Agriculture And Its Role In Economic Development Essay Example

Introduction

Agriculture is critical to emerging nations’ economic prosperity, and its significance in economic development is vital since agriculture employs the majority of the emerging world’s population. Agriculture’s role in economic growth has been divided into several categories, including product, factor contribution, marketing, foreign currency, agricultural and poverty alleviation, as well as job creation (Fried et al. 5). Thus, this essay will discuss the importance of agriculture and how agriculture may influence a nation’s economic progress.

Product Contribution

The emerging markets rely on their farming to feed their populations. There are, nonetheless, a few exclusions: some nations, such as Malaysia and South Saudi Arabia, have enormous natural resource outputs that allow them to generate sufficient foreign cash to buy their people’s food (Bencze 140). However, most developing nations lack the requisite foreign currency profits to import food grains to nourish their population, forcing them to rely on their agriculture to grow enough food to fulfill consumers’ purchasing demands.

Farmers in these advanced economies must produce food in excess of their sustenance requirements in order to feed their urban populations. If the industrial and service sectors expand, farmers’ export earnings must cover the workers’ nutritional demands (Bencze 141). As the industrial and service segments grow, agricultural output and yield must improve so as to maintain economic development by nourishing the fast-growing workforce.

Factor Contribution

Agriculture contributes to economic development by providing two crucial variables — labor and capital — for industrial expansion. The agricultural industry in developing nations is relatively big, as it employs approximately 60% of the populace (Ccama 8). As a result, it has the potential to free up a large quantity of labor for use in the industrial and other non-farm sectors. On the other hand, agriculture may free up work for industrial expansion if its output grows. Thus, excess labor, generally known as the disguisedly jobless, must be mobilized in farming for the advent of the modern economic capital markets for jobs in growing sectors (Ccama 11). The lesser the pay of labor, the lower the cost of the manufacturing industry, resulting in enormous profits for entrepreneurs that could be invested back into future industrial growth and capital consolidation.

Source of Capital

Agriculture may also be a key source of savings or cash for emerging countries’ industrial expansion. Even in poor emerging nations, where agricultural revenue is unevenly distributed, rural individuals with high earnings can save for industrial growth. During the agricultural revolution in Britain, wealthy landowners freely put some of their resources into expanding companies (Ccama 14). Furthermore, small farmers can save their modest deposits in local banks, and these financial institutions can subsequently lend to industrialists for productive capital.

Market Contribution

Agriculture’s economic contribution refers to the need for manufactured goods. During the early phases of development, whenever the urban sector is tiny and exporting marketplaces have yet to be discovered, the farming industry of emerging nations is a primary factor driving the market or consumer for industrial goods. Farmers frequently grow cash crops such as sugar, jute, and cotton, and from their sales, they earn money that they may spend on manufacturing (Fried et al. 7). Furthermore, farmers who have a marketable excess of grain production (cereals as well as pulses) trade them in the market for currency, which becomes a driver of the economy for industrial goods.

The pace of economic expansion cannot be significant except if the marketplace or requirement for manufactured goods grows. In India, it has been discovered that anytime agricultural development is slow or declining, the industrial output stagnates owing to a downturn in the economy for goods (Fried et al. 8). Increased productivity and output lead to a rise in the domestic market for products or services, hastening the rate of economic growth.

Foreign Exchange Contribution

Agricultural practice is a source of external exchange profits in the early growth phases when the manufacturing industry has not yet developed considerably. In the early stages of economic growth, emerging nations frequently face a lack of exchange rates, referred to as a foreign currency deficit, in order to fulfill the import requirements for rapid industrialization (Fried et al. 10). By donating to foreign exchange profits, emerging countries access imported commodities required for industrial expansion that cannot be supplied locally or at a more significant investment return. Thus, agribusiness may substantially contribute to economic growth by generating the foreign exchange needed to acquire industrial raw materials and capital goods for developing companies. The absence of foreign exchange is a significant impediment to expansion.

Agriculture and Poverty Alleviation

Agricultural expansion boosts the productivity and earnings of smallholder farmers and the occupation and pay of agricultural employees. This contributes to the reduction of poverty and hidden labor. Furthermore, increased agricultural output lowers consumer prices and keeps inflation in check, all of which help poverty reduction (Fried et al. 10). It has been discovered that agricultural expansion offers a high opportunity for employment if a qualified agricultural growth plan is implemented. Currently, modern agricultural technology is being demonstrated by the use of high-yielding varieties, fertilizers, insecticides, and the optimal amount of irrigation water, increasing agrarian employment (Fried et al. 11). These high-yielding technological inputs allow farmers to practice multiple planting, resulting in a significant employment perspective.

