Afro-American Slaves’ Experiences And World Free Sample

What were the most important factors affecting the slave experience?

When considering the elements of the 19th-century environment that defined the experience of slaves, one must bring up the economic specifics of the area. Seeing that the South was primarily known as the area for agricultural resources, the necessity for manual labour was always high. Therefore, maddening and exhausting work on plantations was the direct result of the characteristics of the local economy.

Furthermore, apart from the economic aspects of the South, the cultural elements thereof need to be bought up. With the propensity to justify the relationships between a slave and a master, the local traditions affected the opportunities that African Americans faced in the United States at the time. Therefore, the culture- and traditions-related factors could be deemed as the primary determinants of the deplorable state in which slaves found themselves (Miller et al. 00:04:50-00:08.12).

In what ways were slaves able to shape their own world?

However, slaves managed to make their voices be heard. The statements made by African American people reached not only those who were willing to help but also the members of the population that needed to be persuaded to accept the concept of equality. The identified effect was truly unprecedented given the level of oppression that slaves had to deal with in the 19th century.

Several autobiographies of former slaves helped shed light on the atrocities of slavery. Furthermore, the interviews that the authors of the autobiographies had with other former slaves allowed painting a rather gloomy yet nonetheless accurate picture. The portrayal of the despicable acts of cruelty to which the African American population was subjected allows understanding the subject matter better.

Finally, the culture of African American people portrayed the changes in their mindset, traditions, beliefs, and perceptions. Specifically, the ability of the identified members of the American population to retain their culture specifics such as the gospel music showed that the people were ready to fight against the oppression.

In what ways were slaves able to resist the oppression of slavery?

Despite the terrible injustice and violence that the African American population faced at the time, people managed to rebel and resist the oppression. For instance, the tendency for maintaining family and preserving the family values warranted the title of the defining feature of relationships between slaves in the 19th century (Miller et al. 00:19:06-00:23:57). As a result, the significance of family bonding grew exponentially in the African American culture.

In a similar way, the importance of religion increased significantly among African Americans. Drawing parallels between the oppressed Jewish people and the situation in which they were in the identified time slot, slaves drew inspiration from the Biblical stories. Therefore, religion became the source of the spiritual strength and the power to resist the oppression that helped African Americans survive the horrifying era of slavery.

What important points stood out to you from the video, Slavery: The South and Slave Culture? Why did you find them significant?

Personally, I was very curious to learn how the myth about the content slave that was unwilling to change the social relationships between the members of the American population in the 19th century was subverted. Seeing that the myth was extraordinarily popular among the proponents of slavery, altering people’s perception of the situation was unbelievably challenging (Miller et al. 00:22:01-00:24:12). Therefore, showing how the process of resistance worked, the video became the foundation for building an understanding of the process of the social change. The description of the struggle was both inspiring and terrifying. The narration helped embrace the scale of the social alterations and the immense effort that had to be made to make the oppressors hear the voices of their victims.

Works Cited

Holitz, John. “History ‘From the Bottom up’: Historians and Slavery.” Thinking Through the Past, edited by John Holitz, vol. 2, Cengage Learning, 2014, pp. 227-248.

Miller, Donald L., et al. “Program 9: Slavery/The South and Slave Culture.” Learner.org, n.d., Web.

Artemisia Gentileschi’s Art And Feminist Impact

Artemisia Gentileschi is regarded as one of the most prolific artist of the seventeenth century at a time when women were stigmatized and considered incapable of practicing any form of art. During her time, painting was a prestigious career that was dominated by men. It was a mode of communication in a society where civilization was gaining shape. At that time, Italy was one of the major centers of civilization. Artists used painting as a way of championing for the rights of the weak, a means of communication affection, and a mode of empowering the youth to take active role in the development of their society.

Artemisia came out as a unique painter capable of portraying her emotions using the work of art. Her success as a painter and the popularity of her work saw her become the firm woman to enter Accademia di Arte Del Desegno (Rabey & Goldingay, 2013). This was a prestigious institution for accomplished artists of her time. Before her entry into this institution, it was difficult to believe that a woman would be so accomplished in art to be allowed to join the institution. Her excellent painting work made that possible. In this paper, the researcher seeks to prove that although Artemisia Gentileschi’s life was marked by a number of challenges and controversies, she rose to become one of the greatest painters of her time and made significant contributions in the field of painting.

