kee & Zhang, 2022). The online learning tools selected for the gardener also apply cognitive apprenticeship aspects. The method allows the apprentice to discover and utilize online resources (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021). The gardener can use the information gathered to address the challenges at hand. Combining cognitive apprenticeship and human-centered design will increase employee productivity and efficiency.
National Research Council (2000) indicates an urgent need to apply digital tools in apprenticeships. The digital tools make the apprenticeship process consistent (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021). For example, the gardener’s progress in reading and watching videos can be traced and monitored by the senior horticulturist. The digital learning tools used in the apprenticeship contain several advantages (Sun & Cui, 2021).
The new assistant gardener apprenticing with a Senior Horticulturist at the more extensive Botanical Gardens will be more secure through digital learning tools. Their performance will be secured online by the senior horticulturists’ reports. The growth and progress made will measure both physically and online. Online records are more secure and stable and will help award certificates if the apprentice completes all the apprenticeship program requirements (Tedesco-Schneck, 2021).
Digital learning tools used by the apprentice will enhance efficiency and promote the effectiveness of the entire training (Tedesco-Schneck, 2021).
Learning Design Description
The gardener will benefit from the apprenticeship since he is already attached to the Senior Horticulturist of the botanical Garden. Based on the views of Hughes (2021), an apprenticeship provides a system for sharpening an employee’s skills. The development of skills is driven by the use of other learning designs (Budgell, 2021). The gardener will be trained formally and informally. Some of the skills the gardener will acquire cannot be acquired through class activities, making apprenticeship a crucial activity in gaining practical skills and utilizing the formal knowledge taught in a classroom.
Based on the views of Hughes (2021), a combination of both formal and informal learning for employees entrenches values such as integrity and transparency in the workplace. The actual learning will take place at the Botanic garden. In horticultural practices, physical training is vital for the employee to learn and observe the growth of plants on a particular farm or garden (Tripathi & Maktedar, 2020).
Yang & Xu (2021) believes that an apprenticeship program’s success depends on the trainee’s self-drive and personal responsibility. A positive attitude of the trainee can improve their workplace performance and help them develop their skills (Budgell, 2021). Therefore, the gardener’s attitudes toward the training are critical to the attainment of the best results of the apprenticeship. The gardener’s attitude towards the senior horticulturist will determine the progress in the development of the gardener’s skills.
According to Yang & Xu (2021), self-driven learning in apprenticeships improves the development of resilience. The gardener will be taken through a self-driven learning program on youtube, where the Senior Horticulturalist will record videos and upload them online for the gardener to study. In addition, the senior horticulturist will recommend videos by other professionals for the gardener to study (Hughes, 2021).
According to Tripathi & Maktedar (2020), applying human-centered learning will ensure that the gardener’s welfare and well-being are highly prioritized. The accompanying online classroom work and self-reading study will sharpen the gardener’s skills (Budgell, 2021). The horticulturist will continue mentoring the new gardener to learn through observation and participation in various garden activities. Close supervision and guidance will be necessary during the process (Tedesco-Schneck, 2021).
Tripathi & Maktedar (2020) prescribe that the senior horticulturist should be able to identify the gifted skill of the gardener and reinforce them through positive comments or rewards. Guile & Young (1998) established that during the apprenticeship process, the gardener should be corrected whenever they make a mistake and always work with experienced people to help them solve challenging problems.
Tripathi & Maktedar (2020) believe that formalizing informal learning processes includes issuing certificates recognizing the skills acquired in an apprenticeship. The apprentice will entail a formalization process. After two years of the apprenticeship, the company, Botanical Gardens, will provide the gardener with a certificate as evidence of both formal and informal training that the garner will have acquired in the apprenticeship program (Guile & Young, 1998). The certificate will accompany a recommendation letter allowing the gardener to offer their services in other horticultural and related firms. The new gardener should also be allowed to relate with other workers to improve his socialization skill and get the proper connection with people who could work as his referees or recommend him for a job when his services are needed.
