An Analysis Of Private Prisons And Their Effects On Incarceration And Rehabilitation Essay Example For College

A private jail, often known as a for-benefit jail, is an office where people are detained by an outsider recruited by the public authority. As often as possible, personal prison associations lawfully restrict strategies with state-run organizations that submit convicts and pay a standard arrangement of costs or month-to-month charge for each prisoner in the workplace or each spot available, whether or not involved each prisoner(Dimovski, 2014). These arrangements might be for just the workplace’s action or plan, building, and action. In the United States of America, private prisons are run. In 2018, private prisons housed 8.41% of all convicts in the United States. The U.S. Branch of Justice indicated that 116,000 state and government convicts were detained in secretly worked jails in the United States starting in 2019, representing 8.1 percent of the complete U.S. jail populace ( Timofeeva, 2020).

In terms of prison type, private prisons house 15.7 percent of the government jail populace in the United States and 7.1 percent of the state prison people in the United States. After a relentless addition, the number of convicts kept in private jails in the United States diminished in 2017. They represent a trim level of its all-out prison populace. Remedies CCA’ GEO Group, Inc., MTC, and Community Education Centers are organizations that work in such offices. CCA’s benefits have expanded by over 500% over the most recent twenty years. In 2011, the jail business made almost $5 billion in payments ( Dimovski, 2014).

Clinical benefits, food planning, professional preparation, and convict transportation are only a couple of the administrations that the bureaucratic and state legislatures have contracted out to privately owned businesses before. The 1980s, then again, denoted the start of another period of prison privatization ( Timofeeva, 2020). Prison clog and rising uses became harder for the neighbourhood, state, and central legislatures because of the developing jail populace and more critical imprisonment because of the War on Drugs. Because of the creation law enforcement framework, corporate financial matters saw a chance for development, and private-area commitment in jails moved from basic help agreements to contracts for the complete administration and activity of whole detainment facilities. President Joe Biden marked a chief request on January 25, 2021, forbidding the U.S. Division of Justice from re-establishing contracts with private jails (Mukherjee, 2021). Since the states control most establishments, the choice will influence a few private convicts in government jails, about 14,000 detainees. The contracting out of confinement and care of detainees following the American Revolution led to the privatization of prisons.

Private prisons have always had advantages and downsides to consider. Compared to what a government-run facility might achieve, indeed, even the public authority had severe misgivings about the security and viability of these foundations. The Justice Department declared plans to quit using private prisons in August 2016; however, Attorney General Jeff Sessions changed that choice.

Advantages of Private Prisons

Privatization permits the market to keep costs down for taxpayers.

For-profit prisons strive for cost-cutting measures that benefit taxpayers as much as expected. The public authority might have the option to use its size to advance lower use of this cultural need. However, private correctional facilities can do precisely the same with better frameworks ( Timofeeva, 2020). The advantage expects that the association is dealt with capably and has an adequate number of watchmen and heads nearby.

In the private jail system, decisions are made more quickly.

Decisions involving the administration of a facility in the United States government jail framework should go through different administration degrees. Neighborhood legislative bodies may likewise be expected to partake all the while. After debating and signing a bill into law, the governor or the President may need to authorize any public changes to the jail. In some cases, the public sector’s change processes could take up to four years to complete ( Timofeeva, 2020). In a private prison, everything is handled by the firm that runs the facility. That means that any policy or procedural modifications are implemented right away.

Inmates who are released from a private prison have a reduced re-offense rate.

In specific regions, the speed of miscreants reoffending and being sent back to jail can be essentially as high as 80%. That implies that four out of each five present wrongdoers carrying out punishments, not as much as life will get back to jail eventually in their lives. A 50 percent achievement rate is unique ( Kish & Lipton, 2013). This perspective depends on hoodlums’ challenges during restoration and reintegration. Re-offense rates in private jails can be as low as 10%.

Disadvantages of Private Prisons

Private prisons treat people as commodities.

A few allies might contend that to be imprisoned, you shouldn’t carry out wrongdoing in any case. A private prison doesn’t acquire cash aside from on the off chance that it has people to secure because they decided to perpetrate a transgression, which is the sector’s reality. There is also a financial motivation to keep prisoners in prison for more extended periods so that the facility’s operator can generate more money. As a result, there are compelling motives to enact stricter rules and lengthier punishments for the agency to prosper.

