America’s Healthcare Policy And Obamacare Sample Essay

Introduction

Although medical bills are the leading cause of all financial issues in the United States, the Affordable Care Act of 2010 minimizes bankruptcies, especially among the uninsured. Unlike other developed nations, the United States does not have a comprehensive and unified healthcare system, even though it spends more on healthcare per person than any other sector. The absence of coordination, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness adversely affect various fundamental healthcare concerns, including affordability, access, and quality. Over the years, healthcare has been an extraordinary election concern in the United States, with contenders promising to overhaul and reform the system to favor a unified and affordable design. One of the most effective policies has been the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) due to its ability to address inequalities, reduce healthcare barriers, and minimize financial anxiety. The article “Obamacare: An Unheralded Success” supports this perspective by enumerating the act’s life-changing differences. While the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act does not consolidate America’s healthcare system, it plays an integral role in addressing inequalities and expanding public coverage.

Summary

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was President Obama’s signature policy intended to increase Americans’ access to medical services by enhancing the affordability and availability of health insurance. Michael Cohen, the article’s author, highlights that the lack of health insurance impeded accessibility of health services for the uninsured and underinsured before the implementation of the ACA. People had to make high out-of-pocket payments for medical care and prescription drugs. Consequently, these uninsured people could not meet the exorbitant costs levied on needed care.

Before the enactment of the ACA, the rate of uninsured was higher for Hispanics and Blacks at 30.7% and 20.8%, respectively (Wilensky & Teitelbaum, 2019). However, ACA’s implementation decreased the national health insurance coverage from 16.3% in 2010 to 8.8% in 2017 (Wilensky & Teitelbaum, 2019). According to Cohen (2016), people who had been previously excluded from insurance plans for various reasons could now benefit from ACA services regardless of their financial position. For example, following the ACA’s enactment, a clinic in Los Angeles recorded a surge in the number of patients arriving for cancer screenings, tobacco cessation therapy, and controlled hypertension (Cohen, 2016). Therefore, expanded health insurance coverage increased the accessibility of healthcare.

ACA aimed to enhance healthcare affordability for everyone by subsidizing health insurance costs for those who could not afford it. Affordable health insurance meant greater accessibility and tangible benefits. Cohen (2016) claims that most Americans’ medical debt covered by Medicaid has been significantly reduced by between $600 to $1,000 per individual. The author argues that the most significant impact of the ACA was felt in Americans’ pockets, as it eliminated the psychological and financial implications of medical debts.

Previously, the uninsured were at a greater risk of bankruptcy from medical debts, which is America’s leading cause of financial ruin (Cohen, 2016). People who had to offset substantial medical care and prescription drugs’ costs would fall behind on other financial obligations. This potentially led to numerous severe consequences, such as evictions, repossessions, obtaining credit at exorbitant rates, and living with extreme economic anxiety. For instance, Medicaid expansion in Oregon virtually eliminated debilitating medical expenses, reduced financial hardship incidences, and recorded a 30% decline in the uninsured suffering from depression (Cohen, 2016). Although not perfect, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is arguably one of the successful laws in narrowing income inequality, reducing financial anxiety, saving lives, and enhancing Americans’ economic security.

The article provides essential information concerning healthcare services’ affordability and accessibility by subsidizing health insurance, and it describes today’s healthcare trends. Numerous attempts have been made to improve healthcare and address the politically influenced public policy system. Healthcare has undergone material changes that share a close resemblance to ACA. Cohen (2016) imagines a situation where the act could increase medical coverage. It includes multiple states passing laws that make it easier for individuals to benefit from higher minimum wage, paid family and sick leave, and improved childcare support. For instance, the District of Columbia, alongside the other 40 states, now requires health insurers to provide expanded coverage that encompasses telehealth (Bajowala et al., 2020). The concept is in line with the ACA’s primary aim of expanding healthcare coverage and minimizing disparities, especially in rural communities adversely affected by low proximity to local medical facilities and healthcare providers. Overall, the author envisions the advancement of the various provisions of ACA by exploring cost containment, improving healthcare access, and delivering quality care.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was a revolutionary law that tremendously transformed America’s healthcare system. The escalating costs of healthcare had impeded the accessibility and affordability of healthcare. The act’s primary objective was to reverse this trend by ensuring health insurance was affordable, particularly to low-income earners and individuals with pre-existing conditions. The article credits the impact of ACA on the American people and envisions expanding services to narrow the rich-poor gap even further. Although beset with various challenges and flaws, the law has reduced financial anxiety and saved lives. Conclusively, a joint approach in the formulation and implementation of public policies is all that is needed to bring life-changing differences to the people.