Background of Artemisia Gentileschi

According to O’Brien (2009), Artemisia was born on July 8, 1593 in the city of Rome in Italy. Like many girls of her time, she joined a local school at a very tender age. However, she had to drop out of school for two main reasons. The first reason was that girls of that time were not expected to get the kind of education that boys did. Their place was believed to be at home taking care of their family. The second reason was that her father was not earning much from his work as a second-class painter. She developed interest in painting at a very early age. She would spend time in her father’s workshop to practice how to paint. After dropping out of school, she concentrated on painting.

In 1611, her father hired a family friend known as Agostino Tassi to be her tutor as it was evident she was interested in becoming a professional painter. However, Agostino took advantage of the trust the family had towards him and sexually assaulted Artemisia. This incident changed her life completely. She was traumatized and came to realize that indeed women in this society went through pain at the hands of men. She took part in the prosecution of Agostino for the rape case, but did not affect her desire to champion for the rights of women and the weak in the society. The incident defined her path in the career of painting.

Career in Painting

According to O’Brien (2009), Artemisia started her painting work in Rome, her birthplace. Her early works were motivated by the rage she had towards men who took advantage of women primarily because women are physically strong. She wanted to pass a message that although men may have the physical strength women also play a critical role in the society and, therefore, must be respected. She turned to bible and identified women who played significant role in liberating their society despite the perception that it was the role of men to defend their country. In one of her early painting, she depicted Judith and her maid slaying Holofernes for raping a woman. The figure below shows the painting.

Judith slaying Holofernes.
Figure 1: Judith slaying Holofernes. Source (Brine, Ciletti & Lähnemann, 2010).

The painting captured attention of her society primarily because of the level of violence in it. It received criticism from a section of the society and they complained that it was not an accurate representation of a civilized Rome where dialogue reigned over violence. However, this did not stop her from depicting violence in her painting. She was an advocate for women empowerment and nothing was going to stop her from achieving her mission. However, she had already become unpopular in Rome because of the level of violence in her paintings and the fact that men were often the victims of such violence.

She went to Florence where her work gained massive success. Her work still depicted women as successful members of the society and she still relied on the bible to pass her message. However, the painting depicted less violence compared with her paintings in Rome. It was in Florence that she became accepted into the prestigious Accademia delle Arti Del Disegno (Smith, 2008). Her work became very influential. The figure below shows one of her work where she depicted Delilah as a strong-willed woman who was able to save her society by spying on Samson.

Samson and Delilah.
Figure 2: Samson and Delilah. Source (Brine, Ciletti, & Lähnemann, 2010).

She developed good relationship with other painters and she explained to them the motivation behind her feminist campaigns. She returned to Rome in 1621 as an accomplished painter who had gained acceptance and admiration among the high and mighty in the society. She settled in Venice where she continued to champion for the rights of women. O’Brien (2009) says that a section of the society even thought that she hated men, especially after she divorced her husband in Florence before moving back to Rome (Brine, Ciletti, & Lähnemann, 2010). However, there are those who believe that she was motivated by the desire to have a community where women are given equal treatment as men.

Impact on the Field of Art

Artemisia, like many other great painters before and after her, used art to pass a message to the society. She played a critical role in transforming the art of painting from one that focused on beauty to that which focused on passing messages. She influenced many painters after her to use this art as a way of communicating to the members of the society. Her works exhibited a great sense of artistry in terms of beauty, precision, and many other factors considered important among painters of her time. However, one of the most outstanding factors in all her paintings was the message that was exhibited in these paintings. All her paintings had a specific message meant for the audience.

It was not difficult to depict the message she was trying to put across in her paintings. Some scholars believe that Artemisia demonstrated, through her paintings, that at times violence is a means of solving social evils in the society. She is one of the greatest artists who used biblical stories to tell her own story. The use of biblical stories was partly the reason why she gained massive popularity in the society because Christianity was a popular religion among the local population. She was able to pass an important message to the upcoming painters that they had responsibility to use their artistry to sensitize the society and fight social evils.

According to Vidal (2012), Artemisia Gentileschi played a critical role in the development of early feminist movement at a time when men dominated the world. At her time, issues such as rape were never treated seriously because women were regarded as inferior to men. However, at a tender age of 18 she was able to put pressure on his father and the society in general to see to it that the man who raped her was taken to court. She was personally present during the rapist’s prosecution and saw justice served. It did not end with the prosecution of Agostino.

She continued to pass a message to the society that women had a role to play in developing their communities. At first, her work depicted violence as a way through which women can overcome constant molestation by men. She then focused on bible, singling out women such as Esther and Mary Magdalene who played significant roles in saving their communities. She was even able to depict Delilah- a woman who many have considered a traitor for tricking Samson- as a hero who helped her society in destroying a man who was the greatest threat to their existence. She was telling the audience that women are always powerful and strong-willed, capable of doing anything to protect their loved ones.

