Analysis Of Afghanistan War Through Theoretical Lenses Essay Example


Wars are caused by extremism in human belief systems. While conflicts are inevitable across all cultures, their propensity to wars causes extreme havoc on the people. The ultimate ramifications include loss of life and property and destabilization of the political and economic systems of the country. The Middle East region has been on the frontline for multiple war crises emanating from factions having different beliefs in how the systems should function. At the center of every group, the extremist factions attempt to topple the government of the day. The causes of conflict can be as mild as a differentiated interpretation of the holy books like the Bible and Quran or propaganda. They have all worked in the Middle East. In this presentation, an analysis of Afghanistan through the insurgency caused by the Taliban is evidenced to broaden the perspectives of international relations and the determining factors. To provide a reflective conceptualization of how conflicts can lead to full-blown wars for a country, international relations theory and political science from the frameworks for analysis. In the modern world, there is nothing praiseworthy about War besides the glaring violation of human rights and destabilization of state systems.

The American-Afghanistan conflict created internal power discourses that contributed to parried civil reception. War creates opportunities for countries and the political careers of individuals. In measuring presidential success, metrics utilized have always been foreign policy formulation and implementation. For example, the American-Vietnamese War made the presidency of Johnson Lyndon more controversial than his predecessor. Comparatively, the presence of American troops in Afghanistan created a thoughtful debate on the presidency of Obama, Donald Trump, and Joe Biden and why Americans should care (Dobbins et al. 8). In other words, when the objectives of the War remain unachieved for long, politicians use them as trojan horses for milestone coverage in national politics. The causative factors of the conflict may be clear as day, but as conflicts develop over time, they begin to attract propagandist issues that either fuel or delay their resolution. Therefore, the conflict in Afghanistan is a dichotomy of internal and international politics.

Political science theory

The ideas of Max Webber, a political ideologist, provide ramifications for interpreting liberalism as a school of thought in political science. According to Max Webber, an individual should be nationalistic and uphold the virtues of the country from where they come (McLean and Nix 4). Liberalism views the rights of individuals, freedoms, and permission to be governed through equity and equality as the foundations upon which political governance should percolate (McLean and Nix 4). Through liberalism, American systems can be analyzed against the conflicts experienced in Afghanistan. For the United States, freedoms, rights, justice, the rule of law, and equity are part of the elements that make up citizenry (McLean and Nix 6). For a country like Afghanistan, popular Western beliefs such as freedom for all people, including women, are unheard of. Therefore, interpretations of facts become a significant conflict used in war propaganda. In other words, liberalism forms a strong background for exploiting the social, economic, and political differences in the Middle East.

International relations theory

Classical realism theory modifies the understanding of international relations by demonstrating that countries are motivated to act in ways that regard themselves. Realists say every country joins an alliance to gain economically, politically, or through military protection (Jones and Jenne 6). Therefore, the desire to become hegemonic in regional balance saturates the influence with which the United States expands its global presence. In establishing countermeasures against conflicts that often lead to wars, the United States has allied with greater countries such as the United Kingdom, among others in the European Union (Dora 172). The robust political and military systems of these countries make their presence in global political and economic matters unavoidable. In the wake of the September 11th, 2001 attacks, the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom united to launch the Global War on Terror before bringing it to Afghanistan (Dora 173). The impacts of such a move lasted 20 years before the American troops were recalled. Therefore, the ideas of classical realists have shaped American international politics and regional relationships.

Causes of the War

The events of 9/11 contributed to the full-blown conflict in Afghanistan. Reports indicate that the country gave homage to the Al-Qaida group that planned and implemented the hijacking and deadly twin-tower bombings in September 2001 (Dora 173; Connah 74). As a result, the United States government moved its troops to the south-eastern Asian country (Afghanistan) to stage the direct War against terrorism that was brought to its doorstep. In a message by the Department of Defense, Lloyd J. Austin III, an announcement is made that the United States went to Afghanistan to wage a war of self-defense after the 9/11 attacks (Austin n.p). As a liberal country, the United States made confirmed decades after the end of World War II that it still determined global politics. Their entrance to Afghanistan has since been marked as a cause of unending social, economic, and political deterioration in the country.

