American-Japanese Military And Race Conflicts In The Book “War Without Mercy: Race And Power In The Pacific War” Homework Essay Sample

John W. Dower is a famous American historian born in 1938 in Providence, Rhode Island. He received numerous awards for his works including the Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction for his book ‘Embracing the Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. He taught history at the University of Wisconsin, Madison and the University of California, San Diego now he is the Professor of International Cooperation at MIT. He also was the executive producer of the ‘Hellfire: A journey from Hiroshima’ documentary.

In the book ‘War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War’ the author studies the American – Japanese military and race conflicts. Dower points out that ‘apart from the genocide of Jews, racism remains one of the great neglected subjects of the World War Two’ (p. 4). In the first part of the book, he analyses the stereotypes of both sides towards their enemies: the Japanese were seen as sub-humans at the level of animals and the Americans were considered monsters. Both the USA and Japan promoted the idea of the supremacy of their own nation and this was a common feature of racism on both sides.

In the second chapter of the first part Dower mentions Frank Capra, one of the most famous American film directors who created a series of documentary war films titled ‘Why We Fight’ on the US government order in the 1940s. These films were intended to motivate new soldiers but later they got a general release in the theatres. The films depicted the Japanese as a great menace to the Americans and the whole world. The government allowed the release of the film ‘Know Your Enemy’ only in 1945, they did not like the sympathy given to the Japanese. To prove the dangerous nature of the enemy historical facts about Japanese invasions to Korea and China were used in the mentioned series of films. Further, the author switches to the propaganda from the Japanese government. The Series of films ‘Why We Fight’ had its counterparts in Japan: ‘Read This and the War is Won’ by Tsuji Masanobu and the manifesto titled ‘The Way of the Subject’ from the Ministry of Education. The Japanese analyzed the pages of American history concerning the situations with American Indians and African Americans. Both nations studied each others’ histories as a chronicle of destruction, exploitation and cruel wars.

The further parts of the book provide an in-depth analysis of racial stereotypes and wartime propaganda in the USA and Japan. The author also touches upon the differences in the American perception of the Germans and the Japanese.

In the epilogue Dower wonders how easily the wartime stereotypes and racism disappear once the war is over and suggests the only possible answer is that all the wartime stereotypes, propaganda and racial hatred are false and groundless.

In this book the author managed to find ties between war and culture, as ‘War Without mercy’ is not a book on racism its meaning is much broader. The issues of prejudice, tunnel vision and inability to see the situation from all sides are described in the present book. Overall, ‘War Without mercy’ is a thorough study of the propaganda in history, particularly in the Pacific war. It can contribute to the building of understanding and friendly relations between not only East and West but all the nations as well.

References

Dower, J. (1986). War Without mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. New York, USA: Pantheon Publishing.

Coaching Efficacy And Coaching Effectiveness

The study by Kavussanu Maria, Boardley Ian, Jutkiewicz, Natalia, Vincent Samantha and Ring Christopher addressed coaching efficiency and usefulness, and also examined the predictors and a comparison between the information on the trainers and the athletes. In the report, they addressed the concern on the increased research on the conceptual model of coaching effectiveness. Their findings on coaching effectiveness are worth critique.

First, the research evaluated the effectiveness of coaching through analyzing the predictors. Secondly, it assessed the predictors of coaches’ efficiency as alleged by their athletes. Finally, it also examined the contrasts relating to the reports obtained from the athletes, and the coaches founded on the coaching effectiveness field. The supposition of the study was that sex predicted athletes’ insights of the coaching efficacy which was not supported by the research conclusions.

The study adopted 26 coaches (19 males and seven females), 291 athletes, eight individual teams, and seven sports’ teams based in Universities within Britain. The adopted data-gathering tools were demographic feedback forms for the athletes and Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES) for the coaches and the adopted account of the CES for the athletes.

The coaches were approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Birmingham after which questionnaires were provided prior to the training session. The period of study was three to four months in the 2004-2005 seasons. To measure the dimension of coaching effectiveness, the 24-items CES measure was used to gauge the perceived coaching efficacy. The CES modified version was also adopted.

The data was analyzed using various statistical tools. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the mean team scores in comparison to coaching effectiveness that was presented by the coach of every team. The ratings of the athletes and those of their respective coaches were analyzed using the One-way ANOVA. MANOVA was also done to examine the potential interaction between the sport and sex, and how it influenced coaching effectiveness. The structures of the attributes were scrutinized by the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) so as to define if the features had been retained.

The study established that the age of the coaches determined their coaching effectiveness. Coaches who had longer years of experience had high coaching expertise. Gender was ascertained to influence the coaching effectiveness as male coaches had better strategies for games. The experiences of the coaches determined the understanding and effectiveness of the athlete’s sporting. Also, the disparity between the coaches’ and athletes’ feminism or masculinity had a negative impact on the expected trainees’ motivation. A higher significance difference was observed between coaches’ and athletes’ ratings. In this regard, the coaches rated the coaching effectiveness in an elevated value as compared to that of the athletes.

