Airline Industry In The Post COVID-19 Pandemic Sample College Essay

A pandemic is an outbreak and prevalence of a disease over a whole nation or the world. An example of a pandemic is the outbreak of COVID-19 disease, which has caused unprecedented challenges to various sectors, including the airline industry. The challenges attributed to an outbreak of a pandemic cannot be evaded, but their effects can be significantly reduced by employing strategic measures of recovering. One of the most extraordinary and prevalent challenges that the airline industry faces due to the outbreak of COVID-19 is the significant drop in the number and demand of passengers seeking and using air transport because of the COVID-19 pandemic containment measures (Agrawal, 2020). Therefore, the airlines have recorded and reported dramatic losses due to the low turnout of passengers. There are various measures that airlines can employ to ensure complete or remarkable recovery from the pandemic. Effective, efficient, reliable, and strategic efforts will ensure that the flights recover from the challenges faced in the long run and the short run.

One of the most significant measures that the airlines industry should employ includes outsourcing skilled and qualified employees to support the operations. Professional employees will be more efficient and effective, and thus they will be more productive. In addition, the skilled and experienced employees will ensure they apply their experience to develop improved, innovative, and creative measures to help the airlines recover (Maneenop and Kotcharin, 2020). Airline skilled employees will also be instrumental in ensuring that they use their skills to perform the assigned duties on a timely basis and with efficiency and effectiveness. The qualified personnel offer expert services to deliver outstanding services; therefore, the customers will be left satisfied, and businesses will save and increase their earnings (Albers and Rundshagen, 2020). Proficient and trained employees will be instrumental in creating positive work relationships in the airline agencies. Therefore, they will carry on their assigned duties according to the airline industry’s set goals and objectives. Qualified employees will also work harmoniously with their colleagues and help the airline industry recover from the challenges experienced during the pandemic.

Airlines should make insight a shared responsibility. Airline agencies should increase shared responsibility or collaboration between various sectors involved in the airline industry. Such sectors include security agencies and the ministry of foreign affairs. The shared responsibility based on transparency is the most crucial aspect in the industry, which will help the industry recover from the COVID-19 effects (Albers and Rundshagen, 2020). The timely sharing of information between the involved agencies and the data transfer with transparency will ensure that all the sectors can effectively and efficiently align their service levels appropriately. When the agencies involved in the travelling sector work together, they can recover from pandemic effects and improve productivity and efficiency.

The airline industry should ensure they do not skimp on staff or maintenance. The recovery process should ensure that the airline sector does not expend or use a relatively low amount of time or money resources on something crucial while economizing. The airline industry needs to ensure that all the aircraft are in good conditions from effective and adequate maintenance (Oum, 2021). Workforce support and welfare should always be the airline industry’s top considerations. When the aircraft travels returns as a result of review and withdrawal of COVID-19 containment measures, the airplanes and employees should be ready to resume offering exemplary services to the airline travellers (Abate, Christidis, and Purwanto, 2020). Airline workers who had been granted leave due to the pandemic need to be called back and, where necessary, trained on new measures to be adopted. Additional training of the employees also ensures increased productivity. Inventories and directories need to be established to ensure the airlines operate efficiently.

The process of airlines recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic heavily depends on the ability of airlines to identify and be considerate of cost structures. The airline industry will employ a cost structure to set prices and identify sectors where expenses can be reduced. Cost drivers are particular kinds of costs, fixed or variable which are instrumental in determining and making up overall industry expenses (Czerny et al., 2020). The airline industries should be disciplined about their cost structures and adjust their measures and strategies to have a cost-friendly plan. Various travellers who use the airlines as their primary or secondary mode of transport can therefore be considered while pricing.

Employees’ and customers’ hygiene should be prioritized and improved to ensure customers are motivated to travel using aircraft. Customer hygiene is essential and includes ensuring passengers wear masks, adequate bins, and carefully clean the plane. Employee hygiene is equally important as customers’ hygiene. Workers should be provided with personal protective equipment to help them observe their hygiene (Dube, Nhamo, and Chikodzi, 2021). When the safety and hygiene of workers are observed, workers can effectively serve the clients and therefore help the airline industry recover from adverse pandemic effects. Finally, the customer service should be top-notch, where flexibility should be guaranteed regarding postponing or cancelling flights due to a pandemic. Airlines should aim to work with flyers to accommodate their needs and therefore solve the customers’ problem effectively and thus attract more customers who will steer them to recovery.