Continuation on the causes

Critics have published that differences in cultural and social appropriations have led to continued conflicts in Afghanistan even after the departure of the American troops. The Afghans believe that Western ways corrupt their social fabric. Practices like the education of girls contravene their roles in the family (Silove and Ventevogel n.p). Moreover, American troops in the country saw a regeneration of newer models of interpreting international relations, religion, and cultural practices. The supporters of the Taliban use propaganda that American interests are economical, focusing on resource exploitation such as natural gas. At the same time, the US built schools and other social amenities to win the civilians (Connah 75). On the other hand, the Taliban are labeled as religious extremists that force people to commit suicide by self-bombing (Connah 71). The disparaged views of either side can collectively be interpreted by the liberalism ideology of values a country holds through its citizens. In a nutshell, winning Afghanistan took a course explainable only through the theoretical lens.

Conduct of the War

The War was waged on the kill-and-capture tactic of the leader of Al-Qaida and winning the trust of the locals. Winning a war that has been prolonged into years occasioned by the presence of the American troops in Afghanistan was going to be challenging from the beginning (Connah 72). However, when Osama Bin Laden was killed, it demonstrated a victorious epilogue of America’s commitment to end the War on terror. It may have given them the international hegemonic ranking but initiated inherent counterattacks between the government and the Taliban. Up to the time leading to departure from Afghanistan, questions arose about civilian casualties against the moral good of intervening in the War (Connah 75). The Taliban lived among the people, dissociating them from ordinary civilians begs the question of the moral essence of human-inflicted conflicts. Therefore, the conduct of conflict in Afghanistan, and neighboring countries, including Pakistan and Iran, weaves together unanswered questions on the moral dilemmas of fighting an unending war.

Continuation of the conduct of conflict

The conduct of the War in Afghanistan, especially in 2001, was believed to have brought the American troops closer to capturing or killing Osama Bin Laden. The failure of the American troops to capture him, because they used the Pakistani-led forces to pursue him in the mountains, was believed to have prolonged the whole War by up to ten years (Dora 174). In the United States, foreign War was utilized for presidential elections campaign. It necessitated the divide on whether the troops should continue with the mission, creating internal political powerplay. In this regard, liberalism is the cornerstone with which people can argue whether the government and instruments of power are used in contravention of the Constitution and moral logic. Therefore, the conduct of the War expanded the political discourse over the influence and practices of the United States in other countries. This reality opines the realism theory of international relations (Threlkeld and Easterly 3). The aftermath of America’s involvement in the War has not practically ended conflict as the country lies in sovereignty concerns—the hands of another extremist group. In summary, the conflict in Afghanistan has become more questionable after the capture of political power by the Taliban.

Possible solution

There is a need to consider peace relations to stir counterintelligence measures to end the War on terror as opposed to political involvement in the affairs of a nation. The world cannot work under democratic leadership as predetermined by the United States’ power lobbyists (Threlkeld and Easterly 25). While most Middle Eastern countries are monarchies, there is a need to recognize their sovereignty as it amplifies the focus on the real issues. In other words, instead of the United States entering a war of more than two decades, it can learn going into the future that political relationships are different from instrumentalizing a nation to adopt a different leadership framework like democracy. This way, nations can work in intelligence sharing to eradicate terrorists without political interference. Moreover, countries can learn that international relations are not mainly about War (Connah 81). Instead, peaceful relations between conflicted regions can still augment the global outlook of the superpowers as long as objectives are structured and maintained.