References

Bajowala, S. S., Milosch, J., & Bansal, C. (2020). Telemedicine pays: Billing and coding update. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 20, 60. 

Cohen, M. (2016). Obamacare: An unheralded success. Boston Globe. 

Wilensky, S. E., & Teitelbaum, J. B. (2019). Essentials of health policy and law (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Feminist Literary Criticism: Shoshana Felman’s Ideas

Opportunities to convey one’s ideas to society through literature are effective tools that allow not only leaving a personal mark on history but also indicating an individual position on a specific topic or issue. However, when taking into account modern social norms and foundations, not all the categories of the population can count on such a privilege. In particular, out about women and their ambiguous possibilities to express and declare themselves through autobiographical literature. As a basis for the analysis, Felman’s arguments are cited that female inability to express personal experiences openly is a characteristic feature of modern society (344). Although the author’s opinion is straightforward and affects all women without exception, her idea of ​​the importance of self-consciousness expressed in an autobiographical form deserves attention as a problem raised due to public ignorance.

The presented idea of the significance of expressing women’s individual views in literature is reflected in modern feminist theories. For instance, according to Swank and Fahs, the consciousness of this class “functions as the ideas that lead to collective gender rebellions” (3). In other words, feminist ideas are initially opposed to generally accepted norms of social interaction and male dominance. As Felman argues, women have the right to count on the freedom of expression of personal ideas not only in addresses to one another but also in the public environment, in particular, in literature (343). This call is objective because, while taking into account the author’s words that women cannot count on objective criticism of their creativity, gender inequality can be traced directly (Felman 344). However, certain aspects are not thoroughly disclosed to confirm the objectivity of the proposed reasons comprehensively.

The description of the impossibility of expressing a personal position in an autobiographical form is a limited thesis. Felman links this gap to gender inequality and defines “our sexual difference and our autobiography as missing” (344). Nevertheless, from the standpoint of equality, creative expression is unlikely to have boundaries, and if desired, people can present their personal opinions differently. Moreover, at the time of the publication of this article, information technology had already been sufficiently advanced to be used as a means of promoting reading for women and about women. Therefore, the emphasis on the problem of the impossibility of expressing female views in autobiographies is rather the author’s subjective position, which, nevertheless, is possible in the context of censorship in printed literature.

At the same time, this approach reveals the proposed problem in detail. Swank and Fahs note that any manifestation of feminist consciousness is associated with movements for rights (5). In this regard, Felman’s ability to build an argument on the idea of limited participation in the literary sphere allows drawing attention not only to this issue but also to the entire aspect of gender inequality in general. Therefore, addressing the problem carries significance as a call to pay attention to the existing democratic gaps in society.

The reading considered is valuable in the context of an opportunity to evaluate the author’s position on the indicated problem and its manifestations in relation to an individually selected environment. To develop Felman’s ideas, more attention could be paid to assessing the existing female autobiographical works and analyzing their message and background. Studying these aspects can help confirm or, conversely, refute the author’s thoughts concerning the impossibility of expressing a personal position in such prose.

Works Cited

Felman, Shoshana. “What Does a Woman Want? Reading and Sexual Difference.” Feminist Literary Theory: A Reader, 10th ed., edited by Mary Eagleton, John Wiley & Sons, 2010, pp. 343-346.

Swank, Eric, and Breanne Fahs. “Understanding Feminist Activism Among Women: Resources, Consciousness, and Social Networks.” Socius, vol. 3, 2017, pp. 1-9.

Designing Oligonucleotide Primers In Biology

Introduction

Molecular biology tools include polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which requires a mRNA template or a cDNA template, polymerase enzyme and a primer; mainly an oligonucleotide primers. The design of the best primer is important for the success of many molecular biology techniques such as polymerase chain Reaction, hybridization, sequencing of DNA, and Micro Array techniques. Primers have also been exploited in separation and isolation of DNA using special Southern blotting technique. However, the primer used in this case is a radio labeled probe that binds very well with DNA nucleotides. Primers are thus an essential tool for PCR process. They are short single stranded nucleotide sequences ranging from 16-25 nucleotide bases. Above 20 nucleotide sequences, “the primer allows a single mismatch which is the cause of genetic mutations therefore the best primer needs to be precise” (Thieman and Palladino, p 85).