It is suitable for one to choose a career that relates to what you are love to do. After selecting a profession, one should think of sharpening their skills through education. The desire to sharpen and increase competency is one of the reasons that individuals join apprenticeships, where they learn by doing the job to impact their career positively through growth and professional development. On taking part in this training, one will be able to make some money as they get working experience that makes them competitive in the job market. The opportunity provided by apprenticeship helps the gardener to climb up the ladder through promotion. The progress will be attained since the gardener can relate well with the employer, who may consider giving them full-time employment. Through apprenticeship, one acquires evidence needed to prove your skills in the market, which helps one to flourish in your career. The opportunity to meet all hosts strengthens your network and connections, which is very useful as you move on with your job.
Learning Design Cycle
The integrated human Centred learning design cycle is as follows,
Source Deissinger & Gonon (2021)
Stage 1: Observation
In the observation stage of learning, the learning process can be described as watching others acquire knowledge, retain the idea, and later replicate what they observed (Sun & Cui, 2021). Nurmamatovich (2022) argues that many theories of learning base their argument that when direct observation is reinforced or even punished, one will end up learning. Examples of such theory include classical conditioning. When gardeners observe other experienced people in the field uproot weeds or graft plants, they can replicate the same and acquire the experience (Guile & Young, 1998).
According to Tripathi & Maktedar (2020), the observation learning process can also be known as shaping and taking place at all life stages. Yang & Xu (2021) explains that observation learning will also help the gardener to socialize effectively. The gardener will know how to respond and behave well with other people.
These are four stages in observation based on the human-centered learning design for the learning to be effective learning from the senior horticulturist (Tripathi & Maktedar, 2020). In the first learning phase, the learner must pay attention and be in the best mindset (Budgell, 2021). The gardener must therefore gather energy that will help him learn and remain focused, which will help him in grasping whatever is being done (Budgell, 2021). The attitude of the learner can contribute to their level of attention where models that are seen to be well-rewarded make the learner remain more vigilant and command more focus from the learner.
In the second phase, the apprentice is trained on retention. If the gardener can remain focused on senior horticulturists, they must be able to recall what they observed (Kee & Zhang, 2022). If one fails to retrieve what they observed, they must go back and observe once more (Hughes, 2021).
Pinelli & Khanova (2018) state that after one has observed and retained the idea, they should try to replicate and do the same thing independently. It is noticeable that everyone is gifted differently and possesses different capacities for imitating, making it hard to imitate everything, even with the right focus and retention (Sun & Cui, 2021). Nurmamatovich (2022) explains that in an apprenticeship, repetition and reproduction make the apprentice diligent, and the master can easily grade the apprentice’s work. For the gardener to reproduce good quality, they should regularly carry out more similar activities that will give him more experience (Kee & Zhang, 2022).
For the learner to fully engage in observing new ideas, they must be motivated. For example, the gardener can only remain observe and imitate if they are either intrinsically or extrinsically motivated. Pinelli et al. (2018) believe that extrinsic motivation is where the gardener has an inner drive that will help them to remain focused, while extrinsic motivation is where senior horticulturists reward the gardener after remaining focused during the learning activity (Pinelli et al., 2018).
Stage 2: tasks with coaching
According to Tripathi & Maktedar (2020), coaching can be defined as training, instructing, or advising people on how to acquire skills that will make them more productive and help them overcome challenges in their work. For example, a senior horticulturist may help the new gardener make organic fertilizers and apply them correctly (Rathore, 2021).
Stage 3: contextualization practice
Nurmamatovich (2022) explains that contextualization practice involves strategies and activities that change with different situations dictated by environmental circumstances. No idea fits all circumstances in the continually changing world. For example, the gardener should be trained to acquire skills that respond quickly to needs that may emerge in society (Guile & Young, 1998).
