Cause of the Problem that their Countries Faced
Perspective of Hitler
Hitler pointed out two specific reasons behind the current plight that Germany experienced. The first was the adverse system of reparations that Germany had to pay at the end of the first World War. This is evidenced by the following quote:
“The resulting actions between victors and those they vanquished created turmoil between nations and led to the deterioration of industries” (Hitler.org, 2015).
The second cause of the problems was the supposed failures of the Marxist-oriented regimes in which led to the country’s dire economic situation. He even stated that is due to the fourteen years that Germany endured under Marxism that caused these issues and, as such, change was needed.
Perspective of Franklin Roosevelt
In his speech, Roosevelt connected the current problems the U.S. was facing to the actions of the various financial entities in the New York stock exchange that caused the Great Depression that lasted for ten years. Evidence of this can be seen in Roosevelt referencing that the country actually had a lot of available resources; however, their use was not being implemented due to lack of industrial demand. He also used the following quote to connect the actions of reckless financial institutions to the Great Depression:
“…..is because the leaders in of our exchange of goods have failed in their jobs due to greed and stubbornness, and even incompetence” (Bartleby, 2015).
Dealing with Unemployment
To resolve the problem of unemployment, Hitler proposed that the government implement two four-year plans to address the issues currently affecting the country. These focus on public spending to revive economic activity to bring in more workers.
Banking, finance and in general, the economy
To help the financial sector of the economy, Hitler proposed that it would be necessary to promote more employment and preserve the current livelihood of the country’s farmers.
One way in which Hitler would have revived the agricultural sector would have been through the implementation of a compulsory method of labor service as well as practices that give the land back to farmers.
When it comes to its foreign policy initiatives, Hitler proposed that the National Government should focus on giving the German people her freedom as well as providing enough space to live.
To resolve the problem of unemployment, Roosevelt explained that to solve the issues plaguing the country, the U.S. should treat poverty the same way it treats war, namely by having the government assist in its irradication.
Banking, finance and in general, the economy
To revive the financial industry during the Great Depression, Roosevelt proposed that: changes must be enacted in the banking sector to prevent the same problems that created the Great Depression from happening again. These take the form of limitations on the ability of bankers and investors to implement new banking or investing policies.
Roosevelt also said that to help the agricultural sector, it would be necessary to prevent more foreclosures by implementing policies that enable farmers to keep their farms. This takes the form of better mortgage interest rates.
Roosevelt’s foreign policy agenda consists of “the policy of the good neighbor,” which focuses on respecting the rights and freedoms of other countries.
The common ground for both leaders was the acknowledgment that government intervention and support was necessary to revitalize their respective damaged economies. They differ when it comes to how they perceive the power of their position, wherein Roosevelt emphasized the use of systems and institutions while Hitler’s point of view focused on the government being the center of operations.
Bartleby. (2015). Franklin D. Roosevelt: First Inaugural Address. U.S. Inaugural Addresses. Web.
Hitler.org. (2015). Berlin: Proclamation To The German Nation – 1933. Web.
Violation Of The Human Right To Life: Death Penalty
The problem of the death penalty cannot be separated from the general concept of human rights as it violates the paramount right of a human to life. In particular, the death penalty is contrary to the international legal standards in the field of human rights, violating the universally recognized norms of the right to life. According to the Center for Constitutional Rights, the establishment of a prohibition on the use of capital punishment in modern international law is associated with the statement of a basic principle of respect for human rights, fundamental freedoms, and the general recognition of the absolute right to life (The death penalty is a human rights violation, 2012). This prohibition has already been recognized by plenty of countries – members of the UN, the European Union, the OSCE, and others. Speaking of the US Constitution adopted in 1787, it is essential to note that it does not contain a specific title or chapter on human rights and freedoms while the right to life is enshrined in Amendment V (The death penalty is a human rights violation, 2012). The right to life as a pivotal constitutional right was recognized by the US Constitution, but, at the same time, capital punishment is not abolished in the 34 states of the country.
Impact on Crime Rates
In terms of overall crime rates, it should be emphasized that there is no scientific evidence that proves a deterrent role of the death penalty towards crime (Nagin & Pepper, 2012). This is the conclusion of the research team working at the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. Focusing on various issues related to capital punishment, those studies that have suggested evidence supporting a deterrent role of the death penalty were assessed in terms of the quality of the evidence (Nagin & Pepper, 2012). As a result, serious mistakes were detected that, in turn, made scholars question their scientific character.
