Advertisers: Family And Social Relations Essay Example


Advertisers target the youth market more and more these days. The thirteen to fifteen age brackets are perhaps the most coveted group for marketers today. The main industries focusing on this age group are tobacco, alcohol, drug, food and cloth industries. The advertisements are presented through important means of media such as television, movies, print media and internet. This paper presents the focus of such industries on the children who are aged between thirteen to fifteen years.

Purpose of the Paper

The purpose of the paper is to determine the cause of the increased focus of the advertisers on the younger brackets during the last hundred years and to assess what are the industries that pay more attention to the children between thirteen to fifteen years of age.

Advertisements and Younger Age Brackets

Today, younger age brackets are the attraction of advertisements and various companies spend a lot of money for the advertisements through television, movies, print media and internet. The companies producing tobacco, alcohol, drug, and food are the main advertisers focusing on younger age children. “Advertising is a pervasive influence on children and adolescents. Young people view more than 40 000 ads per year on television alone and increasingly are being exposed to advertising on the Internet, in magazines, and in schools.” (Pediatrics, 2006, para.1).

The main reason for attracting the younger age brackets is their curiosity. The youth like to experience what they see in the television, magazines and other media. So, the companies can exploit the curious nature of the younger people. This is the main agenda of advertisers.

Movies can create an immense influence on the teenagers and the children imitate what ever they see in the movies. It is often found that the child who watches aggressive movies has aggressive nature towards their friends and parents. Vicious films, ads and other games highly influence the children. “A 2000 FTC investigation found that violent movies, music, and video games have been intentionally marketed to children and adolescents.” (Pediatrics, 2006, para.5).

Food Ads and Younger Brackets

Food is the main attraction for children. They spend enormous money for getting foods in different tastes. Therefore, food industry has a special focus on younger brackets irrespective of girl and boy. The food industry is highly intended to chase the youth as they are the future customers of the industry. Majority of the young generation are highly brand conscious. In view of this, the food industries are ready to spend any amount for the advertisements.

In recent years, the food and beverage industry in the US has viewed children and adolescents as a major market force. As a result, children and adolescents are now the target of intense and specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. Food marketers are interested in youth as consumers because of their spending power, their purchasing influence, and as future adult consumers. Multiple techniques and channels are used to reach youth, beginning when they are toddlers, to foster brand-building and influence food product purchase behavior. (Story & French, 2004, para.1).

Alcohol Ads and Younger Brackets

Majority of the alcohol consumers are adults and they begin to consume the alcohol from their school time onwards. Alcohol has become an inevitable part of all social gathering, parties or celebration. Even tough the younger brackets are legally banned from taking alcohol; they furtively get induced into the activity. Also, there is an inner drive for the younger generation to do what is prohibited to them. More ads of alcohol are found in the magazines intended for the youth. “Young people see 45% more beer ads and 27% more ads for hard liquor in teen magazines than adults do in their magazines.” (Pediatrics, 2006, para.6). It shows that, printed magazine is one of the influencing means of pervading the ads on alcohol.

Tobacco Ads and the Youth

Most of the younger generation use tobacco in the schools. The main reason for smoking is the advertisement. So, when their peer group gets together, they start to taste what they have observed in the elders and media. Studies have shown the relationship between the tobacco ads and development of smoking habit among the younger children. “Two unique and large longitudinal studies have found that approximately one third of all adolescent smoking can be attributed to tobacco advertising and promotions.” (Children, adolescents, and advertising, 2006, p.2).

Textile Ads and the Younger Generation

They like to be stylish in the life, dressing code, behavior etc. When they a trendy attire in the market they wish to possess it. The textile industry makes use of this nature of the children. They choose the brand ambassadors who could attract the young generation. The children like to put on what their stars wear. This is the marketing strategy used by the cloth industries.