National Research Council (2000) report provides that the apprentice should also build a good relationship by collaborating with all members of the society. Based on Tripathi & Maktedar (2020) views, contextualization should never be considered as a lack of plan, strategy, or goal. Contextualization means that gardeners are highly flexible in implementing strategies as dictated by the people they are working for or their experiences in different fields (Kee & Zhang, 2022). Mostly if one had set higher unrealistic goals, they could adjust to set realistic goals. Senor horticulturists should ensure that the gardener understands how to asses projects and plan well to meet the various needs that emerge in the field (Rathore, 2021).
Stage 4: Reflection
Nurmamatovich (2022) believes that in the learning process, reflection plays an important role which helps learners to understand themselves and how they acquire information. Reflection also helps individuals work on their weak areas to improve their academic skills (Rathore, 2021). A gardener should always reflect on their work, which will help them to identify and correct any mistakes they might have made in the process (Tedesco-Schneck, 2021).
Educational Theories of Apprenticeship
Nurmamatovich (2022) believes that an educational theory of apprenticeship entails a sequential process of acquiring knowledge and skills by physically integrating best practices in a particular profession in any economic sector. The educational theories of apprenticeships can be associated with learning schemes such as workplace training and apprenticeships (Budgell, 2021).
The educational theory of apprenticeship describes a situation where a learner develops a similar performance learned from other practitioners (Rathore, 2021). For example, in a workplace, an apprentice acquires various formal and informal tactics from the responsibilities allocated in a particular position. For example, a new assistant gardener in a Botanical Garden is attached to a master working as a senior horticulturist. The gardener can acquire skills from the master trainer while working under an apprenticeship (Kee & Zhang, 2022).
Sun & Cui (2021) believe that while the apprentice is learning, the learner can also contribute to attaining certain milestones that are considered work and positively affect the workplace environment. The master practitioner identifies the apprentice’s special skills and specific talents in the workplace. The skills and talents of the apprentice are included in the general practice and are compensated by the employer.
The learning design applied considers the Educational Theory of Apprenticeship as a foundation for skills development for the gardener (Deissinger & Gonon ( 2021). An educational theory of apprenticeship provides a need to give instructions uniquely at workplaces to attain the best quality products (Nurmamatovich, 2022). Educational Theories of Apprenticeships regularly apply both informal and formal methods of training (Sun & Cui, 2021). The Educational theory emphasizes tried, peculiar and true techniques that foster the connections and educational opportunities required to advance the employee’s welfare and growth at the workplace (Sun & Cui, 2021). Nurmamatovich (2022) believes rewarding the appropriate components of the more complex conduct promotes repetition and strengthens those conduct. In the horticultural sector, such a pattern reinforces the anticipated partial behavior (Budgell, 2021).
Application of Educational Apprenticeship Theory
The use of apprentice educational theory gives a perspective the gardener will learn physically interacting and integrating with other experienced workers and close guidelines and help from senior horticulturists in various workplaces and training (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021). By doing some duties and performing similar duties to the other experienced gardener, the apprentice will acquire the required tactics taught in class by practically working in those positions (Kee & Zhang, 2022).
The new assistant gardener’s active participation in apprenticeship helps them become more confident and aware of their skills and talents (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021). The gardener can learn intense and specific procedures in detail in their work which helps them to become perfect and acquire more specific skills in this field. The experienced workers will accept the gardener’s new skills in the horticultural field. The other employees will also benefit from specific contributions and talents by the new gardener and integrate them into their working envelopment (Rathore, 2021).
According to Gessler (2019), apprenticeship is rarely formally tough, unlike other educational concepts. In most cases, apprenticeship concepts are practical (Guile & Young, 1998). In apprenticeships, the formula used to achieve the expected result may not strictly conform to legal education standards (Tedesco-Schneck, 2021). One example is where a gardener can take forty minutes to watch one video on YouTube, unlike in an office environment where the time allocated for such training is strictly thirty minutes.