Another authoritative organization, a Brennan Center for Justice at the School of Law at New York University, conducted a study to evaluate the impact of a wide range of factors on crime rates, including the death penalty. The conclusion was clear: the existence of the death penalty does not affect the crime rate (Roeder, Eisen, Bowling, Stiglitz, & Chettiar, 2015). The fact is that the crime rate and violent crime are determined by the common long-term trends occurring in society. If the frequency of crime increases in the country, it equally affects the states having capital punishment and those that do not practice it. Moreover, comparing the level of crime in the states applying the death penalty and those that do not, researchers found that the overall crime rate is higher in the states where there is the capital form of punishment (Roeder et al., 2015). This situation would not occur in the case the death penalty had some impact on crime rates.
Regarding retribution or revenge, the death penalty generates cruelty in society. A state that supports such punishment declares that killing is an acceptable way of solving problems. Society perceives it as an act of justice and, therefore, has a distorted notion of solving the problems of crime (Iyer, 2013). As a result, citizens are beginning to think that crime issues can be resolved by killing. It should also be noted that with the accomplishment of capital punishment, justice cannot achieve the objectives of punishment such as the reconstruction of social justice, correction of the convict, and prevention of new crimes. Considering each of the items separately, it becomes evident that the objectives cannot be reached by the death penalty. Under the reconstruction of social justice, the recovery of violated rights and freedoms is understood (Iyer, 2013). However, the rights and freedoms of the victim or his or her relatives cannot be restored after the criminal’s death. Also, with the death of criminal offenders, it is impossible to correct them (Iyer, 2013). Moreover, the expectation of death often motivates and encourages the sentenced to believe that nothing will change.
Tendency to Decline
Attitudes to the death penalty in the United States are not stated clearly. According to Dieter (2014), an executive director of the Death Penalty Information Center, the number of cases associated with the death penalty is significantly reduced in recent years as the judges are often offered an alternative way of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. Dieter (2014) explains this trend by a miscarriage of justice that is regarded as a focal argument of the death penalty abolition supporters. For instance, in their work, Gross, O’brien, Hu, and Kennedy (2014) state that until the death penalty is maintained, society cannot avoid the risk of incorrect execution of the sentence. No one can correct a fault of justice if the person is dead. At that, the irreversibility of death warrant created by mistake cannot be completely excluded in any legal system. Even the most advanced and powerful system of justice with numerous assurances cannot provide the full accuracy of the facts in all cases (Gross et al., 2014). In any case, there is a serious risk that a person will be executed for a crime he or she did not commit. It is confirmed by too many examples when people were justified after conviction, often due to DNA analysis.
Plenty of crimes force to shudder from cruelty with which they were committed. Nevertheless, this cruel and unusual punishment that was identified before might be substituted by more suitable ones. However, it is pinpointed by Dieter (2014) based on the experience that the change in the current US system is difficult because it requires a decision states.
Precisely speaking, if the state is moving towards the abolition of the death penalty, it should find an adequate alternative. Such factors as politics, culture, and religion should undoubtedly be taken into account (Dieter, 2014). The presence or absence of the death penalty is an indicator of the particular level of culture, security, and public awareness. Meanwhile, it is significant that the process of abolishing the death penalty should flow steadily preventing any critical situations. These solutions can be achieved through the deep conviction that this type of punishment is unacceptable in a humane and democratic society (Dieter, 2014).
Therefore, the abolition of capital punishment is possible only in the context of a civil, humane, ethical, and fair society. Only then it will be possible to punish the criminals without depriving them of the most valuable human right – the right to life. In other words, the death penalty is essential to consider in a broader context throughout the interdependence of social, economic, political, legal, spiritual, and moral factors. It is considered that life imprisonment and isolation from society scares criminals much more than the death penalty. Therefore, life imprisonment seems to be an adequate alternative to such inhumane punishment like the death penalty.
Dieter, R. (2014). Use of the death penalty is rare and decreasing.
Gross, S. R., O’brien, B., Hu, C., & Kennedy, E. H. (2014). Rate of false conviction of criminal defendants who are sentenced to death. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(20), 7230-7235.
Iyer, D. (2013). Death penalty is not a solution to the issue.
Nagin, D., & Pepper, J. (2012). Deterrence and the death penalty. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
Roeder, O. K., Eisen, L., Bowling, J., Stiglitz, J. E., & Chettiar, I. M. (2015). What caused the crime decline? New York, NY: Brennan Center for Justice at the School of Law.
