Team Leaders must assign roles to team members in a way that guarantees coordination and goal accomplishment, while also motivating team members to take ownership of their specific roles. The proper allocation and coordination of these roles can lead to increased morale and motivation. When assigning roles to Team Members, team leaders should consider multiple factors to ensure the team effectively achieves its goals.
Team leaders have the responsibility of ensuring that team members comprehend their roles and associated expectations. It is crucial for members to grasp not only their own roles, but also those of their teammates and how these roles collaborate towards achieving the team’s objectives. Furthermore, members must possess the authority to coordinate activities with their teammates in order to effectively fulfill their responsibilities. Any confusion or uncertainty regarding role expectations can unintentionally lead to underperformance among team members, ultimately hindering the overall success of the team.
Having a clear understanding of teammates’ roles is vital for ensuring that each member focuses on their specific responsibilities without impeding the functions of others. It is crucial for team members to grasp the challenges and fundamental duties associated with different roles, as this enables them to offer support and enhance the efforts of their colleagues. Moreover, comprehending the interconnected nature of various roles is essential for effectively collaborating towards accomplishing the team’s objectives.
Recognizing the importance of each role in achieving team goals promotes accountability among team members. A comprehensive understanding of how the team operates cultivates a sense of inclusion and confidence in working as a cohesive unit. Empowering teammates to collaborate and organize activities together is essential.
This ensures that the team can effectively address obstacles and take advantage of opportunities to improve the work process. Task allocation to team members can be done through Responsibility Charting, which involves identifying the most suitable individuals for dealing with specific situations or issues based on four roles they adopt in relation to a decision.
The Market Entry Strategy Of Toyota In Chinese Urban Market
In order to enter the target market smoothly, it is important for an enterprise to choose suitable market entry strategies. Toyota has entered many countries successfully across the world, such as America. To gain sustainable growth, it needs to enter into new market segments. This report chooses Chinese urban areas as the target market of Toyota. It firstly introduces the market intelligence of the Chinese market. The following part is business environment analysis. Then it gives a proposal for the market entry strategy, including market positioning, price and promotion etc.
Entrance mode, operation and human resource policies are also explained. The last part is conclusion. 2. 0 Competition position of Toyota Competitive position refers to the position of an enterprise in the target market and it is an important basis for strategic planning. Toyota has entered Chinese market for many years and its market share grows continually. Its products like Camry, Lexus and Prius are already popular in Chinese market (Buckley & Horn, 2009). In recent years, Toyota has become the top automobile enterprise. The following table is its sales in Chinese market.
In 2011, its market share in the global automotive market is 10% while that in China is only 4. 3%. Toyota has an ascendant position in China. Table 1: Sales of Toyota in Chinese market | |2007 |2008 |2009 |2010 |2011 | |sales (ten thousand)|49. 9 |58. 6 |70. 9 |84. 6 |89. 5 | (Data source: Toyota, 2011) 3. 0 Market intelligence of the Chinese automobile market Along with its economic growth, the Chinese automobile market develops rapidly in recent years. Since China joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, Chinese automobile market capacity has expanded a lot (http://www. caam. org. cn/english/newslist/a101-1. tml, 2012). In 2009, China overtook Japan and America and became the largest car market in the world. In the next few years, Chinese auto sales kept growing. The following figure is the automobile sales in Chinese market from 2006 to 2012. [pic] Figure 1: The automobile sales in Chinese market from 2006 to 2012 (Data source: http://www. caam. org. cn/english/newslist/a101-1. html, 2012) But by 2009, there were just about 48 cars per 1000 people in China, which is just equivalent to American the car ownership level in 1917. As a contrast, the world average of 2007 was 144 cars per 1000 people.