Role of the Website in the Promotion of the Advertisements

There are so many commercial websites promoting drugs, alcohol, tobacco etc. These websites have various sites for chatting and games. If there are games in the site, the children will get interested and more often they will be searching the site. It is very explicable in the following sentence.

More than 100 commercial Web sites promote alcohol products.23 The content of these sites varies widely, from little more than basic brand information to chat rooms, “virtual bars,” drink recipes, games, contests, and merchandise catalogues. Many of these sites use slick promotional techniques to target young people. (Pediatrics, 2006, para.7).

Entertainment industries also aim at the children since they like movies, games, cartoons etc. There are so many channels and videos intended only for the children. “Entertainment industries continue to market some R-rated movies, M-rated video games, and explicit-content recordings on television shows and Web sites with substantial teen audiences.” (FTC issues report on marketing violence entertainment to children, 2007, para.1).

Increased Amount for the Ads in View of Younger Brackets

The message in the ads of alcohol, drugs, tobacco etc shows that it is not healthy for the teenagers. But, the implicit and hidden idea behind the ad is the massive consumption of drugs by the teenagers. From these advertisements, the school children who are in between thirteen and fifteen years of age are tempted and they use it on the sly. The drug industry spends a lot of money for the advertisement and the following sentence unravels it.

Just Say No as a message to teenagers about drugs seems doomed to failure given that $11 billion/year is spent on cigarette advertising, $5.7 billion/year is spent on alcohol advertising, and nearly $4 billion/year is spent on prescription drug advertising (Pediatrics, 2006, para.12).


The main attraction of the advertisers is on younger brackets. This paper unravels the statistics of spending for the advertisement by various industries. It shows that industries such as tobacco, alcohol, drug and food are more focused on the youth. They are tempted to consume drugs, tobacco and alcohol due to the attractive advertisements.

Reference List

Children, adolescents, and advertising. (2006). American Academy of Pediatrics, 118(6). Web.

FTC issues report on marketing violence entertainment to children. (2007). Federal Trade Commission.

Pediatrics. (2006). American Academy of Pediatrics. Web.

Story, M., & French, S. (2004). Food advertising and marketing directed at children and adolescents in the US. UK Pubmed Central. Web.

Labor And Autonomy Among Slaves In The US And Egypt

Slavery is an old evil that has existed on earth for a long time. The most memorable episodes of slavery include the enslavement of Israelites in Egypt and the enslavement of African Americans in the United States. With a focus on the slavery that existed in the United States, what was the leeway given to slaves that would allow them to set the terms of labor and construct a degree of autonomy among themselves? In this essay, I will be discussing this issue based on my opinion. I will first discuss the circumstances surrounding slave labor followed by the space given to slaves to chart the course for their lives. In my opinion, slaves were not given any form of empowerment to negotiate the terms of labor in their interests. They however tried to come up with a sphere of autonomy to limit their reliance on their masters. The biggest problem this attempt at autonomy faced was interference by the greedy and evil masters. Below are the illustrations for these assertions.

To begin with, the masters had the evil habit of beating the slaves. It was not uncommon to come across slaves whose backs were sore with lashes of the whip. Is it possible that one can beat his or her slave or worker and yet allow the slave or worker to work on his or her terms? If this were the case, then the beating would not have occurred in the first place. The reason why the masters beat the slaves is that the masters had the superior feeling that they owned the slaves. They therefore would not allow the slaves to do anything they wanted. They had to follow the instructions of the masters and failure to do this resulted in beatings. This is evidence that the slaves did not have the empowerment to negotiate the terms of labor.

Secondly, slave labor involved the exchange of money between the slave traders and the masters. The money that was paid differed from slave to slave. It is possible that intelligent slaves most of whom were slender cost less and were mistreated more since the masters feared that such slaves would come up with crafty plans and cause disturbances on their plantations. Big muscular slaves who were thoughtless were readily purchased by the masters who fed them well and made maximum use of their physical strength in the plantations. The payment of money for human beings meant that the masters had an immoral claim of ownership. This, therefore, gave them the evil air of power over the slaves, meaning the slaves would not negotiate labor on their terms. Negotiation of labor on the terms of the labor is possible when a laborer is a free person. This is the only time the laborer can proudly say that if he or she is not paid the amount of money he or she wants, the job will not be done. But this is not possible when the laborer has been reduced to an owned item. This is evidence that slaves were not empowered at all to negotiate labor on terms.

