Adventures Of Huck Finn And Twain Writing Sample

Picking just one bad habit is like getting only one piece of candy at SweetFactory. Once I finally picked my bad habit I realized how badly I needed towork on it. Huck had a bad habit he needed to work on too. Maybe we didntknow about it or thought we could get rid of it easily. But were either of usgoing to work it out? In the book Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain,which we were reading in class, the main character Huck had many bad habits aswell.

But his one main bad habit was lying to himself and by doing this he brokethe law, his moral code and the law of God. It all started after he fakes hisown death and runs to an island where he finds a run away slave, Jim that workedfor Miss Watson, his guardians sister. Next they leave to find Cairo but asthey float down the river they run into many hardships. While this is happeningHuck is doing most of his lying to himself. This is very similar to my bad habitbecause during my month of trying to quit fighting with my mom I went throughsome very hard times holding back what I wanted to say. This was a very bighardship of mine. So I realized Huck and I had a lot in common. Hucks badhabit was first shown to us in chapter VIII when Huck tells Jim, “Well I did.

I said I wouldnt, and Ill stick to it. Honest injun I will.” He istelling Jim he wont tell anyone that he ran away which means Huck is breakingthe law of the land. We knows this because Huck also says “People would callme a low sown Ablitionist and despise me for keeping mumbut that dont makeno difference.” Huck again lies for Jim in chapter XVI when he is about totell the men on the raft that Jim is with him but his conscience comes intoplay. When this happens he lies to these men and this is just adding more to hisbad habit. Also in this chapter Huck breaks his own moral code. When him and Jimmiss Cairo he says “There warnt anything to say. We both knowed well enoughit was more work of the rattle-snake skin; so what was the use to talk aboutit?” This is breaking his own moral code because he didnt believe that arattlesnake could bring bad luck.

Then he broke the law of God in chapter XXXIwhen he said, “You cant pray a lieI found that out.” This is when Huckrealized that he doesnt think what he was doing was wrong. Last in chapter XLHuck realizes that the colors of the skin really dont matter. So at the endHuck breaks through his bad habit. Well my bad habit basically started when mymom started telling me no. And I just wasnt going to take it. So I startedtalking back and I wouldnt stop until I got my way or hurt my mom. Which isreally something I dont want to do. Thats why I was hoping by trying tobreak this bad habit I wouldnt have to do it anymore. It started out prettygood I would be ready to fight or say something that might hurt my momsfeelings and I would catch myself. It started feeling better right away and mymom even noticed the change.

But then I began to think less and less about itand it all started back up again. So I wrote in my journals about the change andhow I didnt want it to go back but before I knew it my mom and I werefighting and it was the end of the month. Huck and I were alike because I brokemy own moral code by being rude to my mom. I also broke the law of God becausein the bible it says honor your father and mother and I dont think what Imdoing is considered that. Huck and I were different because Huck no longer had abad habit and I still do. Well Huck worked his bad habit out and is probablyfeeling pretty good. However Im still working on mine and I think maybe oneday I might be free of this. So Im going to keep on trying and if I ever domake it through this I will make sure to tell you. But until that day comesIll always go for as many candies as I can get.

Religious Overtones In “the Star” Story

This science fiction story called “The Star” has many religious and spiritual overtones which makes the theme of the story ‘There always has to be one to save all” more obvious. From the first to the last sentence the theme was built throughout to be a parallel experience of what has happened to the people before the great flood. Like many great science fiction stories this one shares a great message of hope in the unknown and to be glad that we have been so lucky to survive whatever we were supposed to have survived. This story was written in the late 1970’s because of the reference to the Mark VI computer.

In the first paragraph there is brief indication of religious symbols such as three thousand light years to the Vatican and Crucifix. The first of the two symbols I point out is the reference of their time in accordance to our time. The setting of this story takes place three Thousand light years to the Vatican. The great distance these travelers have to travel before they reach the greatest holy place for Catholics will happen three thousand light years. Take away the word light years and you are left with three thousand years which in this instance shows not only how far they are from their spiritual guidance but their distance their personal distance from God. The word crucifix means as it is used in the context of hope that the Catholic doctrines which most of the crew once believed in no longer rings true for them because they’ve seen so many merciless acts of destruction on the part of God that they ended up thinking he never existed for if he did exists they pose the question, “then why did he allow this to happen?”.