References

Bal, M. (2005). The Artemisia files: Artemisia Gentileschi for feminists and other thinking people. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Brine, K., Ciletti, E., & Lähnemann, H. (2010). The sword of Judith: Judith studies across the disciplines. Cambridge, UK: OpenBook Publishers.

Christiansen, K., & Mann, J. (2001). Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi. New York, NY: Metropolian Museum of Art.

Gender Across Borders. (20019). Artemisia Gentileschi: Artist and rape survivor. Web.

O’Brien, J. (2009). Encyclopedia of gender and society. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.

Rabey, D., & Goldingay, S. (2013). Howard Barker’s art of theatre: Essays on his plays, poetry and production work. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Smith, B. G. (2008). The Oxford encyclopedia of women in world history. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Vidal, B. (2012). Figuring the past: Period film and the Mannerist aesthetic. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Analysis Of Nursing Comfort Theory

Theory: Author’s Name and Background

Registered Nurses (RNs) can use different mid-range and grand theories to design the best healthcare philosophies. Such theories present powerful ideas and concepts that can be used to improve the quality of patient care. The selected theory for this analysis is Dr. Katharine Kolcaba’s The Comfort Theory. This theory can make it easier for caregivers and RNs to support the changing health needs of patients from diverse backgrounds (Pappas, 2015).

Katharine Kolcaba was “born in on 28th December 1944 in Cleveland” (Pappas, 2015, p. 2). She “obtained a diploma in nursing from the prestigious St. Luke Hospital School of Nursing in the year 1965” (Krinsky, Murillo, & Johnson, 2014, p. 148). The scholar later joined Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing to pursue a bachelor’s degree in nursing. She later graduated with a nursing degree from the same institution in 1987.

He completed her doctorate degree from the same institution in 1997. During her schooling years, Kolcaba was fascinated by the concept of care. She also focused on the behaviors and expectations of many patients receiving long-term care. She also wanted to understand how the comfort of such individuals could be improved using scientifically-proven initiatives. These achievements and personals aspirations encouraged Katharine Kolcaba to come up with The Comfort Theory.

In order to come up with this theory, Katharine Kolcaba consulted numerous publications and documents in nursing. For instance, Kolcaba analyzed “Henderson’s Sleep and Rest Model” (Alves-Apostolo, Kolcaba, Cruz-Mendes, & Antunes, 2007, p. 17). She believed significantly that rest and sleep were critical health needs for the elderly. She also “consulted different works and theories such as the Orem” (Pappas, 2015, p. 15).

As well, the theorist has managed to influence the works of modern nurses and practitioners. Future scholars will also continue to analyze this powerful theory and use it to develop new models that can improve the quality of patient care.

The theory is known to address a major concern in healthcare. Krinsky et al (2014) indicate that “many patients experience unique comfort needs that are usually ignored by family members and caregivers” (p. 149). As well, many patients are forced to stay in stressful conditions and situations. This issue explains why many clients do not achieve the most desirable health outcomes. The Comfort Theory therefore offers powerful insights and ideas that can be used to support the comfort needs of more patients (Alves-Apostolo et al., 2007). The theory guides caregivers and RNs to promote positive behaviors and conditions that can support the healing process. The theory also argues that patients with terminal conditions should be supported throughout their lives. By so doing, such patients will eventually die peacefully.

Theory Description

The Comfort Theory uses a deductive reasoning to present the best concepts to many people in the nursing practice. Throughout the developmental stages of the theory, Kolcaba analyzed different publications and concepts regarding the issue of comfort in healthcare. She observed that comfort was closely-linked to other concepts in nursing practice. She studied three theoretical models that focused on the issue of patient support and comfort. These “include Relief, Ease, and Transcendence” (Kolcaba, 2001, p. 87). She redefined these concepts and used them to come up with the conceptual framework for the targeted theory. By so doing, the theorist narrowed down from the existing evidences in order to produce the nursing model.

The author used several concepts to define the theory. The first concept is relief. This concept is defined as the alleviation of an existing discomfort (Alves-Apostolo et al., 2007). The concept of ease is defined by Kolcaba as the absence of various health discomforts or disorders. The third concept characterizing this model is transcendence. This term refers to a patient’s ability to overcome discomforts that might be hard to avoid, minimize, or eradicate (Kolcaba, 2001).