Continuation on a possible solution

The future of global relations lies in solidarity through relationships. Realism theory provides alternative angles of dichotomizing how countries internationally relate. Because it broadens the objective of remaining economically, politically, and robust in military practices, considerations should be guided through counter efforts of the leading countries (Sniderman 3). Comparatively, the ongoing War in Ukraine-Russia demonstrates how conflicts should be avoided in the future. Like most Middle Eastern countries, Ukraine remained non-aligned to regional power organizations like North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Union. Therefore, the Russian invasion was highly predictable. Global relations must focus on unionization to avoid the impacts of conflicts and wars witnessed in Afghanistan and Europe.


The conflict in Afghanistan started with terror attacks on American soil. However, it has progressed to the issues of social justice, gender discrimination, anarchy, and international relations concerns. While the politics of liberalism incorporates discussions about issues that affect civilians as they are central values like liberty, freedoms and the rule of law, the eminence of international conflicts deteriorates how countries relate. Not only are relationships between Afghanistan and Pakistan worsened, but also the Western democracies. The involvement of American troops in Afghanistan birthed the modern religious extremism issues, cultural dissimilation, and sociocultural conflicts that dictate the roles and plight of women in the Taliban-led region. While the objective of capturing and killing leaders of Al-Qaida was achieved over time, the installation of functional democracy has failed in Afghanistan. It leaves a lifelong lesson that politics should be distanced from issues of moral accords, such as peacekeeping and forming regional relationships.

Works Cited

McLean, Kyle, and Justin Nix. “Understanding the bounds of legitimacy: Weber’s facets of legitimacy and the police empowerment hypothesis.” Justice Quarterly 39.6 2022: pp.1

Dobbins, James, et al. Consequences of a precipitous US withdrawal from Afghanistan. Rand Corporation, 2019. Pp.1–13.

Austin, Lloyd, J. “Message to the Force – One Year Since the Conclusion of the Afghanistan War.” The Department of Defense.,themsafehaveninAfghanistan.

Threlkeld, Elizabeth, and Grace Easterly. Afghanistan-Pakistan ties and Future stability in Afghanistan. United States Institute of Peace, 2021.

Jones, David Martin, and Nicole Jenne. “Hedging and grand strategy in Southeast Asian foreign policy.” International Relations of the Asia-Pacific vol. 22. no. 2. 2022. pp.1–12.

Dora, Zuhal Karakoc. “The US-led “War on Terror” in Afghanistan: 2001-2021.” MANAS Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi 10. Özel Sayı. 2021. pp. 172-185.

Connah, Leoni. “US intervention in Afghanistan: Justifying the Unjustifiable?” South Asia Research vol. 41. no. 1. 2021. pp. 70-86.

Sniderman, Paul M. “Political Realism: An Essay on the Politics of Value Conflict.” PS: Political Science & Politics. 2023. pp.1–9.

Silove, Derrick, and Peter Ventevogel. “Living through interminable adversity: the mental health of the Afghan people.” World Psychiatry Vol. 21. no. 1. 2022.

Critical Analysis Of Gender And Racial Issues In The 21st Century Sample Assignment


Feminism in the 21st Century has taken an exciting turn due to the realization of the unequal nature of the progress made over centuries. Various forces, both in the developing and the developed world, frustrate the plight of women to get a fair and functional platform as their male counterparts. The paper will critically evaluate the policies and institutions in Canada that continue to place barriers upon women from minority groups as they struggle with gender discrimination issues in the developed world. The paper will use the thematic lenses by Chandra Talpade Mohanty (1988), who compares white women and their counterparts from minority groups concerning their experiences with gender issues. Monhanty bases her treatise on the issue of intersectionality and how women from minority groups in the developed world lack enough space and representation in modern feminist discussions. The paper will also draw insight from scholarly materials that address the problem from the critical points of health and sports, which have shown grave disparities between white women and their counterparts from minority groups. There has been an unfair focus on the advances made by feminists by considering white women. However, intersectionality demonstrates that unique social and cultural constructs affect the ability of women from minority groups to benefit fully from the gender progress made in the developed world.