Private prisons may have an improper impact on legislation.

Since for-benefit jail firms need to bring in cash from their detainees, they pressure officials to change regulations. Private penitentiaries believe that ordinary condemning boundaries should increment overall revenues while guaranteeing pay security. A few foundations might even support nearby examiners or cops to accuse people of more severe offenses than are needed to get a more broadened term that can be served in their offices.

Correctional officers in private prisons are subjected to higher levels of violence.

When compared to data from public institutions, private prisons experience 50 percent higher violence towards personnel from inmates. While taking a gander at non-government-run offices, the pace of savagery against different guilty parties is extensively more prominent. Many privatized penitentiaries presently have staffing waivers, permitting them to keep higher detainees to official proportions in their offices than the public authority expects to give in the general area. It’s generally unprecedented for a private jail to have one official for 120 prisoners ( Mamun et al., 2020). As often as possible, these offices depend on hoodlums to oversee themselves to keep expenses much less expensive.

 Training options are limited in the private prison industry.

Because they have lower labor costs, private jails have cheaper operating costs. As a result of this disadvantage, correctional officers and their administrative support staff have less opportunity to improve their abilities through training. The custodial environment can become highly stressful when this problem is combined with a larger offender-to-officer ratio( Mamun et al., 2020). All interested parties, including the convicts, are impacted, and the cycle can make the office less protected. Indeed, even while there is a slight monetary advantage when a private jail centers around keeping work costs as low as expected, recuperation expenses can balance the vast majority of the investment funds after an occasion.

Effects of Private Prisons on Incarceration and Rehabilitation

The U.S has the most elevated imprisonment rate in the world. Since the 1970s, the imprisonment rates in the United States have been climbing upwards and leveling during the 2000s ( Galinato & Rohla, 2020). The quantity of crooks imprisoned has risen, and the length of the sentences has expanded. They are developing private jail beds by 61 for each million populace in a state, bringing about a yearly increment of 6 to 37 new convicts for every million. Private detainment facilities bring about an annual average rise of an additional 178 convicts for every million tenants ( Galinato & Rohla, 2020). Assuming that many different convicts are in private penitentiaries, it costs states somewhere close to $1.9 and $10.6 million reliably at a normal of $60 consistently per detainee ( Gotsch & Basti, 2018). Private detainment facilities are connected to mass manifestation. While private detainment facilities have little effect on imprisonment rates for brutal wrongdoings, they influence imprisonment rates for property, extortion, medication, and weapons offenses. This impact was likewise seen in condemning length, which is generally considerable.

Though private prisons house only a tiny percentage of those incarcerated in the United States, more private jail beds in a state are connected to expanding the number of prisoners; they may likewise prompt longer sentences. Effects of private prisons on new incarceration and sentencing lengths can be determined by holding variables such as political and demographic characteristics constant and breaking the data according to crime type. When private prisons enter a state, the length of sentences increases, especially for nonviolent offenses, which have more latitude in sentencing rules ( Gotsch & Basti, 2018). Several reasons result in the effects of private jails on detainment. The first is debasement, in which judges or administrators are influenced to force crueler sentences or plan regulations that force more regrettable outcomes. In Pennsylvania, the ‘kids for cash’ episode, a private jail firm paid off two adjudicators to give more brutal disciplines to adolescent crooks rather than probation to increment inhabitance at for-benefit detainment focuses, is the most notable illustration of defilement. The other justification for the impact of private detainment facilities in imprisonment is the expanded limit. When judges understand that prisons are at or near capacity, they are likely to be more hesitant to send minor criminals to jail( Galinato & Rohla, 2020). However, more individuals are detained when private prisons are not constrained by capacity. Profitable private prisons lead to a higher incarceration rate.

Three probable avenues exist through which private prisons may influence court sentencing. Lobbying is the first channel: private prison businesses push politicians for stricter regulations and rules. A few administrators have experienced harsh criticism for making significant mission commitments from private jail organizations. A subsequent strategy is ‘legal catch,’ Private jail organizations attempt to influence judgment straightforwardly through crusade commitments or rotating entryway guarantees. The third route is ‘budget limitations,’ which mandate private jails to be less expensive than state-run facilities in most states ( Galinato & Rohla, 2020). When it comes to sentences, courts may consider the reduced financial burden of incarceration. It may seem counterintuitive that lower incarceration costs would lead judges to impose harsher penalties, but research suggests that this is the case, at least in the United States. There is evidence that private detainment facilities affect criminal sentences. The assessed impacts are minor, yet they ought to be assessed regarding a recognizable proof structure that controls state-year midpoints, thus precisely controlling the various ways private detainment facilities can impact condemning. The proof is generally predictable with the theory that diminished prison costs persuade judges to pass stricter sentences in this circumstance.