In apprenticeship educational ideas, both informal and formal concepts are easily acquired by the gardener to promote the building of schema, which gives the gardener experience that acts as a cornerstone to conceptualize reality (National Research Council, 2000). In this case, the gardener will find it hard to connect water and irrigate plants even though he has learned it in books (Kirkwood, 2009). The senior horticulturist will have to teach the new assistant gardener how to fix the pipes appropriately and water the plants (Rathore, 2021).
Therefore, apprenticeship helps overcome these challenges by accompanying other experienced gardeners and senior horticulturalists (National Research Council, 2000). The senior and more experienced colleagues will guide the apprentice as he or she watches and participate in doing the same (Tedesco-Schneck, 2021). The gardener will be equipped with both formal and informal methods and skills through the integrated human-centered learning design and the use of assistive technology learning tools (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021).
In addition, apprentice the most effective and holistic perspective as both the gardener and the senior horticulturist will be involved. The gardener will start to utilize the new skills they have acquired and can comfortably transfer them to other new gardeners by applying their individual torrents and retaining their fresh ideas and information (Kee & Zhang, 2022). Working under supervision will also present an opportunity to ask specific questions on how to solve a real problem and get the right feedback from experts.
Guile & Young (1998) believe that three key factors will make the apprentice succeed in apprenticeship. Gessler (2019) argued that to develop fully during the apprenticeship, one must be a master in the ground. The master, a highly experienced senior horticulturist, will participate actively during the learning activities (Gessler, 2019). The active participation of the master in the apprentice learning makes that apprenticeship authentic and social (Guile & Young, 1998). When a gardener adheres to these key factors, he or she will become a greater gardener with a comprehensive understanding and powerful and effective future contributions (Rathore, 2021). The new gardener becomes a reliable person who can help other new professionals in the same field.
Based on the views of the National Research Council (2000), a report on the first activities that the gardener will participate in will determine how he will mentally and physically be enthused in his working environment. The human-centered learning design will help the gardener to settle well in the apprenticeships as they have very accommodating introduction sessions ( Kirkwood, 2009).
Guile & Young ( 1998) guide that for apprenticeships to be successful, the master should allow the apprentice to make their own decisions while working. The senior horticulturist should allow the gardener to contribute to the decision-making process as they understand well that allowing them will greatly help the gardener schema (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021). For example, the senior horticulturist should allow the gardener to use all the available tools in all the areas of his duty to prepare him for future use. The gardener will use the step-by-step guide on the online lessons to decide how to operate equipment in the Botanical Garden (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021).
Secondly, the gardener will understand the sociality concept. The gardener will constantly interact with many tools that lead to great success and other experienced people in the field (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021). This holistic tactic completely integrates the gardener into a well-integrated network and teaches all the actions and consequences in the field (Guile & Young, 1998). In the field, the gardener will interact with other people like customers and other investors and therefore widening his connections in the field (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021). They will also gain more skills and understand the markets of the products they grow, and they can easily identify the available opportunities or gaps in the current working environment.
Finally, the gardener will understand the importance of authenticity in the field during the apprenticeship. The gardener will establish a mental connection in their work in all fields and its comprehension in the larger society. They will understand most of the challenges in this field, how people perceive them, and how to solve them authentically. Solving people’s problems helps individuals to earn a living and improves people’s life.
Deissinger & Gonon ( 2021) established that apprenticeship has three main goals. The first goal will be to help the gardener audit and discover which strategy works. It will be easy for the gardener to use the guidelines and skills taught by more experienced people to solve a problem effectively. So, it does not mean the new gardener is limited to exploiting their specific talent to solve problems they will encounter.
The second important goal is that the gardener will recognize all the tasks and challenges and understand their solutions (Kirkwood, 2009). The gardener will gain theoretical and practical knowledge as they are not in isolation. However, they are in a social setting with actual life experience that makes them gain specific skills for a specific task (Guile & Young, 1998). The third goal is to help the gardener raise his performance to higher and acceptable levels (Kee & Zhang, 2022).