Intersectionality is a serious concern that has so far demonstrated that there are some cultural groups that continue to lag behind socially because mainstream advocacy discourses have ignored them. Mohanty (1988) explains that white hegemony has locked women of color from mainstream feminist discussions. Furthermore, there is a tendency by the media to consider feminism from the perspective of white women, thereby denying feminists from minority groups the chance to share their experiences. There is a need to consider feminism in the 21st Century from the perspective of unique cultural groups affected by intersectionality. The 21st Century has registered significant improvements regarding social justice, where minority groups are increasingly drawing attention to their unique experiences.

Furthermore, the female person has attained more political and social space, especially in the developed world. However, Syed (2021) explains that the political economy of health in feminism has identified severe disparities in the plight of women from minority groups. A large percentage of literature by feminists addresses the problem from the perspective of white women. As a result, women of color and those from other minority cultural groups in the developed world continue to face systematic discrimination. The critical areas are health and sports because scant literature addresses the gender disparities affecting women from minority groups, especially in Canada. Women have significantly achieved a lot as a result of gender advocacy. For instance, more women are holding top positions in the corporate world. Furthermore, more women are represented in the labor market, ensuring they are economically empowered.

The healthcare sector continues to be problematic, especially concerning access to critical services. Women currently account for 80% of healthcare workers. However, serious representation issues are problematic for women from minority cultural groups in Canada, such as immigrants, First Nation, and Muslims (Syed, 2021). There is scant literature on the unique challenges that face such minority groups because the focus has always been on white women. When the healthcare sector fails to reflect the cultural diversity in the population, it becomes problematic. For instance, some immigrants might face language barriers when accessing services in Canada because there are not enough workers that speak their native language. The same challenges are faced by Muslim women whose religious culture follows strict doctrines. Etowah and Hyman (2021) explain that little research has addressed the plight of minority women, such as the African Caribbean and Black (ACB) communities in Canada. The intersection between race, gender, and migration places such women in a unique perspective that requires critical analysis to improve their healthcare experiences. One of the social determinants of health is a person’s economic position in society. Canada offers one of the best labor markets, especially for migrants and other minority groups. However, racism is not localized to interpersonal relationships and can occur in institutions and policies that lock out people from a specific cultural group. The challenge of access to healthcare services for women from minority cultural groups needs to be addressed critically. There is a need to consider the unique challenges these women face and consider sustainable approaches to find solutions. Health is an essential service for any society. Therefore, it is crucial to encourage discussions that consider women’s health challenges with a specific focus on minority groups.

The other area that will be the focus of the paper is sports. Sports are primarily used for recreational purposes. Although most mainstream sporting activities in the Western world claim to give women equal opportunities, there is a need to understand that they were invented for men in a patriarchal society. Therefore, it has become difficult for women to participate freely because of traditional gender stereotypes. According to Cosentino et al. (2021), there has been an increase in women participating in sports. However, only a few have taken the initiative to take leadership positions in professional sports in Canada. Such a trend is problematic because it implies that men have drawn the majority of policies used for women’s sports. In addition, there is scant evidence of the experiences of women from minority groups in sports. Willson et al. (2022) explain that lack of representation has made women vulnerable to psychological and sexual harm in sports. There is a need for discussions and studies aimed at assessing the experiences of women, mainly from minority groups, in sporting activities in Canada. The data collected from such studies will be crucial in understanding the state of feminism in the 21st Century and ensuring that the registered progresses is inclusive of all cultural groups.

Research Question

The paper will seek to answer the following question: What are the unique challenges facing women from minority groups in health and sports in 21st Century Canada? Feminist discourses should consider inclusivity in the movement and the challenges specific groups face due to the intersection of various cultural attributes. The 21st Century offers a perfect opportunity to revisit the feminist movement and the state of gender relations in the contemporary world. Of interest in the developed world is the plight of women from minority groups. The paper will focus on the Canadian environment in consideration of the challenges faced by women from minority groups in sports and healthcare. Canada is a diverse society primarily because it is less strict immigration laws.