Thirdly, there is overwhelming evidence that the slaves did not have any empowerment to negotiate labor conditions on their terms. The evidence is in form of the inhuman actions the masters did to their slaves besides the beating already identified elsewhere in this essay. What are these evil and inhuman actions? The masters sexually abused extremely young children of the slaves. They did this to both male and female children. Cases of young boys being abused sexually by male masters were as common as the cases of girls being sexually abused by the masters. In some cases, the masters sired children with their female slaves and ended up sexually abusing these children, who are in the real sense, their children, related to them by blood. Were they not their biological fathers? Is it possible for people who are subjected to such cruel acts to negotiate labor conditions on their terms? It is not possible. The evil actions of the masters testify that they were out to break the spirits of their slaves and therefore take from them all the power to do anything reasonable for themselves. Therefore, slaves were not empowered at all to perform labor on their terms.

In addition to the above, the government that existed at the time did not have any structures that protected the rights of the slaves. The masters were recognized as the owners of the slaves and therefore had total control over them. In this situation, the slaves had no choice in terms of the place they were to work, the person they would work for, the length of time they would work, and the nature of work they would do. All these decisions were made by the masters. In case the masters misbehaved in the various ways discussed above, the slaves had no legal redress. They had to stay with their suffering till their bodies gave in and their souls went back to the Creator. Like the Israeli slaves in Egypt who had to do everything as per the doctrines and rules of the Pharaoh, the African Americans had to listen to their masters. And like the Israeli slaves in Egypt made their grievances known to God, the African American slaves had no one to report to other than their creator. This is not a position of empowerment that would have allowed the slaves to negotiate labor on their terms. What about the sphere of autonomy that the slaves would construct for themselves?

Autonomy for Slaves

If there is something the slaves tried to do with all their strength, it was to attain a level of autonomy. The thinking behind this was that if they had the chance to meet their needs instead of relying on their masters, they would limit the chances of meeting their masters who always mistreated them. The evidence for this attempt at autonomy is in the form of groups that the slaves formed. Some of these groups later became active movements that agitated for freedom. The effort to achieve autonomy was however not considered a good move by the masters may have rightly thought that the slaves would easily rebel against them if they attained a reasonable degree of autonomy. The masters made use of both physical and psychological tools to kill the spirits of the slaves. For example, they tried hard to make the slaves see themselves as less intelligent and therefore unable to care for themselves. This notion stuck even in the minds of some of the masters themselves who ended up passing it on to their sons and daughters. This led to the now virulent problem of racism. This is not any different from the ridicule the Jews got in Germany leading to the Second World War whereby their noses were considered long and ugly and their brains considered slow. This turned out to be a baseless fallacy when Jews led the way in scientific discovery, political thought, and sportsmanship.

In conclusion, slaves were not empowered at all to carry out labor negotiations on their terms. They attempted to be autonomous but their evil masters thwarted their plans.

A Case Study Of Michelle Rhee


The tenure system at the university level came into being after realization that it was important for educators to extend their limit of teaching skills in order to improve students’ know-how and high degree of thinking in their studies. Whenever job security is not in place, the teaching fraternity may be tempted to create a safe zone just in case they lose their jobs. They cannot explore other areas in which they have passion or even be honest enough to give realistic conclusions on their work performance. The debate surrounding the adoption of tenure system or its abolition in lower levels of learning institutions is on-going and very rife. Those arguing in favor of tenure system say that this is the only way of absorbing and maintaining the most qualified staff and therefore improving performance in schools due to security of tenure. Those against the tenure system say that it is a big stumbling block in the laying off of low performing staff. This paper is going to examine a case study Michelle Rhee, Chancellor of Washington School who is proposing radical changes to the existing tenure system

Michelle Rhee

Chancellor Michelle A. Rhee of Washington School proposed a binding agreement that would see teachers at the middle level who earn $62,000 annually have a pay increase of above $100,000 per year. This pay package will not come without a cost. According to Ms Rhee, they will have to give up their seniority and rights of tenure.