Primers Formation and Justification

The nucleotide sequences given of the xylanase gene of the four micro-organisms have the following primer sequences as shown. It should be noted that the primers are read from the 5’end to the 3’ end. That is, the forward and backward primer which are either at the 5’ end or 3’end respectively. The 5’end primers are obtained by direct reading of nucleotide sequence of each micro-organism in the provided sequences. The 3’ end primers are obtained from the complementary strand of the nucleotide sequences provided which acts as a template and the primer is read from the 5’ to 3’ end. In this case, I have chosen on 18 nucleotide sequences as the best primer sequence as explained earlier.

The primers for the microorganism HUMICOLAXYN2 are as follows.

At the 5’ end: 5’ATGGTCGACCTGCAGGCG 3’ while the 3’ end primer is 5’AGTCTGGACATAGATGTC3’.The primers for the micro-organism TRC3ΘXYN1, at the 5’ end: 5’ATGGTCTCCTTCACCTCC3’ while at the 3’ end, the primer is

5’TTAGCTGACGGTGATGGA3’.

The primers for the Microorganism TRC3ΘXYN2 are; at the 5’ end 5’ATGCCCACAGGCCTCGAG3’ while at the 3’ end; 5’ GTTGCTGACACTCTGTGA3’.

The primers for the DICTYXYNB are; at the 5’ end; 5’ATGTTTCTTAAAAAACTT3’ while at the 3’ end; 5’AGTATTTTGTGTTATATT3’.

Having the primer and the template, DNA amplification of our gene of interest can be done. This can be further used for Chromosomal Walking PCR to isolate the rest of the gene. There are various techniques of chromosomal walking PCR, “this includes: Inverse PCR, and tail PCR which can either the 5’ RACE (Random isolation of cDNA ends) or 3’RACE” (Saikia, p 127). To obtain the 5’sequence (5’RACE) the first strand of the sequence is tailed with a string of dATPs or dGTPs using terminal tranferase. A universal sequence is then used verses the specific primer in PCR. For the 3’ sequence, a specific primer is designed and used against a universal Primer comprised of an oligo (dT) sequence with an additional 5’ bases, generally restricted sites for increased stability.

Features/Characteristics of a Primer

Primer base sequences are supposed to be 16-25 bases in length, the G+C composition of the primer sequence should range between 40-60%. This GC pairing is stronger than AT pairing, thus, it enhances primer stability. The 3’ end of a primer should end in a C or G or CG or GC. This increases the priming efficiency as it prevents the breathing of the primers end; that is to prevent dimerization. The annealing temperature of the primer is also critical as it is affected by both the length and the sequence of the primer. “The annealing temperature (Ta) is the temperature at which the primer binds optimally and specifically to the template” (Meyers, p 547). It should be as high as possible in order to prevent random binding to other sequences and also reduce the chances of cyclization during the PCR. Ta is taken to be less by 15 of the melting temperature (Tm).Tm of a primer is calculated by ascribing a temperature of2oC for every A or T in the sequence and 4oC for every G or C. Primer sequences should also be checked for self complementation, formation of hair pin loops and ability of hybridize preferentially with each other rather than the template.

Amino Acid Reverse Translation

“The amino acid sequence can be reverse translated to generate a DNA sequence which in turn can be amplified to generate the nucleotide sequences of our genes of interest, in this case the xylanase gene. “This mostly represents the non degenerate coding sequences of DNA nucleotide” (Fitch, p 74). This amino acid sequences are reverse translated using a codon table and the variable bases should be highlighted. The number of variable bases should be kept to a minimum. Codon usage does vary between different organism and this can be further exploited to reduce the redundancy.

Work cited

Fitch, Patrick J. An Engineering Introduction to Biotechnology. Tutorial texts in optimal Engineering. Philadelphia: Spie press monograph. 2002. Vol 55: issue 55.

Meyers, Robert A. Molecular biology and biotechnology: A comprehensive desk. New Jersey: Wiley-VCH, 1995.

Saikia, Ratul. Microbial Biotechnology. India: New India publishing company. 2008.

Thieman, William J., Palladino, Michael A. Introduction to Biotechnology. 2nd Ed. San Francisco CA: Pearson Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company. 2009.

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