Contribution of Agriculture to Employment Generation

It has been discovered that growth in the farming sector has high employment prospects if an appropriate economic strategy is sought. The use of Improved varieties, herbicides and pesticides, synthetic chemicals, and the optimal amount of irrigated agriculture, as depicted by new technology, causes an increase in job opportunities (Fried et al. 11). High-yielding advanced technologies are factors of production that allow farmers to practice multiple cropping, which has a high productivity possibility. What is required is a rise in invested capital to widen irrigation systems and other productive resources so that growers across can take advantage of innovation. The broad use of new high-yielding technologies in the rural economy would boost agricultural output and jobs. Nonetheless, irresponsible mechanized farming should be prevented to achieve maximum opportunities for employment (Fried et al. 12). Furthermore, new policies such as leasehold reforms and land acquisition through land-owning limitations must be effectively applied to promote agricultural engagement, as local farmers use more labor, have more excellent crop production, and enhance efficiency.

Conclusion

Agriculture is a significant factor in economic development since it employs most of the emerging world’s population. It is a substantial source of savings or money for emerging nations’ rapid industrialization. Nevertheless, anytime agricultural development slows, heavy industry stagnates owing to a lack of customers for industrial goods. Thus, irresponsible mechanization of farming should be discouraged to realize the full employment potential.

Works Cited

Bencze, Tibor. “The Importance of Social Capital in Agriculture.” Review on Agriculture and Rural Development, vol 8, no. 1-2, 2019, pp. 139-145. University of Szeged, Web.

Ccama, Faustino. “Importance of Mining and Agriculture on the Peruvian Economy”. Semestre Económico, vol 7, no. 2, 2019, pp. 7-39. Universidad Nacional Del Altiplano – Faculty Of Economic Engineering, Web.

Fried, Guillaume et al. “Relative Importance of Environmental Factors and Farming Practices in Shaping Weed Communities Structure and Composition in French Vineyards”. Agriculture, Ecosystems &Amp; Environment, vol 275, 2019, pp. 1-13. Elsevier BV, Web.

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Environmental Hazards That Humans Face

Introduction

The environment, due to various anthropogenic influences, can be a threat or damage to a modern human being. The hazard represents the substance, state, or event that can impact people’s health. Some activities of individuals lead to natural disasters and contamination of surrounding water, air, soil, food, and places. After the period of industrialization at the end of the XVIII-middle of the XIX century, humanity started noticing the negative effect of human interference on the environment. Currently, it is a substantial part of people’s lifestyle to care about nature and prevent potential harm. However, the environmental hazards can be not only anthropogenic but also non-human made. In general, the hazards can be of various origins: physical, chemical, and biological (CDC 3). This assignment will disclose all the types of environmental hazards that human beings can face.

Anthropogenic Hazards

The most substantial impact is, of course, done by a human as he uses natural resources to meet his requirements. As a result, air and water pollution, radiation, heavy metals, and indirectly some extreme temperatures and weather events occur. Poor air content can worsen the condition of asthma patients, lead to lung diseases, and can cause pneumoconiosis among people working with polluted air constantly (Iderawumi 78). Radiation leads to alopecia, skin cancer, and immunosuppression in general. Water pollution causes various storage diseases and spreads infections such as cholera which is a big issue in India. The temperature of the weather is also changing due to human activity. The greenhouse effect occurs because of the increased CO2 emissions and other gases impacting the protective ozone layer. With this layer becoming thinner, the ultraviolet manages to reach the surface of the earth easier, especially through the thinnest parts of the ozone layer.

Non-Human-Made Hazards

Biological hazards represent pathogenic microorganisms, plants, insects, and animals that can cause various diseases or be a transporter of the pathogen. For instance, the plague managed to spread so rapidly and involve almost all the population of the words because of the infection spreader, rats. These animals were spread in cities, towns, and people’s homes back then, and their contamination with Yersinia pestis led to a higher number of infected during each wave of the pandemics (Dean 1307). Some agents initiate diseases under various circumstances or in accordance with other infections. Human immunodeficiency virus and the latest stage of the disorder it causes, AIDS, triggers opportunistic infections that in normal conditions with a strong immune system never become a threat.