Studies have shown that ex-prisoners from private prisons have a higher recidivism rate than prisoners from public facilities. A review of 3,532 Minnesota convicts delivered imprisoned in a private jail raised the dangers of being re-captured by 13% and being sentenced by 22% ( Mukherjee, 2021). The study considered 20 factors, including the kind of offense, how much time was spent in prison, and the age of the members. As indicated by the review, the state’s public jails offered a more extensive scope of programming, some of which has been displayed to assist detainees with restoring. The private jail’s far-off area kept loved ones from visiting detainees, making it difficult to rehabilitate them. The conditions in private prisons make it hard to rehabilitate a person. Private prison businesses contract with states to incarcerate people in institutions far from their homes, making it hard for their friends and families to visit. As a result, convicts lose contact with their families and communities, increasing the likelihood of not getting rehabilitated.

Higher violent rates in private prisons compared to public prisons can also make it hard for one to get rehabilitated. According to multi-prison studies, private prisons have higher rates of violence than state prisons. Part of the reason for the rise in violence in private prisons is that private prison firms are cutting corners on staffing, lowering operating expenses, and increasing profits. People who regarded jail as rough, startling, or undermining were bound to recidivate than individuals who viewed prison as less severe. An investigation of 1,613 Ohio convicts delivered somewhere between 2006 and 2007 ( Mukherjee, 2015). Evidence suggests that convicts subjected to violence while detained are more likely to reoffend than those who are not. Most private prisons are more interested in making profits than rehabilitating the prisoners and decreasing incarceration levels. Secret jails, unfortunately, may not be all that fantastic. Public prisons have fewer rehabilitation options, such as drug treatment, mental health counseling, and educational chances. These programs are all critical if these convicts are not to be detained again.

Private prisons have damaged the criminal justice system in the U.S. the government argues that the private prisons are cheaper, but they are not. Privatization of prisons has led to the abandonment of public prisons. Aside from charging more per prisoner than a state-run office, private correctional facilities now and again endanger prisoners’ wellbeing to set aside cash. In Arizona, for instance, the ACLU recorded a class activity objection in 2013 against the Arizona Department of Corrections, charging that the office had unlawfully abused prisoners ( Mukherjee, 2015). That’s what they asserted “horribly inadequate clinical, psychological wellbeing, and dental consideration” put them [inmates] at risk for vast and preventable harm, removal, deformation, and awkward passing. Private jails are spurred by creating gains and consistently search for a method for expanding and supporting their benefits. The benefits can be extended by either reducing prisoner medical care expenses, campaigning for arrangements that outcome in more extreme and longer sentences, or arranging least inhabitance prerequisites into their agreements with states to guarantee their jail beds are dependably packed(Mukherjee, 2021). The majority of correc­tions contracts with the private sector ask the commercial operator to do the same thing as the government, which affects the criminal justice system.

The private prison sector intentionally impedes progress when various groups and offices cooperate to fix a law enforcement framework that has been demonstrated to be broken and in fundamental need of a fix. Private penitentiaries permit dishonest associations to benefit from society’s most weak individuals: kids, poor people, and settler prisoners, who make up most mystery prison detainees ( Kish & Lipton, 2013). The Bureau of Prisons has been attempting to lessen the utilization of private detainment facilities, and the Department of Justice will proceed to promote state and local criminal justice reform.

Remedies

it is fundamental to recall that while working out the expense of detainment, one should consider the immediate expenses of every detainee, which are commonly a lot higher than those of an individual condemned to non-custodial approvals. Additionally, the backhanded fees, like social, financial, and clinical consideration related costs, which are trying to assess, but monstrous and long haul, must be calculated. Private prisons should be structured to get money depending on how humane they treat the prisoners. The U.S government should also give incentives to private prisons to restructure them and even be able to sponsor rehabilitation programs. The U.S government should also reduce the political influence in private prisons to make them more effective in rehabilitating convicts.