The death penalty is a human rights violation. (2012).
Social Work: The Latin American Youth Center
Today, in relation to social work field, many organizations seek to help individuals, families, couples, groups, and communities to improve their quality of life and wellbeing. This goal is accomplished through research, policy, community organizing, direct practice, crisis, and intervention. Some communities try to address social problems with the help of the community they are located in or with the help of private funding (Latin American Youth Center, 2012).
The Latin American Youth Center (LAYC) was designed to help Latin youths in the Columbia Heights Community. In 1968, LAYC was put in place to fight the nonexistence of services in the rising Latino society. Many immigrants’ youths in the area were involved in or were at risk of violence, drugs, and gangs. The lack of resources in Columbia Heights Community made it hard for Latino youths to improve their lifestyle. According to a peer reviewed article by Gudino, Nadeem, Katoaka, and Lau (2011), Latino youths in low-income urban community are at risk of exposure to violence. There are many factors that explain the causes of before, during, and after migration. These factors include acculturation stress, language proficiency, and parental separations (Gudino et al., 2011).
Apparently, the attitude regarding migrants has currently improved following the establishment of policies such as the National Origins Formula, which have enhanced immigration opportunities while at the same time paving a way for more social services to cater for the rising population. Compared to the past, many individuals have access to services from private and non-governmental organizations, as well as non-profit organizations. The can get services that they cannot reach elsewhere. Social policies have been improved to change racist thinking between minority groups. They have helped to reduce conflicts between immigrants, hence facilitating the efforts of social workers. The need to mitigate in the vulnerable areas and solve social injustices was inevitable. Social workers focused on these areas. Therefore, this paper will focus on one particular organization, which is the Latin American Youth Center (LAYC), which operates as a non-profit organization.
Historical Review of Agency
Prior to opening its door as the Latin American Youth Center (LAYC) in 1974, this organization offered assistance with education, after-school activities, and career enhancement programs. As indicated in the institution’s web page, LAYC’s mission “is to empower a diverse population of youth to achieve a successful transition to adulthood through multi-cultural, comprehensive, and innovative programs that address youths’ social, academic, and career needs” (LAYC Inc., 2013, Para. 1). LAYC focuses on helping youths with an array of services that range from social needs to academic assistance. In 2001, LAYC established the “Latin American Montessori Bilingual (LAMB) public charter school, which is the second public bilingual Montessori school in the USA and the first one in the District of Columbia” (LAYC Inc., 2013, Para. 3).
Besides, LAYC developed into a multicultural child and relations improvement base that served Latino teenagers while at the same time operating as a connection to the teenagers’ neighborhood. According to the LAYC, Lori Kaplan assumed the position of the administrative chief of the Latin American Youth Center during the close of 1980s (LAYC Inc., 2013; Latin American Youth Center, n.d). As LAYC continued to grow, this association incorporated itself as a non-profit organization. Through his guidance, LAYC has managed to nurture many less-privileged teenagers through promising job openings while establishing revolutionary associations and learning centers (Latin American Youth Center, n.d). Because of the inadequate back up from communal and confidential financiers, LAYC began to get city finances to improve teenage courses.
Delivery of Services
The LAYC organization has varieties of programs and target groups. I has set asides programs for college and employment preparation for high school seniors (Workforce Investment Act, College Access, Upward Bound), tutoring for middle-school students (AmeriCorps), gang prevention, arts projects, after-school programs, and tutoring for high-school students (Leaders Like Me, YETS). Other programs that the organization has implemented include transitional housing for the homeless and runaway youth (Host Homes, parent advocacy (Parents As Leaders), case management, counseling, Promoters Pathways), educational services (LAYC Charter School, AmeriCorps, GED programs), healthcare, awareness, and advocacy (Community Wellness, DC Prevention Center, Project STRIPES).
LAYC focuses heavily on youth empowerment. Youth empowerment includes “providing involvement opportunities, role modeling, knowledge, skill enhancement, and/or building a sense of personal agency or self-efficacy” (Western Australian Centre for Health Promotion Research, 2010). This approach is visible in the programming process by the curriculums that have been set in place for this plan. For educational programs at LAYC, literacy and mathematical skills are sharpened.