Physical hazards such as flooding, earthquake, or volcanic eruption most of the time are not controlled or caused by a human. Still, one that lives in high seismic activity zones, learns the rules of proper acting in a spontaneous volcanic eruption, as in Hawaii. In Australia, people learn about insects more thoroughly as they have to know how to distinguish a poisonous spider from an innocent one.

Health Practices

To avoid the negative effect of environmental hazards on humans, the population has to investigate each of them and develop strategies to help reduce the human negative impact on the environment. People’s health can significantly suffer because of the various pollutants and microorganisms causing various issues. It is possible to identify the most dangerous effects on the organism of individuals and find the ways that prevent them from happening.

Conclusion

Humans face various environmental hazards, and since they live in symbiosis with nature, they have to find solutions that could prevent pollution initiated by them. Prophylaxis and treatment investigation on diseases that significantly impact the modern population is also essential for the safe, protected, and healthy future of both nature and people. With respect for each other and their surroundings, humans can reach a higher level of self-control, development, and success.

Works Cited

Dean, Katharine R., et al. “Human Ectoparasites and the Spread of Plague in Europe During the Second Pandemic.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 115, no. 6, 2018, pp. 1304-1309.

Iderawumi, Muhtart Abdulraheem. “Sources of Environmental Hazards Effects and Control.” Asia Pacific Journal of Energy and Environment, vol. 6, 2019, pp. 77 – 82. Web.

“Introduction to Environmental Public Health Tracking.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2019.

Existential Therapy And Psychoanalytic Therapy

Introduction

Professional therapy is a technique that has substantially gained ground over other therapeutic solutions used to address individuals’ distress and mental health issues. While some approaches focus on altering attitudes, others target individuals’ behaviors. The methods help individuals come to terms with life and improve their perspectives by targeting their mental processes through different approaches. Thus, existential and psychoanalytic therapies have differences and similarities in their practices, but both aim to achieve the patient’s mental well-being goal.

History and Development

Psychoanalytic therapy is an in-depth mental health treatment solution that aims to bring deeply buried thoughts and unconscious feelings or emotions to the consciousness. The technique dates back to the late 20th century, as it was adopted from the psychoanalytic theory developed in the 1890s by Sigmund Freud (Kapsambelis, 2019). In turn, existential therapy emerged during the third decade of the 20th century based on the philosophies of Soren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche (Van Deurzen & Arnold-Baker, 2018). It heavily borrows from psychoanalysis concepts and philosophy and has significantly advanced using guidelines from these fields. It seeks to answer life’s toughest questions and push individuals toward reconciling their existence. Although the purposes of the techniques differ, the history of their development includes the origins of psychoanalysis.

Key Concepts and Assumptions

Psychoanalytic therapy is an approach that investigates the implications of the unconscious mind on individuals, thoughts, emotions, feelings, and habits. Psychoanalytic therapy is based on the concept that human actions are influenced by intrinsic factors and biological drives that are not always within reach (Peterfreund, 2020). Psychoanalytic therapy practitioners assume that individuals suffer from inner conflicts due to experiences and hidden emotions in their subconscious minds. Existential therapy associates an individual’s problems with their experiences and conflicts (Ziaee et al., 2022). Overall, the general concept is that both methods are based on investigating unconscious and past traumas.

Therapeutic Goals

Considering the key concepts and assumptions, the ultimate therapeutic goal of psychoanalysis is to uncover and address the issues to enhance well-being. Existential therapy has the same therapeutic goals as psychoanalytic, which include helping people recognize the implications of their choices, find a purpose, overcome fear, and minimize anxiety. Hence, the method seeks to enhance individuals’ mental stability and improve their living standards. Both approaches aim to improve the patient’s psychological state through distinguished techniques.

Therapeutic Role and Functions

Psychoanalysis is a concept that taps deep into an individual’s inner being to understand the underlying causes of certain insecurities or behaviors. Subsequently, psychologists can apply this technique to manage anxiety, depression, trauma, identity problems, self-assertion challenges, and low self-esteem (Safran & Hunter, 2020). The existential method has some of the mentioned functions but concentrates more on the present situations and the relation of the trauma to the current problem. Therefore, the role of both approaches is to uncover the issues and allow a patient to acknowledge, deal with, and resolve present problems.