An apprenticeship allows the gardener to learn and work with an expert, which has advantages over learning at novice levels (Guile & Young, 1998). when working with professionals such as senior horticulturists, the new assistant gardener is provided with the opportunity to learn skills at accepted levels in the industries (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021). When one acquires the three goals, it will help the new assistant gardener expand their knowledge and awareness of what to consider when finding a solution to a given difficult task. They will easily discover what tactic will work well in every situation, get experience handling these problems, and perform their work to acceptable and satisfactory levels (Guile & Young,1998).
The Cognitive Apprenticeship
According to Sun & Cui (2021), the cognitive apprenticeship can be explained as a model of instruction with a framework that helps the apprentice make accurate and actual thinking possible. It is a model to pass instructions that integrate proper education to enrich traditional apprenticeship. The learner is guided to acquire experiences by a process that helps all the involved parties understand the thought process utilized in skill development.in simple terms, one can consider a cognitive apprenticeship as a teaching method that teaches the strategies that specialists use to solve complex tasks. The teacher is tasked to utilize his experience and arrange the problem so that the novice can understand it and work effectively (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021).
The highlighted cognitive apprenticeship technique entails six components, as guided in the diagram below (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021).
Source: Deissinger & Gonon (2021)
The above diagram represents an institutional strategy model. In this model, a cognitive internship is founded on current identifications of how persons learn (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021). This model aimed to develop an alternative model accessible by institutions for students in America. Apart from being an institutional model, it also goes back to apprenticeship by incorporating elements used in schooling, known as cognitive apprenticeship. The skills gained in apprenticeship work as a foundation for one experience that helps the new gardener to face a real problem with competence, and they can therefore be entrusted to work on their own later in life.
The objective of cognitive apprenticeship ranges from solving the problems associated with inert knowledge stimulating the thinking process, and making it a learning action applicable to teachers and students (Budgell, 2021). Sun & Cui (2021) argued that cognitive apprenticeship makes it possible for senior horticulturists to apply traditional apprenticeship methods like coaching to guide the new process. A cognitive apprenticeship enables the operative incorporation of academic and professional education, which inculcates both skills and knowledge in the learner (Sun & Cui, 2021). The gardener will be able to demonstrate and construct their understanding of technology and other important ideas. The gardener can also contextualize all learning environments through cognitive apprenticeship and internalizing the thinking process involved (Nurmamatovich, 2022).
It is also important to note that cognitive apprenticeship utilizes a cognitive factor that insists on teaching by incorporating metacognitive and cognitive skills, which make a particular part of the knowledge domain (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021). The metacognitive and cognitive learning component works best for strategies and processes where the learner must apply knowledge to solve complex or novel problems out of the classroom (Kee & Zhang, 2022). Learners who use this method can think like scientists, technicians, or mathematicians (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021). Guile & Young ( 1998) believed that the cognitive apprenticeship model had been advanced to the belief that in learning environments, one can gain useable knowledge through interacting with authentic context, access to expert scaffolding, and coaching. Other factors like articulation help in tactic knowledge that is completed to be explicit (Deissinger & Gonon, 2021). How individuals approach a problem depends on their training and ability to learn from observing others. When correctly guided, they will become valuable to the larger society and get good rewards for their unique skills. Students who would like to join vocational courses should be able to identify a severe organization that allows learners to improve their skills through apprenticeship. After the internship, one should either use their skills through seeking employment or through self-employment. Those who create jobs for themselves can create jobs for others, using this opportunity to nurture other people to develop their skills.
Apprenticeships entail putting together on-the-job training with some accompanying education, technologically supported classroom work, and self-driven reading. The apprenticeship discussed in this paper seeks to improve the skills and develop a human-centered learning approach for the new Assistant Gardener who has an apprentice opportunity with a Senior Horticulturist at a more extensive Botanical garden.