The narrator of this story is a priest or spiritual advisor who helps the crew of this ship whose mission it is to see how the universe was created to make sure their moral stays up so they will not commit suicide. He too like many of his fellow crewmates questions God role in the universe. The role many religions play in today’s society is to give hope to those people who have nothing to look forward to. Because of democratic change in the world’s political landscape and the practice of many of these religious groups catering to the whims of their followers by tell them the things they want to hear. For instance no one wants to hear that there will only be certain number of people who will be saved in God’s second coming. They want to think that God will save us all and all we have to do is believe that he exists and do good works. The experience of these travelers can be likened to the post war trauma of soldiers. They come out of the mission holding a very cynical view of the world and in the process lead a life of pure pessimism, which can lead to suicide and many other unusual acts of violence. The find of a new planet where it’s inhabitants left a visual record of their existence before surrendering to their forthcoming demise seemed very troubling to the crew. The past inhabitants chronicled their life in a time capsule. They witnessed a kind of people, which enjoyed the same atmosphere as their own back on earth but unlike them they knew of their black fate before it happened as it was shown through their drawings. The reader is left with a sense of injustice because he is so enraged by what happened to the people of this former planet that it makes the reader see the true irony in this story. That being the people of this world back in the ancient times looked to a savior named Jesus to save them from the impending judgment. The flood that drowned many of earth’s first dwellers was drowned for no reason than to replenish the earth of all evil people. But even back then to the people that suffered through all the death and destruction of the flood it didn’t make any sense for they too lost many love ones who they mourned deeply about after the great flood. Like the people back then we too have no hope in a savior. And that is ironic for it says in the bible that only God’s people will be saved. It’s ridiculous to realize that we all still think that includes us. BibliographyArthur C Clark, 1970, The StarThesis and Dissertations

Malaria: Causes, Symptoms, And Diagnosis

Malaria parasites have been with us since the beginning of time, andfossils of mosquitoes up to thirty million years old show that malarias vectorhas existed for just as long. The parasites causing malaria are highly specific,with man as the only host and mosquitoes as the only vector. Every year,300,000,000 people are affected by malaria, and while less than one percent ofthese people die, there are still an estimated 1,500,000 deaths per year. WhileMalaria was one of the first infectious diseases to be treated successfully witha drug, scientist are still looking for a cure or at least a vaccination today(Cann, 1996). Though many people are aware that malaria is a disease, they areunaware that it is life threatening, kills over a million people each year, andis a very elusive target for antimalarial drugs (Treatment of Malaria, 1996).

Being a very specific disease, malaria is caused by only four protozoalparasites: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, andPlasmodium malariae. Not only is the disease specific, but the parasites aretoo, with only 60 of 380 species of female Anopheles mosquitoes as vectors.

With the exception of Plasmodia Malariae which may affect other primates, allparasites of malaria have only one host, Homo sapiens. Because some mosquitoescontain substances toxic to Plasmodium in their cells, not all species ofmosquitoes are vectors of Plasmodium. Although very specific, malaria stillcauses disruption of over three hundred million people worldwide each year (Cann,1996).

The life cycle of the parasite causing malaria exists between twoorganisms, humans and the Anopheles mosquito. When a female mosquito bites ahuman, she injects an anticoagulant saliva which keeps the human bleeding andensures an even flowing meal for her. When the vector injects her saliva intothe human, it also injects ten percent of her sporozoite load. Once in thebloodstream, the Plasmodium travel to the liver and reproduce by asexualreproduction. These liver cells then burst releasing the parasites back intothe bloodstream where they then enter red blood cells. Here, the Plasmodiumfeed on hemoglobin and reproduce again by asexual reproduction. Afterwards, thered blood cells burst and release the parasites. Some of the parasites releasedfrom red blood cells may be able to replicate by sexual reproduction. When thehost has been bitten by a mosquito again, infected blood inters the mosquito.

Here, sexual forms of the parasite develop in the stomach of the Anophelesmosquito completing the parasites life cycle (Herman, 1996).

People infected malaria have several symptoms including fever, chills,headaches, weakness, and an enlarged spleen (Herman, 1996). The amount of timefor symptoms to appear differs depending on the form of the parasite. Thoseinfected with Plasmodium falciparum experience symptoms after about twenty-fourhours, those infected with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale producesymptoms after a forty-eight hour interval, and after seventy-two hoursPlasmodium malariae begin causing fever and chills (Cann, 1996).