References

Dimovski, D. (2014). Private prisons. Collection Papers Fac. L. Nis68, 547.

Galinato, G. I., & Rohla, R. (2020). Do privately-owned prisons increase incarceration rates?. Labour Economics67, 101908.

Gotsch, K., & Basti, V. (2018). Capitalizing on mass incarceration U.S. growth in private prisons.

Kish, R. J., & Lipton, A. F. (2013). Do private prisons really offer savings compared with their public counterparts?. Economic Affairs33(1), 93-107.

Mamun, S., Li, X., Horn, B. P., & Chermak, J. M. (2020). Private vs. public prisons? A dynamic analysis of the long-term tradeoffs between cost-efficiency and recidivism in the U.S. prison system. Applied Economics52(41), 4499-4511.

Mukherjee, A. (2015). Do private prisons distort justice? Evidence on time served and recidivism. Social Sciences Research Network15.

Mukherjee, A. (2021). Impacts of private prison contracting on inmate time served and recidivism. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy13(2), 408-38.

Timofeeva, E. A. (2020). Foreign Private Prisons: Historical and Economic Issues of Management and Performance. Growth Poles of the Global Economy: Emergence, Changes and Future Perspectives, 1105-1113.

An Ideal Society Annotated Bibliography Writing Sample

Bukier, A. A. (2018). Utopian Literature of the Ideal Society A Study in Al-Farabi’s Virtuous City & More’s Utopia. Mecelletü’l-Endelüs, 5-18. http://andalusuniv.net/AUSTNEW/magazine/sh/2020/5/18/723b7c45ee9db98185e8f8fd 9b991f7.pdf

Bukier, in his journal, analyzes the work of two philosophers, Al-Farabi and More, to portray what an ideal society looks like. He examines the two writings as utopian fiction, regardless of the profound philosophical ideas they include. The author argues that the fanciful and imaginative ideal society pictured by humans carries significant notions that portray noble human purposes and goals that create a real ideal society. In the two wonderful works reviewed by Bukier, the authors illustrate the moral and ideal society they strive, as intellectuals, to be attained in actual human existence if morality and kindness direct humanity to its fulfillment and perfection. This source is relevant for this research because it provides a deep understanding of what makes society perfect and ideal and the things that undermine society from being an ideal society. This source draws its ideas from trusted sources, thus being accurate. The source is a peer-reviewed journal that has been cited by numerous other researchers showing its quality.

Çevirgen, M. (2020). Living in an Ideal Society: Thomas More’s Utopia. Journal of English Language and Literature Club, 2(1), 7-11. https://dergi.ingilizedebiyati.net/cuidek/article/view/123/87

This journal article analyzes Christian humanist and English philosopher Thomas More’s work Utopia. It focuses purely on how More explores the topic of an ideal society and Utopia. Cevirgen, in his work, shows how philosopher More views an ideal society that is very different from his current society with social disorders. This contrast proves that an ideal society is without shortcomings and where human virtues, including happiness, justice, and goodness, exist. According to this journal, a society cannot be ideal if it is full of mistakes in terms of social relations, military matters, politics, and the justice system. This source is relevant for this research because the data will be utilized to illustrate an ideal society and how people are entirely responsible for creating this perfect society. It will also help prove the things that undermine society from being perfect. The source data is accurate because the entire article is based on More’s work Utopia, a well-recognized philosopher. The source is a peer-reviewed article showing its quality

Mehrali, H., & Keshishyan Siraki, G. (2020). An Ideal Society from the Perspective of the Frankfurt School. International Journal of Political Science, 10(3), 41-53. http://ijps.azad.ac.ir/article_679826_f0a7e42950cbce23122bd054a8d710a9.pdf

This journal article analyzes the ideal society features envisioned by the Frankfurt School intellectuals. Underneath the damaging characteristics of civilization, the Frankfurt School damages human behavior and all elements of society at large. As a result, it attempts to illustrate the present situation’s flaws. The Frankfurters see society today as empty of reason and an impediment to human liberty, demonstrating that this structure, split off from reality, has resulted in estrangement; thus, the society cannot be termed as ideal. The authors argue that a perfect society, in the face of the reality of the period, never promises to eliminate human misery completely but rather strives to develop a sensible connection between human beings and their surroundings. This article is essential for this research because it analyzes the ideal society in the modern and technologically advanced world. Data is drawn from relevant primary sources and thus is accurate. The source is a peer-reviewed journal that has been cited by numerous other researchers showing its quality.