Even if the future Chinese auto market develops slowly, its sales volume still can be improved vastly to reach the average level in the world. In Chinese market, the development of many proprietary brands is still in a state of small scale and poor profit. After-sale service also has not received enough attention. Foreign brands like General Motors, Mercedes-Benz and Toyota and so on have great technical advantages (Elizabeth & Kiyohiko, 2008). In pace with the wealth growth of Chinese urban residents, the Chinese urban market attract the attention of many auto brands. . 0 Business environment analysis of the Chinese auto market To enter into a new market, analysis of business environment is necessary for Toyota. It includes the analysis of political and legal environment, economic environment, social environment, technological environment and natural environment of Chinese auto market (Morschett, Schramm-Klein& Swoboda, 2010). 4. 1 Political and legal environment Automobile industry is a pillar industry for Chinese economy and gets strong policy support from the government (Porter, 2008).
Since China entered into WTO, the import quota administration of automobile products has been canceled and tariffs on imported cars have been reduced continuously. In January 2006, the national development and reform commission required to cancel all the limits on the driving routes of low-emission cars. This directly promote the sales of low-emission cars. From 2009, a series of policies are formulated, which provides a solid foundation for the development of the automobile industry. These policies include the cancel of the road maintenance expense and incentives for scrapping used cars.
The purchase taxes of low-emission cars are also reduced to half. Beside, consumer-protection laws are gradually improved. 4. 2 Economic environment Economic environment here mainly refers to the economic system, economic development level and future economic trends of China. In 2010, GDP of China surpassed that of Japan and China became the second largest economy entity in the world (China Statistics Press, 2012). Even after the financial crisis of 2007, the economy of China still develops at top speed. GDP of average per capita also increased greatly. Table 1 introduces GDP of China from 2007 to 2011.
The improvement of living standard provides the economic basis for Chinese auto market. Table 2: GDP of China from 2007 to 2011 |Year |GDP (billion yuan) |GDP of per capita (yuan) | |2011 |47156. 4 |35199 | |2010 |39798. 3 |29992 | |2009 |34050. 69 |28543 | |2008 |31404. 54 |21792 | |2007 |26581. 03 |18696 | (Data source: China Statistics Press, 2012) Besides, infrastructure construction in urban areas of China also lays a foundation for its automobile industry. Income of urban areas is increase greatly. But at the same time, an increase in the price of petrol improves the vehicle cost. [pic]
Figure 2: Average general income of urban residents in China (yuan) (Data source: China Statistics Press, 2012) 4. 3 Social environment Social environment includes population, customs and religious belief of China (Kaplan & Norton, 2008). China gas a large population, which generates a lot of potential consumers of automobiles. In the meantime, auto consumers pay more attention to brand and their consumption habits have some changes. The attention degree of luxury cars is reduced. Beside, the environment protection consciousness of people is enhanced, which makes more people tend to purchase low-emission cars.
But the traffic conditions restrict the development of the automobile industry. Problems of traffic congestion, traffic jams and insufficient parking space reduce the efficiency of driving cars. Moreover, the loan proportion is far less than that of America, Japan and European countries. The traditional conservative consumption habits constrain vehicle sales. 4. 4 Technological environment Technology environment includes the automobile technical level, automobile technical policies and development trend of automobile technology in China (Lee,Abosag & Kwak, 2011).
Compared with foreign brands, the design and developing ability of self-owned brands is stronger. The quantity and quality of patents owned by domestic enterprises have an obvious difference in contrast to that of multinational enterprises. Along with the emphasis on resources and environment, technologies related to energy conservation and emission reduction are encouraged. New energy auto industry and low-emission auto industry gain the favor of the government. Besides, the network technology provides convenience for supply chain management. 4. 5 Natural environment
The natural environment refers to the natural factors that influence social production, mainly including natural resources and ecological environment (Porter, 2008). The influences of automobiles on resources and environment mainly include two aspects: the decreasing of oil resources and the pollution caused by oil combustion. Natural resources have been exploited and utilized in a large scale to support the rapid development of economics. This leads to dramatic reduction of natural resources. Meanwhile, extensive economy causes serious environment pollution.
Natural environment stimulates the development of smaller-engine vehicles. 5. 0 Market entry strategy of Toyota 5. 1 Positioning Market positioning decides the product type and the target market for an organization (Kaplan & Norton, 2008). To consolidate its market share further, Toyota could choose the urban market of China as the target market of its low-emission cars. According to the analysis above, the improvement of economic conditions increases the purchasing power of people in this target market. The improvement of transport infrastructure also helps to stimulate the purchase behavior of people in urban areas.