Most malaria cases seem to cluster in the tropical climate areasextending into the subtropics, and malaria is especially endemic in Africa. In1990 eighty percent of all reported cases were in Africa, while the remainder ofmost cases came from nine countries: India, Brazil, Afghanistan, Sri-Lanka,Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia, and China. Globally, the diseasecirculates in almost one hundred countries causing up to 1,500,000 deathsannually (Cann, 1996).

Because there is no definite cure for malaria, scientists are tryingtheir hardest to contain the parasite to where it now exists. The range of avector from a suitable habitat is fortunately limited to a maximum of two miles(Cann, 1996). If this were the only factor, scientist would have no problemcontaining the disease. Humans migrate, however, and over time the disease hasslowly spread throughout the tropics. Major problems also exist when ignoranttourists to Africa transfer the parasite to non malarious areas (Graham, 1996).

Biologists are also using control measures, such as spraying DDT to killmosquitoes, draining stagnant water, and using the widespread use of nets tocontain the mosquito itself (Herman, 1996). Because of the worsening situation,the World Health Organization (WHO) declared malaria control to be a globalpriority (Limited Imagination, 1996).

Although limiting the spread of malaria is not easy, finding a cure haspresented several problems in recent years. One main reason finding a cure formalaria is so hard is that different strains in different parts of the worldrequire different drugs, all of which soon lose their effectiveness as theparasite evolves resistance to them (Limited Imagination, 1996). Secondly, oncethe parasite enters the human bloodstream, it changes form several times insidethe body, making it an elusive target for the immune system (Cann, 1996). Last,while research and development is very expensive, Africas third world countriesdont have the money to support such research (Graham, 1996).

Research in the field of malarias microbiology enables a search forbetter vaccines and a possible cure for malaria (Atovaquone, 1996). In the pastseveral decades, scientists have developed many drugs that have all fallenvictim to the resistance of the Plasmodium parasites. Such drugs includechloroquine, pyrimethamine, chloroguanide, desipramine, halofantrine, mefloquine,and arteether (Herman, 1996). Scientists too often find their drugseffectiveness wearing off as malarial parasites build tolerance to them (Graham,1996).

Several drugs used to treat the disease have been around for centuries.

One such drug is quinine, a compound extracted from the bark of the cinchonatree. This drug was a secret of the locals of the Amazon jungle for centuriesuntil European missionaries learned of its use. The trouble remains thatquinine is expensive to harvest, is extremely hard to synthesize, and fails toprevent relapses (Limited Imagination, 1996). Another unique treatment ofmalaria is the use of the herb Artemisia annua. This herb has been used forcenturies in traditional Chinese medicine to treat malaria and fever. Neitherof these drugs are one hundred percent effective (Herman, 1996).

While the need for malarial vaccines grows urgent, so does the number ofpeople affected each year. Although it is caused by a highly specific parasite,malaria still seems to kill off between one to two million people annually. Asthe Plasmodium parasites mutate more and more to resist the effect ofantimalarials, it becomes harder for scientist to find a cure (Treatment ofMalaria, 1996). Over forty percent of the worlds population still at risk fromthis deadly disease, is yearning for a cheap, effective vaccine (Cann, 1996).

BibliographyDr. Cann, Alan J. PhD., “The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute Malaria Database”,1996, http://www.wehi.edu.au/biology/malaria/who.html.

Graham, David, “Malaria-Proof Mosquitoes,” Technology Review, October 1996, Vol.

99, Issue 7, p20-22, MAS FullTEXT ELITE, Nancy Guinn Library.

Herman, Robert, “Malaria,” New Groliers Multimedia Encyclopedia, Copywrite 1996.

“Atovaquone and Proguanil for Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria,” Lancet, June 1,1996, Vol. 347, Issue 9014, p1511-1515, MAS FullTEXT ELITE, Nancy Guinn Library.

“Limited Imagination,” Economist, September 28, 1996, Vol. 340, Issue 7985, p80-82, MAS FullTEXT ELITE, Nance Guinn Library.

“Treatment of Malaria,” New England Journal of Medicine, September 12, 1996, Vol.

335, Issue 11, p800-807, MAS FullTEXT ELITE, Nancy Guinn Library. Category: Science

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