Canada is also made up of First Nations who are considered the natives of the country before the coming of settlers. The resulting society is diverse, and there is a need to consider the challenges faced by minority groups and the developments witnessed due to gender advocacy. Feminism has undergone various stages historically, and the more recent advocacy is the consideration of the role of the movement in advocating for the rights of persons that do not conform to binary gender. There is also a need to examine why minority groups in the developed world, especially those with African and Arabic heritage, continue to lag in equality issues. By answering the research question, it will be possible to draw conclusions based on feminism in the 21st Century Canada.

Methodological Approach

The research followed the critical analysis of literature addressing the mentioning the gender inequalities that affect minority groups as a result of the intersection between gender and culture. Mohanty’s (1988) work that considers feminism as painted by Westerners and the influences of colonial discourses provided a perfect precedence in identifying a research gap that has not been addressed effectively. A literature review was crucial in this case, especially when researching scholarly material that can help shed more light on current trends in intersectionality and its effects on modern feminist discussions. The critical works include feminism, intersectionality, minority groups, health, and sports. The focus was limited to sports and health to narrow the effects of gender discrimination in the two areas. The literature was then analyzed, and motifs were identified that could be used to respond effectively to the research question.

There were various challenges encountered while conducting research. One of the challenges is that scant data talk about gender discrimination in sports and healthcare. In Canada, the issue of gender is considered from a general perspective, and most of the findings are restricted to the dominant groups of white people of European descent. Data on minority groups, such as immigrants from the Caribbean and other countries in the developing world, have been given little attention in academia. Some of the materials encountered contained information irrelevant to the study. As a result, it was necessary to ignore such materials.

Connection to Relevant Course Material

Although sidelined in theory for a long time, representatives from minority groups are developed concepts that can be used to critically assess the interaction between gender and race discrimination and its effects on minority groups. The work of Kimberlé W. Crenshaw has mainly offered insight into the discussions, primarily through the development of various theories. Crenshaw is responsible for two essential theories the Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Legal Theory. Her work has also been crucial in the understanding of the concept of intersectionality.

Critical Race and Black Feminist Legal Theory

Critical race theory considers the Western world against the perceived developments that have been made concerning racism. Sawchuk (2021) explains that the theory asserts that the realities of racism in the developed world have been institutionalized because the dominant white group structured much of the policies in most Western countries. Interpersonal racism could be the challenge of the past, primarily due to the associated negative sentiments and the level of advocacy done by feminists. Unlike interpersonal racism, institutional racism is often challenging to spot because racism is associated with people and not institutions. Crenshaw managed to draw a strong association between race and gender issues, thereby laying a foundation for the intersectionality concept. African American women in the United States have been poorly misinterpreted when discussing racial issues. The general perception has been that black males are more prone to racism than their female counterparts. For instance, in the recent Black Lives Matter riots across the United States, the primary focus was police brutality against African American Males. Such assumptions have failed to consider the unique challenges black women face, especially in critical areas such as access to maternal health.

Severe disparities exist in the developed world concerning the state of maternal health. For example, Taylor (2020) explains that black women are three to four times more likely to die when giving birth than white women in the United States. There is a need to consider structural racism and gender stereotypes from a historical perspective. During slavery, the focus was on male slaves in advocacy and discourses addressing the social ill. African American women were considered tools for child-bearing by their enslavers, who assumed it would bring them profits. Taylor (2020) explains that a particular woman was offered freedom if she could give birth to twelve children. Unfortunately, she died at her last birth. The general perception of the state of African American women during the slavery period in America is that their position was far, much worse than men. They were not only forced to hard labor but were still expected to meet their marital duties based on gender stereotypes. The enslaver did not care whether a woman was pregnant. She was forced to work, nevertheless.