Therapeutic Relationships

The therapeutic relationship in the case of psychoanalytic therapy consists of a working alliance, transference, and transparent communication between the practitioner and the patient. Existential therapy functions by altering an individual’s perception of themselves to help them adapt to environmental conditions that are implicit in existence (Whitehead, 2018). The role of the existential therapeutic approach is to limit people’s anxiety and enhance their social, spiritual, and psychological awareness (Heidenreich et al., 2021). The therapeutic relationship in existential therapy involves mutual respect and the pursuit of meaning, authenticity, and uniqueness.

Therapeutic Techniques Applied in Cases

Psychologists, through psychoanalytic therapy, adopt various techniques depending on the issues being addressed. The major psychoanalytic approaches include dream interpretation, free association, and transference. Dreams are perceived as a gateway to the unconscious mind, while free association involves freely sharing thoughts as they come to mind. Transference is a stage reached when a patient can appropriately project their feelings towards people or memories. However, Peterfreund (2020) suggests that the success of psychoanalytic therapy depends on an individual’s ability to confront triggering and stressful experiences. The treatment will be productive if a person is willingly ready to face the trauma.

The Extent of Evidence Base

There are information and data on the evidence of the methods’ valid results. Several research resources support that the techniques effectively manage mental health conditions like depression, trauma, and substance abuse (Woll & Schönbrodt, 2020). The therapeutic methods adopted in existential therapy include listening to a patient, talking, and answering their questions. The sessions can last for several weeks and months, depending on the program’s goals (Heidenreich et al., 2021). Existential and psychoanalytical therapy is reliable in managing depression, stress, and anxiety disorders

Strengths and Limitations

Psychoanalytic therapy exhibits a range of benefits, especially when integrated with other psychotherapy approaches. Its main strengths include focusing on inner emotions, past experiences, and interpersonal relationships. However, critics argue that the course emphasizes impossible attributes to measure and quantify, including aggression, childhood experiences, sex, and the unconscious mind (Bernardi et al., 2021). Existential therapy is appraised for its ability to empower individuals and encourage critical decisions, conscious choices, and self-preservation (Whitehead, 2018). However, many argue that the approach is highly intellectual, which is ineffective in individuals who cannot thoroughly examine their nature.

Conclusion

Psychoanalytic and existential therapy are versatile counseling techniques that allow individuals to actively engage in the treatment process and achieve self-motivated behavioral changes. Despite the difference, their origins come from psychoanalysis, and both approaches aim to improve the patient’s psychological state through distinguished techniques. The therapeutic relationship involves mutual respect and the pursuit of meaning to achieve goals, uncover issues, and allow a patient to acknowledge, deal with, and resolve present problems. Although the approaches’ attributes may be tough to evaluate precisely, much evidence demonstrated how the techniques such as free interpretation contributed to mental health improvement.

References

Bernardi, R., Suquilvide, L. P., & Hanly, C. (2021). Assessing strengths and limitations of clinical evidence in a psychoanalytic clinical material. In change through time in psychoanalysis (pp. 281-305). Routledge.

Heidenreich, T., Noyon, A., Worrell, M., & Menzies, R. (2021). Existential approaches and cognitive behavior therapy: Challenges and potential. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 14(1), 209-234.

Kapsambelis, V. (2019). Psychoanalytic approaches to psychotic disorders in a public mental health system. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 35(4), 577-585.

Peterfreund, E. (2020). The process of psychoanalytic therapy: Models and strategies. Routledge.

Safran, J. D., & Hunter, J. (2020). Psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapies. American Psychological Association.

Van Deurzen, E., & Arnold-Baker, C. (2018). Existential therapy: Distinctive features. Routledge.

Whitehead, P. M. (2018). Existential health psychology (and what it isn’t). Society for Humanistic Psychology, 22-25.

Woll, C. F. J., & Schönbrodt, F. D. (2020). A series of meta-analytic tests of the efficacy of long- term psychoanalytic psychotherapy. European Psychologist, 25(1), 51.

Ziaee, A., Nejat, H., Amarghan, H. A., & Fariborzi, E. (2022). Existential therapy versus acceptance and commitment therapy for feelings of loneliness and irrational beliefs in male prisoners. European Journal of Translational Myology, 32(1). Web.