The gardener will get on-the-job experience in learning practices in the horticultural sector in exchange for continuous labor for a set time once they have demonstrated competence. This paper applies human-centered learning design. Further, the paper provides the use of assistive technology in the gardener’s training and application of online applications such as YouTube. The learning needs of the gardener include the need for arousal that creates curiosity. Other needs include self-determination, competence, and improving their social life. The gardener will address learning needs through an apprenticeship, including oral expression, problem-solving, and self-determination. A cognitive factor that insists on teaching by incorporating metacognitive and cognitive skills that constitute a specific part of the knowledge domain was used in cognitive apprenticeship.
The metacognitive and cognitive learning component functions best for strategies and processes in which the learner is required to apply knowledge to solve challenging or novel problems outside the classroom context. By employing this technique, students can think like scientists, technicians, or mathematicians. This model has been developed to support the idea that in learning environments, one can acquire practical knowledge by interacting with real-world situations, having access to professional scaffolding, and receiving coaching. Other elements, such as articulation, aid in the completion of explicit tactic knowledge.
The gardener will be taken through a self-driven learning program on youtube, where the Senior Horticulturalist will record videos and upload them online for the gardener to study. The gardener will acquire basic skills crucial to delivering excellent horticultural products. The learning design considers the Educational Theory of Apprenticeship as a foundation for skills development for the gardener. The advantage of employing these teaching tactics is that they can reach several people simultaneously, and when recorded, one can revisit them to clarify some concepts.
The apprentice program will allow the gardener to study under and work with an expert, which has benefits over learning at the beginner level in a standard setup. In other words, the gardener is given a chance to learn skills at acceptable levels in the industries. Achieving the three objectives will help them increase their knowledge and awareness of the factors to consider when coming up with a solution to a particularly challenging task. They will quickly learn which strategy will be effective in every circumstance, gain experience dealing with these issues, and complete their work to acceptable and satisfactory standards. To adapt to a competitive, ever-changing, and technologically advanced world, workers must be equipped with superior skills in almost every field. Developing workers’ skills will ensure that the workers are always competent and innovative. As a result, it is critical to implement apprenticeship programs that emphasize competence development and encourage new hires to think creatively and maximize their talents in specific fields. Through an apprenticeship, a gardener can combine learning and working, which will be a valuable tool for gaining competence and making connections in the working world. Professionals and their understanding of industry customs will also benefit the gardener.
Budgell, P. (2021). Alternative Approaches to Vocational Education and Training. Професионално образование, 23(1), 9-29. https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=932526
Deissinger, T., & Gonon, P. (2021). The development and cultural foundations of dual apprenticeships–a comparison of Germany and Switzerland. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 73(2), 197-216. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13636820.2020.1863451
Gessler, M. (2019). Concepts of apprenticeship: Strengths, weaknesses, and pitfalls. Handbook of vocational education and training: Developments in the changing world of work, pp. 677–709. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Michael-Gessler-2/publication/325660500_Concepts_of_Apprenticeship_Strengths_Weaknesses_and_Pitfalls/links/5e47a612299bf1cdb92b6e0e/Concepts-of-Apprenticeship-Strengths-Weaknesses-and-Pitfalls.pdf
Guile D. & Young M.(1998). Apprenticeship as a conceptual basis for a social theory of learning. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13636829800200044
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Sun, Y., & Cui, H. (2021, May). Training of Modern Apprenticeship Talents in Agricultural and Forestry Colleges. In 2021 2nd International Conference on Computers, Information Processing and Advanced Education (pp. 408–411).https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3456887.3456979.
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APRNs And State Regulations Writing Sample
Advanced practice registered nurses (APRN) have significant contributions to healthcare. They have years of experience with patients and are highly skilled and knowledgeable about the needs of the patients. Consequently, these nurses can offer holistic treatment to the patient and not focus solely on the symptomatology of the disease. Research has established that primary care providers can satisfy the population’s health needs (BRYKCZYNSKI, 2023). Therefore, giving the nurses enhanced autonomy and authority can significantly improve treatment outcomes, lower the number of emergency cases and increase patient care access.