Various procedures were applied where eight individual teams and seven sports players based at the University groups were used in a competition. Concurrently, this is an indication of obtaining biased results because of the coaches working conditions and the athlete’s training circumstances. Individual team coaches would perform lowly when compared to the coaches from the university. The athletes were also subjected in reporting differently on the coaching effectiveness as their environment could dictate.

In regard to how the authors discussed their findings regarding the predictors of coaching effectiveness, they compared the male and female coaches’ effectiveness. It is not justified that being a male is a guarantee to develop skills towards leading the team compared to female counterparts. It is true that the experience in years of coaching can be a predictor in the technique effectiveness as the authors suggested. According to the findings on the predictors of perceived coaching, effectiveness is not absolutely true that sex compatibility would be a predictor in this case. The motivation and value efficiency of the athletes are not correlated to the gender of the coaches.

Future research should consider using coaches of teams working on the same environmental condition. Research should be undertaken to determine if the connection between a male coach and a female athlete improved the performance of the coach in any competition outside their training fields.

Reference

Kavussanu, M., Boardley, D., Natalia, J., Samantha, V., & Ring, C. (2008). Coaching efficacy and coaching effectiveness: Examining their predictors and comparing coaches. The Sport Psychologist, 22(1), 383-404.

The Ancient Pagans Of Northern Europe And A Connection With Nature

The connection between the ancient pagans of northern Europe and nature is undeniable. Harvey provides the definition of paganism as such that “labels a diverse but cohesive array of religious activities and affiliations that can also be named ‘nature-centered spiritualties’ or ‘nature religions’… Pagans are people who identify themselves as members of a spectrum of nature-celebrating spiritualties” (Goodrich, 2015, p. 6). For this ancient people, nature had a central role in their everyday lives. They worshiped it and made sacrifices for it. The pagans regarded their relationship with nature as a central part of their beliefs.

Firstly, the surrounding nature was part of the identity for the pagan communities. Many of the tribes identified themselves with the trees that were around them (BBC, n.d.). They took the corresponding names as their tribe titles, which further emphasizes the connection they shared. This was because all those plants had extraordinary power in the view of the community. “For our ancestors, every rock, stream, and a plant was a living thing with its power and spirit” (BBC, n.d.). It was a symbol of the spiritual life, which was an essential aspect of how pagans viewed the world. Additionally, the ancient people could not understand this phenomenon. This was due to how they changed with the seasons (BBC n.d.). To fully understand that mindset, one must retreat from the modern view of the world and the knowledge that humanity possesses nowadays. While they respected the trees, the pagans had to use them to build houses and for other activities.

Secondly, the pagans made sacrifices for nature, as a payment for using its resources. It was regarded as a deal between the people and the landscape around them (BBC, n.d.). If they took something, they had to give it back in various forms. While mostly these sacrifices were innocent, there are historical examples of pagans giving up the most valuable a human being has – life. An excellent illustration of this relationship with nature is the man, whose remains were found by the archeologists (BBC, n.d.). It is believed that he was killed as a sacrifice in the name of nature. By coincidence, the man’s body was preserved, allowing the scientist to determine the cause of death. The result of the foundlings indicated that at the time the man had died he was perfectly healthy (BBC, n.d.). This is because the candidates for such ritual were chosen in advance, usually a year before. They were given everything they wanted or needed as a way to raise their status (BBC, n.d.). That made them a more attractive sacrifice. It was regarded as a noble action, in a way. This murder was performed to solve the issues of the community such as with crops or other things. In some cases, pagans thought that the sacrifice would save many others, who were working in a dangerous landscape (BBC, n.d.). The fact that the people were willing to do such a thing is an illustration of their respectful treatment of nature and their willingness to find ways to live in balance with it.

Finally, the pagans believed that nature was alive, living together with the spirit of their ancestors. This attitude explains the relationship these people had with sacrificing human life. It was considered an honor and not a punishment. For them, the ancestors had knowledge and power, and therefore they were respected. They thought that the ancestors were a part of their society (BBC, n.d.). To worship this connection between their ancestors and nature they created the burial mountains. These monuments were further used to identify the belonging of the land. However, it is clear that the pagans worshiped their ancestors and their connection with nature.

The land the pagans had lived on was particularly important to them. To claim it, they used the burial mountains of their ancestors. In this way, they could justify, that their community has inhabited the given territory for many years. This was a way for them to use the sacred place. While many other cultures had such places, this ancient community differs from them because of the central role of nature in their beliefs. They understood that they were taking away from it when they were building homes or roads. Despite that, they were willing to restore that balance with various sacrifices.

Overall, the ancient pagans of northern Europe had a deep connection with nature; it was a central part of their view of the world. They identified their tribes with the trees by taking their names as they found in the extraordinary spiritual power that things around them possessed. To repay the nature for what they were getting, they made various sacrifices. In some particular occasions, they sacrificed human lives. The willingness of the people to give the most valuable to nature as payment is an excellent illustration of the relationship. They treaded the environment with respect as they believed in the connection it had with their ancestors.

References

BBC (n.d.). Pagans 4 Sacred Landscape. Web.

Goodrich, S. (2015). Human-nature relationship and faery faith in the American pagan subculture. Web.

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