Besides, favorable policies and energy saving awareness together make smaller-engine vehicles more attractive to consumers. In a word, Toyota could target its low-emission cars at the urban areas of China. 5. 2 Price Price here refers to the price strategies, including discounts and periods of credit. It is related to the profit and cost compensation of an enterprise (Kaplan & Norton, 2008). For auto consumers in urban areas of China, price is still a sensitivity factor that influences their purchasing behavior. So Toyota should take the low price strategy to attract more consumers of target market in the stage of market entry.
Considering the traditional consumption habits of urban residents, automobile credit should be promoted by the company to encourage the purchasing behavior of consumers at the same time. 5. 3 Promotion Promotion includes all the forms of communication that an enterprises applies to introduce its products, service and concepts (Porter, 2008). Advertising, sales promotion and public relations are common elements of promotion activities. To popularize its products in urban areas of China, Toyota could take various kinds of promotion (Omar et al, 2009). For urban areas, television advertising is quite suitable.
Considering its popularity in China, celebrity endorsements should be applied. Networking channels also cannot be ignored given the spread of the Internet. In concert with advertising campaign, the sales outlets of Toyota could carry out promotion activities to earn the attention of urban residents. Besides, public relation activities such as test drive of new cars, news conference and public donation could be implemented by Toyota. 5. 4 Human resource Human resource refers to the experience, skills and physical strength owned by people in a organization (Morschett, Schramm-Klein & Swoboda, 2010).
To launch its products in Chinese market, the localization of human resources could be appropriate for Toyota. This strategy can firstly take advantages of the Chinese talents and solves the problems of expatriates shortage. Secondly, localization strategy of human resources can help to eliminate barriers of language and culture, which enhances the ability to deal with local governments. Thirdly, this strategy is a good way for Toyota to promote its image in target markets. For a multinational organization, localization of human resources also helps to maintain the stability of the management personnel and improve the work efficiency.
So Toyota could take the localization strategy in human resources. 5. 5 Strategic objectives Strategic objectives are the expectations of the achievements that are obtained through the business strategies of an enterprise (Kaplan & Norton, 2008). It includes the short-term goals and long-term goals. In a short time (3 to 5 years), the goals of Toyota could include becoming a well known automobile company in urban areas of China. At the same time, it is expected to increase its annual sales volume by 20% each year.
Considering the huge potential of Chinese urban market, its annual sales volume is expected to reach 400,000 five years from now. Its operating profit is expected to reach 3 billion yuan in five years. In a long time, the goal of Toyota could be to become the top automobile organization in its target market. 5. 6 Entry mode Market entry mode refers to the ways of entrance after the selection of target market. The joint ventures and merger and acquisition strategy are quite common (ElizabetH & Kiyohiko, 2008). In recent years, Toyota has aimed to accelerate localization and establish its brand image in Chinese market.
In order to save transportation cost and tariffs, Toyota could take the entry modes like joint ventures and merger and acquisition. Considering the large territory of China, these entry modes lets Toyota make use of the existing sales network built by other companies. At the same time, with the assistance of cooperative partners, Toyota can speed up its localization in China. These modes can also help to shorten the return period of investment. 5. 7 Operation Operation here includes the planning, organization, implementation and control of operation process.
Toyota has always been popular with its famous operation mode (Buckley& Horn, 2009). To enter into its target market in China successfully, lean production is still applicable at this point. This helps to avoid the waste of material, time and space and so on. Given the changeability of consumer demand, the research and development of new products should be concerned by Toyota. At the same time, the quality of its products should be strictly tested so that good product image can be maintained. The introduction of management information system is necessary for operation management.
The following figure gives a presentation of lean production mode. [pic] Figure 3: Lean production mode (Data source: Buckley & Horn, 2009) 6. 0 Conclusion Based on the market intelligence and business environment analysis, Chinese urban areas are attractive market for Toyota. As a top auto enterprise, Toyota could target its low-emission cars at the urban market of China. In this market, the low price strategy and the localization of human resources are suitable. The entry modes like joint ventures and merger and acquisition are applicable. Lean production is also appropriate.