The airline industry is the most affected by the COVD-19 pandemic; however, it is recovering. There are various recommendations that are most influential in the sector’s recovery. Such include collaborating the aviation industry with other sectors such as security and health department to improve customer experience. In addition, it is recommendable for airlines to employ skilled personnel who will use their qualification and skill capabilities to help the industry recover from pandemics (Dube, Nhamo, and Chikodzi, 2021). Finally, the airlines should improve hygiene, actively manage safety and security, and reduce travellers’ chances of contracting healthy-related infections. Airlines should ensure global and regional harmonization of meaningful and effective measures to strengthen public or private passenger confidence levels and rates while travelling via aircraft. All the above criteria will be instrumental in ensuring airlines recover from pandemics effects that they were experiencing.


Abate, M., Christidis, P., and Purwanto, A.J. (2020). Government support to airlines in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Air Transport Management, 89(86785476), p.101931.

Agrawal, A. (2020). Sustainability of airlines in India with Covid-19: Challenges ahead and possible way-outs. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management, 785635467(79758).

Albers, S. and Rundshagen, V. (2020). European airlines′ strategic responses to the COVID-19 pandemic (January-May, 2020). Journal of Air Transport Management, [online] 87(78587), p.101863. Available at:

Czerny, A., Fu, X., Lei, Z. and Qum, T.H. (2020). Post-Pandemic Aviation Market Recovery: Focus on Changes in China. [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 Mar. 2022].

Dube, K., Nhamo, G. and Chikodzi, D. (2021). COVID-19 pandemic and prospects for recovery of the global aviation industry. Journal of Air Transport Management, 92(92), p.102022.

Maneenop, S. and Kotcharin, S. (2020). The impacts of COVID-19 on the global airline industry: An event study approach. Journal of Air Transport Management, [online] 89(54756865), p.101920. Available at

Oum T., H, C.A. (2021). Post pandemic aviation market recovery: Experience and lessons from China. Journal of Air Transport Management, [online] 90(564565), p.101971. Available at:

Alibaba Innovations And Sustainable Development Essay Example

It is always a concern for every business to lay down appropriate strategies to enhance sustainable growth and remain competitive within the market. Among the strategies by companies in the wink of expansion is acquisition. For instance, the case of Amazon in acquiring Whole Food was completed to expand to the other markets and compete equally. Alibaba Group Holding Limited is also among the main Amazon competitors, which was started in 1999 by Daniel Zhang, and it is situated in Hangzhou, China[1]. Over the years, Alibaba has remained competitive recording high sales for instance, in 2021, the sales increased by 36%, which was $ 31 billion. Importantly, the Alibaba success strategies have resulted in a strong brand name, hence providing the clients with outstanding value on products and the best shopping experience and attaining economies of scale. However, we all understand the company has to implement other measures to sustain growth. This is exactly what Alibaba has done. I believe they have placed the company high on the competition scale with the innovative strategies. These innovations also come with unique elements hence boosting the competitive advantage for the company. Therefore, the element of competitive advantage cannot come easy rather the company has to focus on implementing outstanding innovations. The memo will focus on discussing the innovative strategies that have enhances Alibaba`s competitive advantage.

Alibaba on innovative strategies

Amazon remains a dangerous competitor to Alibaba, meaning if Alibaba fails in its strategy, it may not be able to strive. On the other hand, Alibaba has its innovations in attaining competitive advantage, including applying differentiation strategies like application of technology, low listing fees for some units, and the use of Ant Financial Services.

Alibaba Technology on Competitive Advantage

It is amazing how technology has changed the world and how businesses operate. Everything now relies on technology, but the challenge appears in situations where a company fails to embrace technology which automatically means the company will not compete. Alibaba management understands the importance of differentiation which is all about uniqueness. This is what the company has done. In terms of technology, Alibaba being an internet-based company, the company uses the internet to boost the client’s purchasing power[2]. The use of technology has enabled the company to provide a wide variety of products to clients. Ask yourself why Alibaba is succeeding in using the same technology other companies are using? I believe this is all about how technology is used, and there is nothing new in technology. Alibaba, for instance, has created a network of dealers that links both the suppliers and the consumers. The consumers and the suppliers create valuable chances for the parties involved, which is a form of collective entrepreneurship. This approach has proved the platform’s stability; hence many suppliers now use Alibaba to locate the product`s market. Alibaba can apply a broad market strategy with an effective market, which widens the network for suppliers and consumers. This has also resulted in the emergence of different platforms under Alibaba such as Alipay and Taobao to ensure the clients’ needs are made. Enhancing convenience in the platforms used by the consumers and stakeholders is the best as they are the major determinant of the business. The same way Amazon invented the Amazon Web Services in 2006 to provide cloud computing services. However, using technology as the differentiation strategy is a challenge as the company may sometimes focus on gaining the customers traffic without any profit, like the Kindle by Amazon. Similarly, Alibaba also tries to maintain the customers by expanding its platform to reach a wide number of clients.