Gender and race function in unison that can produce unique and disadvantageous experiences for women. Although the term intersectionality was coined more recently, the reality is that it has affected African American women for centuries. The feminism and sex liberation movements failed to recognize the plight of African American women and other minority groups. They could not participate in these crucial movements because of the hegemonic nature of most Western cultures. Feminists conveniently left out African American women due to the poor understanding of their unique challenges. The same scenario is evident in sports, although the issue lacks sufficient empirical data. However, sports in Canada are highly racial, and games such as hockey are considered white man’s games (Lisio, 2023). The state of race and gender is far worse than what is often portrayed in the Canadian media. African American women are forced to fight in a two-front way, including gender and racial issues. The most affected areas are sports, where women are denied equal participation due to structural discrimination.


Society has experienced many changes. However, the approach has always ignored institutional racism, perhaps due to the lack of direct strategies to handle structures deeply rooted in society. Discourses tackling intersectionalism should be encouraged at all social levels. There has always been the assumption that racism is a perceived experience, especially from the perspective of whites. Mohanty (1988) explains that Western feminism is profoundly biased and generally considers the problem from the perspective of whites. She explains that contextualism is needed when dealing with cultural issues such as gender and race. White American women might relax their advocacies on gender issues, whereas a female person in the same country still faces institutional discrimination based on race and gender. Most empirical data is too generalized to capture the unique challenges facing minority women in the Canadian social environment. Contextual discourses should be encouraged so Canadians can take responsibility by ensuring a favorable environment is created for all citizens irrespective of race, gender, or sexuality.

There is a need to understand that racism and gender discrimination are societal problems not restricted to a specific group. Men are also affected owing to the absence of women in social relations due to institutionalized discrimination. The number of male suicides is increasing in Canada, and if social justice issues are not handled effectively, the country can sink into a crisis (Lisio, 2023). Maternal deaths resulting from poor healthcare for pregnant women distress community members. As a result, such conversations should not be restricted to women. There should be affirmative action, especially concerning healthcare, a critical issue. The government should adopt strategies that ensure that minority groups such as immigrants, persons of color, Asians, and First Nations enjoy the same social status as their white counterparts.

The issue of hegemony in race and gender should also be addressed. Policy-makers especially play a critical role in promoting cultural equality. One of the study’s findings is that there needs to be sufficient empirical data that can be used to bring about change in the Canadian environment. Women from minority groups should strive to participate in decision-making by taking up leadership roles. Advocacy is often successful when people in leadership positions can push policies directed at dealing with specific social problems. For instance, there is a need for more women leaders in sports despite more women taking up professional sports. Such trends frustrate change because it is challenging to advocate for policies that favor specific cultural groups. There are societies where women have been encouraged to take up leadership positions through legislation that requires equal representation. However, such laws can only succeed if there are enough women from minority groups with the required skills to fill the position. Therefore, it is a collective responsibility that requires a multi-level approach to foster sustainable societal changes.


Gender and racial issues have taken an unprecedented turn due to new developments in modern society. Scholarly materials increasingly provide evidence that the interaction between race and gender can create adverse experiences for women from minority groups in the Western world. The paper has considered the concept of intersectionality and how it affects specific groups of women in Canada. The study has considered women’s experiences from minority groups from the perspective of health and sports. There is the general realization that the focus of Western feminism has been limited to white women. Black women and others from minority groups have been left out conveniently despite their unique challenges. Evidence suggests that one of the root causes of the problem is colonial discourses and the perceptions it has nurtured in Western societies. The discussions have encouraged the emergence of a white hegemonic society that puts women from minority groups at the bottom of the pyramid. Consequently, there is a critical need to change and alter gender and race debates so that they can focus on minority groups. Although advances have been made due to feminism and race advocacies, only men and white women have benefitted. Empirical studies also need to be conducted so that policy-making can be knowledge-based. These strategies can better the situation of women from minority groups in Canada.


Cosentino, A., Weese, J., & Wells, J. E. (2021). Strategies to Advance Women: Career Insights From Senior Leadership Women in Professional Sport in Canada. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 3. Retrieved from

Etowa, J., & Hyman, I. (2021). Unpacking the health and social consequences of COVID-19 through a race, migration, and gender lens. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 112, 8-11.

Lisio, A. D. (2023). KINE 3360: Gender & Sexuality in Sport and Health.