The New York Times (Dillon, 2008) reported that “Michelle Rhee… thinks teacher tenure may be great for adults…who go into teaching to get summer vacations…it hurts children”. The employed adults who no longer have any fear regarding their job security enjoy a lot. This is disastrous to school children who not only fail to get quality education, but end up scoring low grades and leading a bad life.

Her bold recommendations shocked several stakeholders including policy formulators. They are keenly watching to see the outcome of her outrageous proposals. “Four thousand members Washington Teachers Union is divided whether to embrace it with many union members calling tenure a crucial protection against arbitrary firing” (Dillon, 2008). Ms Rhee however became impatient to wait for union feedback on her proposed changes. She openly proclaimed “an effort to identify and fire ineffective teachers, including those with tenure” (Dillon, 2008). Ms Rhee was not aiming at doing away with the tenure system. In her opinion, “each teacher would choose between two compensation plans, one called green and the other red” (Dillon, 2008). Those teachers in the “green plan” would be remunerated highly than those in the “red plan”. For instance, by the year two thousand and ten teachers in the green plan would have nearly doubled their pay. However, according to New York Times report (Dillon, 20008), “they would need to give up tenure for a year, after which they would need a principal’s recommendation or face dismissal”. Ms Rhee has a strong feeling that the tenure system of hiring teachers has lost significant value of education for children. It has only jeopardized children performance in schools due to rampant failure by the affected institutions. Ms Rhee asserts that “if we can put veteran teachers who have tenure in a position where they don’t have it that would help us to radically increase our teacher quality. And maybe other districts would try it, too.”(Dillon 2008). In a separate report carried in a Wall Street journal (Anonymous 2009), there is a remarkable academic improvement ever recorded in the past two years. The report confirms that the student scores released last week by the United States Department of Education indicated great gains in Mathematics among Washington’s children in grade four. Similarly, “D.C.’s eighth-graders increased their math proficiency at a faster rate than all other big cities save San Diego” (Anonymous, 2009). This is a notable upward shift in the academic performance of Washington, courtesy of Ms Rhee’s radical changes. Earlier before she took over as the Chancellor of Washington School – way back in 2007 – “the nation’s capital went through six superintendents in 10 years” (Anonymous 2009). She has so far initiated several changes including replacing principals who have proven to be inefficient in their work; teachers have been dismissed on the basis of quality and not seniority. Schools which do not perform well have equally been closed down. The Washington Teachers Union has been holding several agreement meetings with Ms Rhee which has moved slowly for the past two years. Top on her recommendations would be to “offer six-figure salaries to teachers willing to link their paychecks to student performance” (Anonymous 2009). Those who are not willing will have to retain their job security but paid less.

In concluding this case study, it can be observed that Ms Rhee’s changes to the Washington D.A school district has led to both negative and positive results. In a negative perspective, the school district has been turned upside down by Ms Rhee’s action of dismissing two hundred and seventy tenured teachers from their positions. She has gone against the existing tenure security laws and as a consequence led to massive unemployment. The positive outlook of her action is on the improved performance in Washington D.A schools. Such an improvement had not been realized before. Moreover, principals and instructors who prove to be efficient in their work will end up earning higher salaries if Ms Rhee’s proposals are adopted.

Reference List

Anonymous (2009).Who’s Got Michelle Rhee’s Back. The Wall Street Journal. Web.

Dillon, S. (2008). A School Chief Takes on Tenure, Stirring a Fight.The New York Times. Web.

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