These concepts are therefore defined operationally in an attempt to develop the theory. As well, the author used several terms in order to make the theory more effective and applicable in different healthcare settings. Some of these definitions “include environmental, socio-cultural, psychospiritual, and physical” (Krinsky et al., 2014, p. 149). These terms focus on the major issues and experiences that affect an individual. The terms can be used to understand the major challenges and obstacles to effective patient care. The consistency in the use of these terms and concepts makes the theory meaningful.

The author also defines the concepts explicitly. This means that the terms and concepts are expressed in a clear manner (Krinsky et al., 2014). The author manages to present the concepts to the reader and caregiver in a clear manner. Medical practitioners and nurses have therefore been able to interpret such concepts effectively. As a result, the theory has played a positive role towards transforming the health outcomes of many underserved populations and communities.

The major concepts defining the theory relate to each other in order to augment the practices of different practitioners. For instance, the “three concepts follow one another in such a way that they deliver quality comfort to the client” (Kolcaba, 2001, p. 89). The first stage is for caregivers to provide adequate relief to the comfort-needs of the targeted patient. This can be realized through the use of drugs and analgesia (Kolcaba, 2001).

The individual’s sense and meaning of comfort should also be considered. The next stage is easing the pain or discomfort. The caregivers should use the best approaches to address every challenge that might cause anxiety. The final issue to consider is transcendence (Kolcaba, 2001). This is the final state realized by the patient after the above measures are completed in a professional manner.

Evaluation

The theorist has used a number of explicit and implicit assumptions in order to develop the model. To begin with, the theory is founded on explicit values. The theory assumes that caregivers can be able to address all the discomfits and pains faced by their patients. This fact explains why the concepts of relief and ease are defined in an explicit manner. In order to support these assumptions, the theory goes further to “consider the four contexts in which patients’ discomforts or pains occur” (Ferrandiz & Martin-Baena, 2015, p. 115).

These contexts might be socio-cultural, physical, psycho-spiritual, or environmental in nature (Ferrandiz & Martin-Baena, 2015). The theory guides medical practitioners to consider these contexts and propose the most desirable approaches that can deal with such discomforts. The theory also assumes that the four contexts can be used to explain the occurrence of discomfort in different patients.

The other noticeable fact about this theory is that it is founded on the four meta-paradigms of nursing. The use of the meta-paradigms in the theory makes it easier for nurses to use it to fulfill the goals of nursing practice. The theory describes nursing as the best process whereby the comfort needs of patients are assessed and addressed using the most effective interventions (Ferrandiz & Martin-Baena, 2015). According to the model, assessment of the patients’ needs can be examined in a subjective or objective manner.

An objective approach is characterized by observation. This is common when the targeted patient has a wound or injury (Apostolo, Mendes, Bath-Hextall, Rodrigues, & Cardoso, 2013). The nurse will then consider the best nursing practices that can address the discomfort arising from the injury. The subjective approach is “embraced when nurses pose questions to their patients in order to understand whether they have discomforts or not” (Ferrandiz & Martin-Baena, 2015, p. 117).

The theory therefore encourages nurses to engage in intentional assessment of the client’s discomfort needs. The second approach will be to design desirable comfort strategies that can address the identified needs. The nurse should also “re-assess the comfort level of the patient after implementing the designed comfort strategy” (Ferrandiz & Martin-Baena, 2015, p. 118). The ultimate goal should be to alleviate the discomfort or pain affecting the patient (Apostolo et al., 2013). Nurses are therefore encouraged to use this knowledge to provide the best care to their clients.

As well, health is treated as the most favorable functioning whereby the needs of communities, patients, families, and groups are addressed. The theory goes further to consider patients as families, communities, institutions, and individuals that need quality medical support (Alves-Apostolo et al., 2007). The fourth meta-paradigm is also defined clearly in the theory. The environment is defined as “the aspect of the targeted institutional surrounding, family, or patient that can be manipulated by caregivers in an attempt to deal with discomfort” (Apostolo et al., 2013, p. 381).

Throughout the healthcare delivery process, nurses and physicians should collaborate in order to understand how the four meta-paradigms can be combined. The approach can produce the best results. Patients and their family members should be involved throughout the process. This approach will make it easier for the caregivers to identify the unique needs and challenges facing the patient (Ferrandiz & Martin-Baena, 2015). This knowledge will guide the practitioners to design the most appropriate healthcare delivery model.