Oyigo, J. (1994). Karl Popper’s Vision of Democracy as the Ideal Society (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi). http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/11295/18967/Oyigo_KarlPopper sVisionOfDemocracyAsTheIdealSociety.pdf?se quence=3&isAllowed=y

This publication explains and reveals science philosopher Popper’s perfect society. Unlike many previous philosophers, who envisioned the ideal society as a utopian, unchanging, and flawless institution, Popper sees it as an inadequate, evolving, accessible institution. Community exemplifies the democratic system at its best. According to this article, Popper claims that the classical vision of the Perfect Society was dictatorial and incorrect. Oyigo agrees with Popper’s thesis that a flawed epistemological framework influenced this traditional idea. This provides an incentive for society should be governed by social structures that safeguard the rights of its citizens. It also demonstrates that conservatism is not the Ideal Society’s basis if it ignores the personal aspect. This article is essential for this research because it clearly understands an ideal society that values democratic principles. The source is a scholarly and peer-reviewed journal cited by numerous other researchers showing its quality.

Rohani, F. (1993). Changing the world: Durkheim and Marx on the ideal society (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Oklahoma). https://www.proquest.com/openview/8b5513b49e89197477a7ee37201279b3/1?pq- origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y

Rohani, in his article, contrasts, compares, and discusses the ideal society establishment and nature from Marx’s materialism and Durkheim’s idealism viewpoints. He contrasts Durkheim’s moral individuality and Marx’s humanistic individuality by recreating Marx’s individualism in a Kantian construct through its apparent connection with Kantian ethics. According to both Durkheim and Marx, the utopian vision is where a person is acknowledged as an objective and can attain self-realization. Durkheim’s idealism leads him to assume that humans must begin with the person or human behavior to alter the universe and achieve the perfect society. As a result, he views education as a critical component in developing the ideal society. Marx, being a materialist, argues that reform should begin with the surroundings or the society’s capitalist system. This article is essential for this research because it analyzes the ideal society from two theorists’ points, thus creating a deeper understanding. The source is a scholarly and peer-reviewed journal that has been cited by numerous other researchers showing its quality.

Analysis Of Cristiano Ronaldo’s Motivations Sample Essay

Introduction

Portuguese Madeira, a tiny island off the country’s western coast where CR7 was born in 1985, was Ronaldo’s birthplace. His parents, Maria Dolores and José Dinis Aveiro had four kids, the eldest of whom was Ronaldo. Ronald Reagan was one of his dad’s favorite performers. Therefore, he was given his middle name in honor of him. He grew up in a modest tin-roofed house on a hill overlooking the sea in a predominantly working-class area. Ronaldo’s father, employed as a strength and conditioning coach at a boy’s club, introduced him to soccer when he was a youngster (Doyle,2017). His father’s excessive drinking impacted his early years. Ronaldo’s mother worked in a kitchen and as a cleaner to help feed the family and keep the household afloat.

Ronaldo’s father died of alcohol-related renal issues in 2005, while his mother battled breast cancer until 2007. Ronaldo was particularly affected by the first because he and his father had become close. The young athlete frequently urged his father to get treatment for his alcoholism. His father, on the other hand, turned down the opportunity. Cristiano Ronaldo, the world’s most renowned footballer, will serve as the subject of this paper’s motivational study.

Analysis of motivation as the most famous

Cristiano Ronaldo is undoubtedly the most well-known person on the planet based on his popularity on social media. For the first time, a user on Instagram has amassed more than 400 million followers. With an Instagram following of over 200 million, Ronaldo has become the first person to achieve this milestone in January 2020(Doyle,2017). His social media feeds are dominated by posts on football and his family. Ronaldo celebrated his 37th birthday on Saturday by posting a photo to Instagram that garnered over 14 million members in just a few hours of posting. Everyone knows how well-liked Cristiano Ronaldo is. Ferenc Puskas, who came in right behind him, is widely considered Real Madrid’s best player. Ronaldo and Puskas are now tied for 242 goals in fewer games. Ronaldo’s pace has slowed as he’s gotten older, and that’s no secret. Lionel Messi’s peak speed is 32.5 km/h, whereas Messi’s is 33.6 km/h.