Cost Reduction Strategy and Competitive Advantage

Enough on that strategy, and now let’s focus on reduced listing cost. Any typical client compares the prices before making any purchase; therefore, the cost is important to consumer behavior. Alibaba provides a platform for the suppliers to advertise their commodities to meet potential buyers, like Amazon, Taobao, and other companies[3]. Given that the suppliers need to pay fees to post the products, Alibaba stands out due to reduced prices on the listings. The company offers different membership with the basic starting from $2500. However, as a strategic approach, Alibaba has removed price listings from for some products and one is automatically awarded when he hits a certain target. The reduction in prices is also the cost differentiation, where most will choose the cheaper choice as long as they receive similar services. With the cost reduction strategy, Alibaba has the upper hand in gaining clients. It is the best strategy for maintaining competitiveness. However, the company still needs to understand its operations costs well so that it cannot run on losses while ethnizing the clients. The company must ensure that the products it has removed from the listing prices do not occupy a significant percentage of the organization`s operational costs.

Money Lending through Ant Financial

The introduction of Ant loans has given Alibaba one step from its competitors, contributing to competitive advantage. In 2012, when Alibaba launched Ant Financial, a loan given by a large bank, the minimal loan was 6 million RMBS, higher than the loans given by other medium-sized enterprises[4]. Several banks were reluctant to service the companies, but with Alibaba giving loans to support business activities, it has remained an important element in boosting Alibaba on the market. It is a data-driven microloan business, and in the past seven years, Alibaba has lent more than 88 billion RMBS which is more than 3 million small businesses. Alibaba partnered with Alipay, the online paying platform, which has helped capture the objective of the new companies and empower them at the same time. Alibaba Has helped several businesses expand an attractive platform for business people.

Along with reviews from the old clients, this has constantly attracted new clients who are willing to take loans in an effort to expand their business. Looking at this, it is logical, especially with these hard-financial times, every company is struggling and in dare need to be financed. Therefore, if there is an opportunity to get the finances, the company will seek it without hesitation, which has boosted Alibaba`s success.

An Online-to-Offline Strategy (O2O)

This is a marketing strategy that Alibaba adopts, allowing customers to purchase products or receive the targeted adverts only by scanning the two-dimensional code. It is an innovative strategy that has boosted its sales, and many companies have not been able to adopt this strategy[5]. Reports also indicate that Alibaba has invested more than $1.25 billion in Chinese online food intending to strengthen its position in the O2O market as a long-term catalyst to its growth. With the enhanced competitive advantage, it is stated that 63% of Alibaba`s growth is attributed to online consumer penetration and the major element behind the strategy is that it blends both online and offline retailers to create a virtuous cycle[6]. From the discussion, it is evident that the success of Alibaba China has not come easy, but rather the company has constantly improved its strategies to ensure it gains the competitive advantage over the other competitors.

Works Cited

Glowik, Mario. 2017. “Case study: Alibaba group.” Research Gate 96-105.

Jia, Wei, and Jia Li. 2015. “The O2O Mode in Electronic Commer.” International Conference on Education, Management, Commerce 2-89.

Trevis. 2021. “Why Is Alibaba Strengthening Its O2O (Online To Offline) Presence?” Forbes. Accessed 2021.

Zeng, Ming. 20. “Alibaba and the Future of Business.” Havard Business. Accessed 2021.

[1] Glowik, Mario. 2017. “Case study: Alibaba group.” Research Gate 96-105.

[2] Zeng, Ming. 20. “Alibaba and the Future of Business.” Havard Business. Accessed 2021.

[3] Zeng, Ming. 20. “Alibaba and the Future of Business.” Havard Business. Accessed 2021.

[4] Zeng, Ming. 20. “Alibaba and the Future of Business.” Havard Business. Accessed 2021.

[5] Trevis. 2021. “Why Is Alibaba Strengthening Its O2O (Online To Offline) Presence?” Forbes. Accessed 2021.

[6] Jia, Wei, and Jia Li. 2015. “The O2O Mode in Electronic Commer.” International Conference on Education, Management, Commerce 2-89.

Alleyne V. The United States (2013) Court Case Essay Example


Elements of crime must be submitted to the jury if it has more significant impact on the required minimum punishment, rather than simply being a “sentencing factor.” In addition, a finding that a defendant committed a felony of violence while using a firearm is an element of a different, more severe felony that must be shown by a jury on its own. During a robbery of a convenience store manager in Petersburg, Virginia, on October 1, Allen and two fellows stole from a manager of his nightly deposit. Alleyne was caught in April 2010 following a lengthy investigation for robbery and handling a handgun.