Mohanty, C. T. (1988). Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses. Feminist Review(30), 61-88.

Sawchuk, S. (2021, May 18). What Is Critical Race Theory, and Why Is It Under Attack? Education Week. Retrieved from

Syed, I. U. (2021). Feminist Political Economy of Health: Current Perspectives and Future Directions. Healthcare Review, 9(233), 1-9.

Taylor, J. K. (2020). Structural racism and maternal health among black women. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 48, 506-517. Retrieved from–ENqPckztzrI9t10eZ8LXt_hybFl02pCpPTHWQSo-O5ji6cEJqp1G-EbHTGARwRwC0YRlL

Willson, E., Kerr, G., Stirling, A., & Buono, S. (2022). Prevalence of maltreatment among Canadian National Team athletes. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 37, 21-22.

Critical Analysis Of Its Airbnb Communication Activities Sample Essay


Airbnb is a worldwide online community for unique lodgings and experiences shared between travelers and locals. Thanks in part to its creative brand communication initiatives, the company has succeeded in building a strong brand identity. The “Live Anywhere on Airbnb” ad was created to grab the attention of people who wanted to work remotely and travel (Airbnb, 2021). During the promotion, a limited number of participants may reside in an Airbnb property for up to a year while the company pays for their accommodations. The campaign’s ability to capitalize on the rise of remote work and digital nomadism during the COVID-19 pandemic was one of its strong points. Airbnb was able to meet the needs of its target audience by framing itself as a service for people seeking to work and live in various locales (Al-Saad, 2019). In this analysis, we will concentrate on Airbnb’s “Live Anywhere on Airbnb” marketing, which was introduced in 2021.

The campaign’s utilization of influencers was another part that worked well. Airbnb worked with several well-known influencers who posted on social media about their experiences renting out space (Cardoso et al., 2022)—this increased awareness of the campaign and the number of participants. The campaign, nevertheless, was also criticized for lacking diversity and openness. Some people questioned how participants were selected because the selection procedure for the campaign was not adequately explained.

Furthermore, several detractors said the program was only open to wealthy individuals who could afford to take a year off work and explore the globe (Cardoso et al., 2022). The campaign also ignored the possibility that many people who can work remotely may lack the resources to travel and live in various places for an extended period. This omission may be interpreted as a failure to comprehend the requirements and constraints of their target audience.

Airbnb’s communication situation.

As a global internet marketplace where visitors may reserve distinctive lodging from local hosts, Airbnb faces a challenging communication environment. The business must continually adapt to its customer base’s shifting requirements and trends because it competes in a highly competitive market (Gaby Hinsliff, 2018). Also, Airbnb has had some communication difficulties recently, including safety and security problems, laws, and public confidence. Making sure its users are safe and secure has been one of Airbnb’s biggest difficulties. The business dealt with a well-publicized incident in 2011 where visitors destroyed a host’s property.

In response to this occurrence, which raised questions about the security of staying in someone else’s house, Airbnb introduced new safety precautions, including a host assurance program and a 24/7 customer support hotline (Wagstaff, 2015). Airbnb has had to contend with regulatory and safety issues in many markets it operates in. For instance, in New York City, Airbnb had legal issues over the conformity of its platform with local laws, leading to a settlement that mandates the business to give the city information about its host. Airbnb’s removal of long-term rentals from the market has drawn criticism for contributing to the housing affordability crisis in several places.

Airbnb has made investments in community development and involvement to solve these issues. To put tourists in touch with local hosts and offer a more genuine travel experience, the firm has started several projects, like Airbnb Experiences. Additionally, Airbnb has collaborated with regional administrations to create rules that balance the neighborhood’s demands and the advantages of short-term rentals (Airbnb, 2021).