As a result of his soccer success, Ronaldo has become a multimillionaire and a well-known philanthropist. We’re not talking about a fictional superhero here; this is the real deal—someone who does good things out of their heart and has a burning desire to help others do the same thing. CR7 refuses to acquire any tattoos because he can donate blood more regularly. Those with tattoos can donate blood, but they must wait a few days before doing so because of the danger of infection. Journalists usually find out about Cristiano’s charitable activities when he provides large quantities of money to young fans’ operations, repairs wrecked houses or provides hospital sponsorship. According to the press reports, he donates blood as frequently as he conducts charitable work.

This soccer player frequently visits his old acquaintances and enjoys surprising them with gifts. ‘ To show his gratitude for Albert Fantrau’s friendship, Cristiano gave him an enormous home. Because Albert gave Cristiano his chance in the regional qualification match for Sporting CP. After receiving the ball, Cristiano scored the most significant goal of his career, paving the route for a professional soccer career. Cristiano Ronaldo’s primary characteristics have not changed despite his enormous fame, hordes of admirers, millions of supporters, and incredible quantities of money within his bank accounts (Jorge & Marôpo,2017). To spend his holiday on a quiet island in a mansion would be preferable to spending it with his large, loud, and loving family. It’s hard to beat a peaceful night in with his favorite kids, even if it’s at a fancy party.

Cristiano assisted the opposing player to the bench with a forceful but touching gesture. During the 2018 World Cup, this player sealed the outcome of the Portuguese squad. Only Cristiano, in our opinion, could maintain his composure and treat the other talented player with respect and decency in this scenario. Finally, he exudes strength, self-assurance, and sensitivity in equal measure. Cristiano doesn’t hold back when expressing the variety of emotions, he’s going through. Regardless of the outcome, he tears, laughs, and rejoices with similar enthusiasm.

Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy, a very well theory on human motivation, helps us better understand Cristiano Ronaldo. According to Abraham Psychologist Abraham Maslow, human behavior is driven by the most basic physiological requirements. Needs range from simple to complicated, with fundamental requirements at the bottom. Maslow’s hierarchy of requirements is often shown as a three-tiered pyramid. The most basic requirements are found at the bottom of the pyramid, while the most complicated is located at the summit (Hopper,2020). At the very bottom of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs of requirements are the necessities of life, such as having enough to eat and drink and a place to sleep and be warm.

According to this idea, people are driven by unmet desires, which seek to uncover the underlying causes of their actions. When CR7 was 15, he didn’t care that he was residing in his parents’ basement; instead, he pushed ahead and learned to be a footballer to support himself. His actions met his need for solitude and independence as well as allowed him to bring luxury at home without explaining it (Bahuwa,2019). A behavioral reaction is triggered when a person’s physiological or psychological needs are unmet or unsatisfied. Depending on the context, time, and location, a person’s needs might be weak or powerful.

Conclusion

Manchester United paid a record amount for a player of Ronaldo’s age for the 16-year-old in 2001. Against Manchester, Cristiano Ronaldo dazzled with his movement and skill, impressing even his opponents. As a result of his performance, several United players urged manager Louis van Gal to pursue the signing of the youngster, which the team did.

Ronaldo lived up to expectations in the 2004 Cup Final, hitting three goals in the team’s opening three minutes to help them win the trophy. Ronaldo’s five-year, $31 million deal was signed in 2007. Real Madrid won the FIFA World Player of the Year award in 2008 thanks to Cristiano Ronaldo’s record-breaking 42 goals in a season that also saw him become the most expensive player in the history of European football. Ronaldo was an integral part of Manchester United’s three Premier League championships during his time there.

Reference

Hopper, E. (2020). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is explained. ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo24.

Bahuwa, R. (2019). an Analysis of Maslow’S Hierarchy of Need in the Great Gatsby Novel By Francis Scott Fitzgerald’S. British (Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris)7(2), 110-119.

Jorge, A., & Marôpo, L. (2017). Born to be famous? Children of celebrities and their rights in the media. In Childhood and fame (pp. 28-40). Routledge.

Doyle, B. (2017). Cristiano Ronaldo: World-Beater. Cavendish Square Publishing, LLC.