One of the outstanding facts about The Comfort Theory by Katharine Kolcaba is that it is consistent and lucid. The author uses meaningful concepts that are supported by evidence-based ideas. The concepts are augmented using the four contexts that define a person’s health. The caregiver can therefore use these concepts and terms to produce the best approaches. Such strategies can deal with the discomforts faced by the targeted patients. The next thing is to consider the four meta-paradigms of nursing in order to deliver quality care to the targeted communities or individuals. This clarity makes the theory applicable in a wide range of healthcare settings (Apostolo et al., 2013).

Medical practitioners and RNS can therefore use this theory to support the health needs of patients with terminal conditions. The health model has also been found useful whenever working in family care settings. The elderly and persons with long-term diseases can be supported using this model. The practice can address the discomforts affecting different patients (Apostolo et al., 2013). The applicability of the theory explains why it is clear, consistent, and lucid.

Application

As mentioned earlier, Katharine Kolcaba’s theory has the potential to guide a wide range of nursing practices and actions. The first important thing to consider is that the theory focuses on the four meta-paradigms of nursing. A proper knowledge of these meta-paradigms as defined by the model can make it easier for nurses to support the health needs of more individuals, communities, and institutions (Apostolo et al., 2013).

Since discomfort is a major nursing challenge, such caregivers will use the theory to present powerful initiatives that can minimize the pains affecting their clients. Nurses who plan to use this theory will address a wide range of health challenges and ensure their patients to have peaceful healing processes.

Conditions such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease are characterized by discomforts. This is the case because terminal conditions are associated with endless pain (Apostolo et al., 2013). This theory therefore has the potential to transform the experiences of the affected patients. The most important thing is for caregivers to use the model to create multidisciplinary teams. Such teams should include the right individuals and family members in order to produce the most desirable outcomes.

The theory also guides practitioners to consider the four contexts that can produce discomfort. The practitioners will therefore use this knowledge to outline the most desirable practices that can minimize the targeted pain. This approach will support the needs of every targeted patient. Ferrandiz and Martin-Baena (2015) believe that future nurses will come up with better nursing actions that can improve the level of discomfort management.

This theory will also help me as a registered nurse (RN). It is agreeable that I always encounter a wide range of health problems and challenges. I have always observed that discomfort is a major problem affecting many patients. Discomfort makes it hard for many patients to have quality lifestyles. That being the case, I will always embrace the concepts and ideas presented in this theory to support the health needs of such patients (Apostolo et al., 2013).

I will be able to address the major sources of discomfort using evidence-based ideas. I will also embrace the concept of teamwork. The strategy will ensure more persons are involved throughout the treatment process. The ultimate goal will be to ensure more patients lead quality lives.

I will also educate more caregivers and practitioners about the strengths of Katharine Kolcaba’s theory. These practitioners will be encouraged to embrace the concepts and skills presented by the theory. Since discomfort is a common denominator in every health condition, more nurses will be ready to use the theory and deliver quality support to the affected patients. This practice will play a significant role towards supporting the health needs of many patients in our organization.

As well, members of the public and families will be sensitized about the importance of this theory (Krinsky et al., 2014). They will be encouraged to use the theory whenever managing various terminal conditions such as cancer. These practices will make it easier for more people to lead quality lives. In conclusion, Katharine Kolcaba’s Comfort Theory has been applied in different healthcare situations to produce quality health results. Practitioners who want to address the discomfort needs of their patients should embrace the concepts described in this theory.

Reference List

Alves-Apostolo, J., Kolcaba, K., Cruz-Mendes, A., & Antunes, M. (2007). Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Psychiatric In-patients Comfort Scale (PICS). Enfermeria Clinica, 17(1), 17-23.

Apostolo, J., Mendes, A., Bath-Hextall, F., Rodrigues, R., & Cardoso, D. (2013). The Use of Non-Pharmacological Nursing Interventions on the Comfort of Cancer Patients: A Comprehensive Systematic Review Protocol. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews & Implementation Reports, 11(2), 372-388.

Ferrandiz, E., & Martin-Baena, D. (2015). Translation and Validation of a Spanish version of the Kolcaba’s General Comfort Questionnaire in Hospital Nurses. International Journal of Nursing, 2(1), 113-119.

Kolcaba, K. (2001). Evolution of the Mid Range Theory of Comfort for Outcomes Research. Nursing Outlook, 49(1), 86-92.

Krinsky, R., Murillo, I., & Johnson, J. (2014). A Practical Application of Katharine Kolcaba’s Comfort Theory to Cardiac Patients. Applied Nursing Research, 27(2), 147-150.

Pappas, C. (2015). Is There a Difference in Pain Management of Patients with Upper Extremity Injuries in Relation to Age? Digital Commons, 1(1), 1-34.

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