The jury found Alleyne guilty of charges on September 7, 2010, and the Eastern District of Virginia United States District Court sentenced him to stay in prison 130 months. The required minimum penalty is five years, which rises to seven years, “if the handgun is brandished,” and ten years, “if the firearm is discharged” (i). A handgun had been used or carried by Alleyne at the time of the offense, but it had not been brandished, according to the jury form on which he was found guilty (Beaty, 2013). He maintained that the court ruling form indicated the jury didn’t find brandish beyond reasonable doubts and imposing his shortest term based on the judge decision on brandish would take away his legal power to a fair trying.

The Court ruled over these concerns and relied on the most powerful Court’s decision in the Harris of US case to preside in favor of prosecution’s case. The Fourth Circuit overruled Alleyne’s objection because Harris had preempted it.

Policies and procedures

Right to a fair trial

Alleged criminals are guaranteed their right to a unbiased trial by jury under the Sixth Amendment. With the Due Process Clause, these right demands that a jury is convinced of one by one element of a crime up to the last. The Supreme Court’s decisions in US v. Gaudin and the decision in In re Winship are two examples of cases where a defendant’s constitutional rights have been violated (Mastrofski, 2016). This right’s breadth and content are dependent on the proper identification of the facts that constitute the offense.

Minimum Sentence If Preponderance of Evidence Is Found

To receive a required minimum sentence for certain offenses, judges must find a majority of incriminating evidence were that the accused had visible a firearm during commissioning of the crimes. There was a brief discussion of these issues in the 477th US Circuit Court of Appeals in 477 USC, at 81, n. 1. Although the Court accepted that the State’s capacity to “define offenses and prescribe penalties” was constrained by the Constitution, it held that the Commonwealth had lawfully characterized conspicuous ownership as a reason to sentence rather than elements of the offense. A preponderance of evidence was sufficient for the judge, instead of the jury, to reach this conclusion without breaching due process.


Facts that raise the floor and the ceiling are included in any definition of the term “components.” these kinds of circumstances modify the intensity of punishments to which a defendant should be subjected and doing so in a way that exacerbates penalty. Jurors must be presented with evidence that increases the required minimum sentence and found beyond a reasonable doubt.


Upon conviction on the accusation, a plea of guilty to the summary offense may be entered in Crown Court by the defendant; However, if the person admits guilt, they can be sentenced in a manner that would have been acceptable to a magistrates’ Court had they been convicted. The Crown Court’s authority ends if he doesn’t plead guilty. Paragraph 6 Sch.3 of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 states that if there is no evidence, a court can dismiss the case or remit it to the magistrates’ Court (Nix, 2017). Due to the widespread acceptance of these principles, it has become standard procedure to include in the accusation and present any facts supporting the imposition or elevation of penalty to the jury. The defendant was charged with theft, and he was convicted. A summary offense under s40 C.J.A. 1988 can be tried and sentenced in the Crown Court, although the magistrates’ Court could have handled him differently.

Aggravating Fact

An accused peron can only be guilty of a crime that the jury considers all factors necessary to convict them. For this reason and others, brandishing is an aggravating factor that is to be determined by jury, irrespective of the punishment the accused may have gotten if all guidelines were in effect for their case (Tyler, 2015). A judge’s determination that increases the maximum sentence violates the Sixth Amendment though they sentence the accused to a ruling that falls in the bracket of the original punishment.


He appealed the trial court’s decision because he believed that a jury should decide whether or not a fact existed that could raise his required sentence for breaking a criminal law. Under the Sixth Amendment, a fact introducing a crime’s required minimum sentence must be presented and decided by the jury. Alleyne’s minimum sentence was enhanced from five to seven years because Alleyne brandished the gun. The district court, however, ruled that Alleyne’s Sixth Amendment were violated since he pointed a gun at them.


Beaty, T. A. (2013). Alleyne v. United States. Ohio NUL Rev., 40, 629.Epps, D. (2012). Bailey v United States: Another Win for that Doggone Fourth Amendment. Cato Sup. Ct. Rev., 187.

Mastrofski, S. D., Jonathan-Zamir, T., Moyal, S., & Willis, J. J. (2016). Predicting procedural justice in police-citizen encounters. Criminal justice and behavior, 43(1), 119-139.

Nix, J., Pickett, J. T., Wolfe, S. E., & Campbell, B. A. (2017). Demeanor, race, and police perceptions of procedural justice: Evidence from two randomized experiments. Justice Quarterly, 34(7), 1154-1183.

Tyler, T. R., Goff, P. A., & MacCoun, R. J. (2015). The impact of psychological science on policing in the United States: Procedural justice, legitimacy, and effective law enforcement. Psychological science in the public interest, 16(3), 75-109.