The UEFA Champions League: Heineken Sponsorhip
The UEFA Champions League is a European football tournament that is held every year across Europe. With over 300 million television viewers, the league’s final is the most watched annual sporting event worldwide. For an event of this magnitude, the stakes for everyone involved are very high (appendix 1). This essay includes a short description of the tournament along with an overview of the stakeholders, followed by an analysis of one of the sponsors, Heineken. Description: UEFA has been organizing the Champions league since 1955, although it changed format in 1992.
Since 1992, the competition is divided into several parts; it begins in mid-July with three knockout-qualifying rounds and a play-off round. The 10 surviving teams join 22 already seeded teams in the group stage, in which there are eight groups with four teams each. The eight group winners and eight runners-up enter the final knockout phase, which ends with the final match in May. There is no particular host country as most of the games held throughout the tournament are played in either one of the contenders’ countries.
However, it is decided beforehand which city is hosting the next Champions League final. In 2012, it took place at the Allianz Arena in Munich. Overview of the stakeholders: The main stakeholders are the different football clubs taking part in this event. The participants may vary from one year to another, but there are very precise criteria to be part of this event; first of all, the teams have to be part of the European continental geographic area (appendix 3). Secondly, to ensure quality football, the contenders have to be at least part of the top four teams of their respective national leagues.
Furthermore, the ratio of teams selected per nation is not solely based on national league success; only the top team of every national league has a guaranteed spot as one of the 22 teams already qualified for the group stage. The football clubs are rewarded according to their performances, starting by 2. 1 million euros for each team in the play off round, up to 9 million euros for winning the final (appendix 1). On an institutional level, the European Club Association (EAC) represents the European clubs’ interests.
The football players also benefit from the UEFA Champions league, they do not get remunerations like their clubs but they get an opportunity to showcase their talent and possibly increase their own worth as football players. It is also a dream for any footballer to win the Champions League’s Trophy. As a counterpart, the talented players bring quality football matches to the tournament, making it the international phenomenon that it is today. Sponsors are always important stakeholders in any sporting event, in this case it is regulated that only eight companies are allowed to sponsor the event.
The main sponsors are Ford, Gazprom, Heineken, Mastercard, Sony Europe, UniCredit along with two secondary sponsors, Adidas and Konami (Pro Evolution Soccer) (appendix 2). Heineken and its relationship with the UEFA Champions League will further be analyzed in this essay. There are also many stakeholders associated with UEFA, the organizers of the tournament. First of all, they maintain steady relations with the European Union, they are members of the Enlarged Partial Agreement on Sport (EPAS) of the council of Europe.
The EPAS is used as a platform for communication and exchange between sport associations and governments as well as a tool for the promotion of good governance in sports. UEFA is also associated with FIFPro Division Europe, which is the European association of national player trade unions. They signed a Memorandum of Understanding in October 2007, granting each other legitimacy over European football; UEFA being the main governing body at all levels for football associations and the FIFPro Division Europe officially becoming the main umbrella organization of trade unions for professional European footballers.
Last but not least, UEFA interacts with the different national leagues in which the contending teams evolve. Those interactions are conducted via the leagues’ representative body, the Association of European Professional Football Leagues (EPFL). This association is based in Switzerland and since the Memorandum of Understanding in March 2009, it is recognized by UEFA as the official representative of the European national football leagues’ interests. [pic] The UEFA Champions Cup is a regular event that attracts huge numbers of audience.
Therefore, the media coverage is naturally worldwide and generates large amounts of wealth. The broadcasting rights, sold by the UEFA Champions League, are a three-season basis with other packages, which may vary. The matches are broadcasted in over 200 countries and are translated in at least 40 languages. The stakeholders, in this case the television broadcasters, can afford those rights and generate wealth with expensive advertising. In the picture above we have an example of one of the broadcasters, Fox Soccer Channel, Fox being the main media covering the Champions League in the United States.