In the United States, the role, requirements, and regulations of nurse practitioners vary from one state to another. I plan to practice in Louisiana state. My paper, therefore, focuses on the roles of APRNs and the professional and educational requirements outlined by Louisiana state. I will also look into the process of certification and the regulations on the practice in this state.
Personal philosophy and framework
My philosophy as a practitioner is to provide a holistic approach to patient treatment. Treating the patient as a whole may provide numerous benefits to the patient compared to when the nurse practitioner focuses only on alleviating symptoms of the presenting condition (Masters, 2011). To achieve this goal, the nurse practitioner should invest adequately in establishing a long-lasting professional relationship with the patient. One of the aspects that can drive a good and trusting nurse-client relationship is the presence of clear communication. The patient must be assured that they are safe to share information regarding their condition and trust the clinician with sensitive matters of their personal lives. Furthermore, patient education and counseling are crucial to addressing patients’ healthcare needs.
As an APRN, my nursing care would align with Virginia’s Henderson Theory. In this theory, Virginia focuses on the idea that nursing is an intervention for reclaiming the abilities and capabilities of a person rather than just the provision of health care services (Masters, 2011). In other words, nursing has become more of an art of offering primary medical care to individuals. In line with this theory, I would be more interested in improving and enhancing patients’ independence and taking control of their own health.
Educational courses and professional requirements for APRN professional certification and licensing within Louisiana
Nurses must meet specific educational requirements to become eligible as an APRN. To begin with, a nurse must have an active and unrestricted registered license. In addition, the Louisiana State Board of Nursing stipulates that APRNs’ curricula must contain courses including diagnostic reasoning, advanced pharmacology, pathophysiology, and health care management. Practitioners hoping to become APRNs must attain graduate programs that prepare them for the roles and target groups (Louisiana Certified Nurse Practitioner Requirements, n.d.). These educational programs are meant to align with the curriculum guidelines set by the Board. A program may award a doctoral or Master’s degree.
For licensure eligibility without a Master’s degree, nurses must have obtained their graduation by the end of 2005 or have been enrolled by that time. In addition, a third party must have validated the program they undertook. This would imply that the Louisiana Board of nursing may have approved the program explicitly, a program that an approved institution may also offer. The student will also be evaluated based on the hours they have had direct clinical care with the patient. In Louisiana, the threshold is 500 hours. Besides, a prospective APRN should be clean and free from pending disciplinary issues or cases with the licensing bodies or state government.
Application for an initial APRN license requires that one completes an online application on Louisiana online website. The applicant must also complete a criminal background investigation, which may involve a fingerprint check at the police station. The fingerprint background check will be an exemption for the prospective APRNs who opt to deliver the applications at the Board office in person (Louisiana Certified Nurse Practitioner Requirements, n.d.). In that case, their fingerprints will be made at the center. A school official should then complete the education verification form and mail it directly to the Board. The same case applies to the submission of the transcripts. The applicant is expected to pay an application fee that the Board will request. The applicant must provide a photo of the most current and valid identification and the payment receipt for additional credentials.
APRN Role and Prescriptive Privilege
The Louisiana State Board of Nursing (LSBN) licenses the APRNs of the state, and it recognizes the four advanced practice roles, which include the following ((Louisiana Certified Nurse Practitioner Requirements, n.d.):
- Clinical Nurse Midwives (CNM)
- Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS)
- Certified Nurse Practitioner (NP) and,
- Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist
An APRN will have a target population that he focuses on. For instance, a CNM may concentrate on women’s health issues and family planning, and gynecological problems. In contrast, the nurse practitioner can focus on children or pediatric populations.