Moreover, several other strategies are incorporated to ensure that the participants complete the programs as competent individuals. Such strategies include the use of modern technology and updated curricula that match the requirements of the corporate world. Many of LAYC’s curricula involve life skills lessons, education about post-secondary alternatives, as well as career advancement training. This programming not only gives participants knowledge, but also imparts confidence that they need to make their own decisions and/or determine what is best for themselves.
Data collection is done through an online system, namely ‘efforts to outcome’, which records efforts, demographics, and outcomes. The system is used when requesting funding, reporting to funders, and promoting LAYC’s mission. In 1996, LAYC received its first federal grant for job training through AmeriCorps and Youth Build. LAYC also gets centralized, home, and classified financial support from the District of Columbia Department of Employment Services. The fund allows the organization to “launch youth programs in automobile mechanics, catering, and clerical skills” (LAYC Inc., 2013, Para. 5). Work instruction comprises lessons about English as a foreign tongue, a course to assist Latino teenagers to acquire a GED, post-education work opportunities, and an off-session teenage course.
The Adelante Program
In the Adelante Program, both Washington University and the Office of Health Disparities with NIH have partnered to provide funds to the Maryland Multicultural Youth Center (MMYC) to run this program (LAYC Inc., 2013).
The course is a research program that focuses on youth whose ages range between 14-24 years and their family members who not only live in the Langley Park area, but also are at risk of substance abuse and violence. The program takes a strength-based approach in addressing proficiency, input, and associates (LAYC Inc., 2013). The Adelante program offers opportunities such as leadership forums, family relationships, community development, and awareness programs. Some of the program’s expectations include realizing all grant requirements and providing case management to 150 youths. The expectations also include organizing community events that can increase the competence, connection, and contribution of youths in the Langley Park community (LAYC Inc., 2013).
Some desired outcomes include the reduction of risky sexual behavior and eliminating substance abuse and violence. For eighth-grade students, the desired outcomes include assisting in the successful transition to the tenth grade to prevent dropouts. Expectations in regards to high-school students include serving 75 youths and ensuring that they make a successful transition to their tenth and eleventh grade. In addition, these students are supposed to be equipped with life skills that will enable and empower them to become successful in life. To achieve these objectives, Adelante Program Manager plans to collaborate with another existing program at LAYC. This plan is enhanced by the fact that participants in the Adelante Program can access the services in various ways. For instance, some students voluntarily decide to join while others are required to attend by their institutions because of their grades or behavior (LAYC Inc., 2013).
Furthermore, the standards differ for each program based on the grant. However, for the Workforce Program, the requirements are stricter. The Workforce Program provides a holistic assistance in terms of career development such as interviewing skills, goal setting, life skills, communication, and conflict management. In addition, the program offers case management for youths to ensure successful transition to the corporate world. However, a criterion is used to gauge learners who are fit to join the program. For instance, students must be high school seniors in the corresponding county. They should be eligible to work in the United States. Besides, they must qualify as low-income families while at the same time demonstrating a challenge such as living in a single parent household or having a cumulative GPA below 2.0. They are required to provide any documentation that can prove that they are challenged. Thereafter, they are required to fill a packet of approximately 40 pages of paperwork.
Generally, staff members’ eligibility is based on their expertise and experience such as a Bachelor’s Degree in social work and some experience in working with children. In addition, their ability to follow and model positive youth development, being kind, caring, and being firm are other desired traits. Staff members must also demonstrate the capacity to successfully pass a background check. The main detail is the staff’s passion and commitment to making a difference in the lives of the participants.
Additionally, when LAYC loses a grant, it also suffers a loss of staff members. Therefore, staff members are sometimes brought into work from other programs or other sites. Each program has case managers, outreach workers, and program directors each of which has a crucial role to play in realizing the program’s agenda. For instance, the case managers work directly with the students in ensuring that they (students) are meeting the goals of a specific program. If any specific needs arise, they assist the students either with acquiring the appropriate services or passing along information to them on how they can obtain the required services. The outreach workers are in charge of recruiting students for the program.
They may take on various other tasks such as event planning and administrative tasks. Outreach workers usually have few cases of their own, but not as many as what case managers have. The program directors ensure that their staff members are focused on their task and that their clients’ needs are met. The social workers find it rewarding to see their students making progress and/or exiting the program as better people than they were at the commencement of the program.