Stakeholder Analysis: Heineken and the UEFA Champions League have been partners since 1994. Amstel, Heineken’s second main international brand, sponsored the event from 1994 to 2005. As the Champions League became increasingly popular outside of Western Europe, the Heineken brand replaced Amstel as the official sponsor. As the contract was renewed in 2005, Jean Francois van Boxmeer, a member of the Executive Board of Heineken N. V. said: “ We are delighted to have extended our sponsorship of the UEFA Champions league.
With over 4 billion viewers per season in 227 nations around the world, this premier sporting event has become truly global and fits perfectly with the Heineken brand, which is the world’s most international premium beer. ” (Francois van Boxmeer, citation: http://www. heinekeninternational. com/uefa. aspx) Both parties did not disclose the figures of the sponsorship. However in 2005, according to the announcement of the Heineken N. V. ’s 2004 full year results presentation, it was funded by “part of the additional €100 million annual marketing investment”. (Heineken 2004 full-year result presentation. Citation: http://www. einekeninternational. com/uefa. aspx) [pic] Like each sponsor of the UEFA Champions League, Heineken Brand has four advertising boards around the pitch, logo placement in interviews before and after the matches, as well as tickets to each match, which they can distribute as part of an advertising campaign The marketing operation’s success has suffered from only one inconvenient; in Spain, Turkey, France, Switzerland and Russia alcohol sponsorship is prohibited. In France, Spain and Switzerland, Heineken’s simple but emblematic slogan, “Open your world” or the famous sentence “Enjoy responsibly” replaces the Heineken logo on their ad boards.
In Russia however, the Heineken advertisement is completely replaced by “No To Racism” boards. Heineken has had no problems with the European governments, with the exception of the alcohol sponsorship prohibition as mentioned above. In France for example, not only the Heineken ad boards have to be replaced but also any club’s jerseys that advertises an alcohol sponsor. The advertising also suffered from an indirect problem, the controversy about the height of the boards. Since they were put up around the pitch, their larger size makes the use of the front row seats in various stadiums impossible.
Therefore season tickets holders are not assigned their regular seats and the flat area next to the pitch, which is commonly used for seating wheelchairs and disabled people, is rendered useless. Even though the advertising boards sparked up some criticisms, they still remain similar, forcing the stadium officials to find other accommodations for disabled people and season tickets holders. [pic] Since the UEFA Champions League sell the broadcasting rights themselves, the sponsors also have deals that allow them to have the priority on television advertisement.
Their relationship with the media is therefore enhanced by their partnership with the UEFA. Heineken have been putting a lot of efforts into producing quality television advertising. For example this year, in anticipation of the next Champions League, they broadcasted a series of commercials in which the Champions League Trophy is placed in various rooms booked by football fans, along with hidden cameras to film their reactions. They are all astonished; they hold the trophy up over their heads, scream and take pictures.
Then suddenly, the men’s joy is interrupted by a knock on the door, when they open it they find two fresh Heineken beers placed on a green countertop with the inscription, cheers. In the past years they have produced many funny commercials for the Champions League, some of them became very popular on the Internet as well. Heineken is a company always looking forward to new ways of reaching their customers through the medias, for example they built a interactive website where customers can collect points from the beer bottles and redeem prices like glasses, hacky sacks or even Champions League match tickets.
Overall, Heineken N. V. is an international company using the UEFA Champions League as a marketing investment by promoting one of their products, the Heineken Larger Beer. The sponsorship allows them to have maximum exposure to the public and potential customers. Their marketing strategy for the Champions League has targeted mostly adult men with advertising targeted towards sports, humor and also towards creating the illusion that men drinking Heineken will become socially skilled and attractive to women, as seen in the 2011 commercial entitled, “The Entrance” (http://www. eineken. com/ch/tv-spots/the-entrance. aspx). The price of the sponsorship between the UEFA Champions League and Heineken was clearly a very substantial sum of money but it remained confidential. Recently the contract was renewed until 2015, meaning Heineken will be sponsoring the UEFA Champions League for the 2012, 2013 and 2014 seasons.