In Louisiana, APRNs apply for prescriptive authority separately. The qualification requires three credit hours or 45 contact hours: advanced pathophysiology, advanced health assessment, and pharmacotherapeutics (Louisiana Certified Nurse Practitioner Requirements, n.d.). Under the Louisiana laws and the regulations by the Board of Nursing, the APRN must have a collaborative agreement with a physician who is actively involved and currently registered to practice in the state. The main goal of the collective agreement is to improve patient care and safety.
Differences between prescriptive authority, credentialing, and clinical privileges
Louisiana has three distinct levels of practice: reduced, restricted, and full prescriptive authority. In this state, the reduced prescriptive authority dominates, implying that the practitioner has limited power such that other privileges are provided within the license while others are denied (Louisiana Certified Nurse Practitioner Requirements, n.d.). The full prescriptive authority would mean that a nurse practitioner can provide a wide range of services ranging from diagnosis, treatment, and management of illnesses and controlled prescribing of medications. The prescriptive authority can bar access to clinical care when it is more restrictive, but in most cases, it will tend to protect the patients.
Credentialing refers to the process that puts into use the stipulated guidelines to ensure that patients get the best care from the practitioners and that the same standards of practice apply to all health providers. Clinical privileging, on the other hand, may refer to the process that allows the health provider to offer a different set of skills, which the institution applauds. All these processes ensure the nurses’ safety and quality of care. An essential guide in pursuing these processes is the APRN consensus model, which entails the certification, accreditation, and licensure criteria for the advanced practice.
For a long time, the nursing profession has been given low regard and minimal acceptance concerning power and authority ((AANP, 2020). However, the narrative has changed over the year following collaborative efforts between the World Health Organization and other international agencies such as the International Council of Nurses (Schober, 2018). These bodies committed themselves to campaigns aimed at raising the nurses’ status globally and encouraging policies that support the practitioners. In addition, the aim is to produce professionals with leadership and decision-making skills who can positively impact the lives of their patients.
The nursing profession has evolved massively over the years, and new perspectives have been created (Waldrop, 2020). Including advanced practice, registered nurses have dramatically improved the quality of services that patients receive from the nurses. Moreover, the skills and knowledge contributed by APRNs have enhanced access to care at affordable costs. As a result, nurses have an improved global image and status quo among other health professionals.
American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP). (2020, August 7). The development of
advanced practice nursing internationally. American Association of Nurse Practitioners. https://www.aanp.org/news-feed/the-development-of-advanced-practice-nursing-internationally
BRYKCZYNSKI, C. L. M. K. A. (2023). Role development of the advanced practice nurse. Hamric & Hanson’s Advanced Practice Nursing-E-Book: An Integrative Approach, 98. https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=6nJ_EAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA98&dq=advanced+practice+nurse+role&ots=_X6rjZGhp9&sig=KHu-8XOQgP9THoG7mhOoxoDCRtQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=advancedpracticenurserole&f=false
Louisiana Certified Nurse Practitioner Requirements (n.d.). NursingLicensure.org. https://www.nursinglicensure.org/np-state/louisiana-nurse-practitioner/
Masters, K. (2011). Models and theories focused on nursing goals and functions. Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice, 383-412. https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7tdLDgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA425&dq=virginia+hendersons+theory+nursing+practice&ots=oQ4RC6eVcg&sig=-c5l2xVdPlI3xG8NHxcrREuZhsQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=virginiahenderson’stheorynursingpractice&f=false
Schober, M. (2018). Global emergence of nurse practitioner/advanced practice nursing roles. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 30(4), 182-184. https://journals.lww.com/jaanp/Citation/2018/04000/Global_emergence_of_nurse_practitioner_advanced.2.aspx
Tracy, M. F., & O’Grady, E. T. (2019). Hamric and Hanson’s: Advanced Practice Nursing. An integrative approach (6th ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier.
Waldrop, J. B. (2020). Support for Nurse Practitioner Role Development Worldwide. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 16(8), A9-A10. https://www.npjournal.org/article/S1555-4155(20)30367-6/fulltext