However, there is no guarantee that students who end up benefiting from this program, probably due to family issues, will cease being part of the program. This observation is among the challenges that social workers at LAYC face. As much as they are willing to help, internal and external conflicts compel students to terminate the programs prematurely. Poor public transportation to access the suburbs is another challenge that LAYC workers encounter. LAYC has selected sites near transport hubs to help in overcoming the transportation challenge. Real estate around the LAYC structures is quite expensive, thus making it difficult to find enough space for youth programming.
One of the social policies that LAYC adopted to help in its operation was the Federal Fund Gang Prevention Initiative (FGPI) in the Prince George’s and Montgomery Counties. This regulation was developed in 2010 by President Barrack Obama’s administration. FGPI advanced a consolidation of career development programs, which enabled youths to attain jobs in the public service domain, as well as the private sector. This initiative aimed to streamline prevention operations to improve regional safety while at the same time keeping communities secure. It also aimed at engaging the youths in productive activities. LAYC management announced the plans at the Langley Park Community Center, which focused on engaging youths in safe alternative activities to ward them off from crime and gang affiliation (LAYC Inc., 2013).
Federal and local government provided funding for general operating expenditures. Local communities used these funds to improve their neighborhoods by supporting programs for prevention and intervention efforts. The programs were to be administered in various institutions among them being the LAYC. With the funding criterion that was transcribed in the policy guidelines, LAYC was elevated in a position to improve its services whilst offering high-standard training to the youths.
The social work practice was highly boosted by this new initiative, which enhanced service delivery due to the increased efficient structures. This social policy was necessary since it assisted in the acquisition of funds. In return, LAYC provided safe and stable homes for the youths to thrive. Achieving this goal happened in various ways. For instance, after the youths were provided with the right support services, most of them were able to gain positive development to become successful individuals in the society. This policy is critical in guiding service delivery to the youths by the social service workers. It emphasized equal chances to quality education, training, and job opportunities, particularly to the less privileged section of the community (Confronting Suburban Poverty in America, 2015).
This policy enhanced child protection. It also eased the issue of mainstreaming of students with disabilities. This social policy later led to a significant change in the populations of Latin America and beyond. LAYC’s management largely focused on improving social worker skills in a bid to provide more constructive outlets for youths into the corporate society. This move substantially reduced the threat of gang activities in the society and in a very organized manner. With adequate funds, LAYC will be better placed to create a more defined organization, which will demand worker accountability, efficiency, transparency, and integrity. This outcome will translate into a better organization after LAYC workers manifest compliance with the provisions of the Federal Fund Gang Prevention Act.
The organization does a great job by not only meeting the students’ needs, but also empowering them to become motivated and equipped young adults who cannot only improve their quality of life but also influence the quality of other peoples’ lives. Many staff members at LAYC are former participants of one or more of the organization’s programs. They are aware of the impact they make on participants’ lives. Hence, they are always willing to go above and beyond their job description for each participant. Services at LAYC are not simply afterschool activities to entertain youth. Rather, they are life-long skills and services that are meant to help youths to become successful in life.
As stated before, staffing can have drastic changes due to losing or acquiring grants, which can also have an effect on the participants and their willingness to return to the center after such staff changes. Overall, LAYC is a great non-profit organization that has helped many youths to develop and improve their lifestyle.
LAYC has been around for many years where it has been providing services for youths who are at high risk of drug abuse, gangs, and violence. This organization provides great varieties of services that help Latino youths to meet their social needs. LAYC majors much on teenage capacity building, including availing participation chances and convenient positive role models, information, and talent expansion. Through its many branches, the organization has been considered a breakthrough to the surrounding societies since they have gained significantly from it. Many youths who come from low-class families end up in drugs after missing opportunities to further their education. The stress that builds up in them pushes them to join counterproductive groups. However, through LAYC, many youths from this class have obtained sufficient skills and knowledge, which they can deploy to live an independent and constructive life.
Confronting Suburban Poverty in America. (2015). Latin American Youth Center: Adapting Urban Social Services for Suburban Communities. Web.
Gudino, G., Nadeem, E., Kataoka, H., & Lau, S. (2011). Relative impact of violence exposure and immigrant stressors on Latino youth psychopathology. Journal of Community Psychology, 39(3), 316-335. Web.
Latin American Youth Center. (2012). LAYC Partners with DC SCORES Through Social Innovation Fund Sub-Grant from U.S. Soccer Foundation to Support Soccer for Success. Web.
Latin American Youth Center. (n.d). Overview. Web.
LAYC Inc. (2013). Bienvenidos. Web.
Western Australian Centre for Health Promotion Research. (2010). Youth empowerment. Web.