Target publics

Target audiences for Airbnb include travelers looking for distinctive and genuine lodging, homeowners looking to make extra money by renting out their spare rooms, and local communities that may be impacted by short-term rentals in their areas. The foundation of Airbnb’s brand communication strategy is consumer insights, which the business has successfully uncovered and utilized to forge a distinctive brand identity (Ert and Fleischer, 2019). The demand for authentic travel experiences is one central insight that motivates Airbnb’s brand communication. Many tourists search for uncommon, off-the-beaten-path experiences that let them interact with local people and cultures. Airbnb has established itself as an organization that provides such adventures, with hosts who are experts in the area and can propose must-see locations and activities.

The demand for affordability is another customer insight influencing Airbnb’s brand communication. Many tourists search for affordable lodgings with more room and facilities than typical hotels. With rates that can be much lower for more extended stays or larger groups, Airbnb has positioned itself as a more reasonably priced alternative to hotels (Airbnb, 2020). In addition to these insights, Airbnb has acknowledged the value of social interactions and community building in its brand communication (Kunwar, 2020). The company has introduced some programs that let visitors interact with local hosts and give back to the places they visit, including Airbnb Experiences and Airbnb Social Impact experiences.

Airbnb goals

Building brand awareness, establishing credibility and trust with its target audiences, and encouraging customer involvement and loyalty are the objectives of Airbnb’s brand communication. Promoting brand awareness among target audiences is one of Airbnb’s main objectives for its brand communication. Airbnb seeks to establish a strong brand identity that connects with guests and hosts everywhere by using a variety of marketing and advertising strategies, such as its “Belong Anywhere” campaign (Airbnb, 2020).

Building credibility and trust with its target audiences is a key objective of Airbnb’s brand communication. Building trust with its consumers and the larger community is essential to Airbnb’s success, given the safety issues and regulatory difficulties the company has encountered (Liang, Choi, and Joppe, 2018). By introducing additional safety measures, working with local governments to create legislation, and investing in community-building and engagement projects, Airbnb has responded to these difficulties (Airbnb, 2021). With these initiatives, the company hopes to increase user confidence and trust while also demonstrating its dedication to ethical and ecological travel.

The final goal of Airbnb’s brand message is to increase customer loyalty and engagement. Airbnb has introduced programs that reward hosts for providing excellent service and high-quality lodgings, such as its Superhost program and Airbnb Plus (Airbnb, 2020). Additionally, Airbnb has invested in community development and engagement programs like Airbnb Experiences, which let visitors interact with local hosts and give back to their travel destinations. These initiatives aim to foster a sense of community and loyalty among Airbnb users and promote repeat reservations.

Airbnb strategies and tactics

In order to communicate its brand, Airbnb has used various techniques and approaches, including content marketing, influencer marketing, social media marketing, and community development projects. Airbnb has utilized content marketing as a fundamental tactic to provide exciting and educational content that appeals to its target audiences (Nguyen et al., 2018). As an illustration, the business’ blog offers a variety of travel-related information, including location guides, travel advice, and insider picks from local hosts (Airbnb). In addition to offering passengers value, this content establishes Airbnb as a leader in hospitality and travel.

Another strategy Airbnb has employed to establish trust and expand its audience is influencer marketing. To promote their distinctive and genuine lodgings and experiences, the firm has teamed with celebrities and social media influencers, including Gwyneth Paltrow and Mariah Carey (Airbnb, 2020). In addition to creating discussion and media attention, these alliances aid in solidifying Airbnb’s reputation as a dependable and desirable brand.

A significant part of Airbnb’s brand communication strategy is social media marketing, which the firm uses to communicate with and market to its target audiences on websites like Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook (Phua, 2018). Airbnb uses these platforms to share user-generated content, highlight its distinctive and genuine lodgings, and interact with its users through competitions and other fun activities (Airbnb, n.d.). The company invests in programs like Airbnb Experiences and Airbnb Social Impact experiences to establish connections and give back to local communities. Community-building programs are a crucial part of Airbnb’s brand promotion strategy. By promoting a sense of community and loyalty among its customers, these activities want to establish Airbnb as a trustworthy and ethical travel service (Airbnb, 2020).

Brand identity and brand image

Brand identity and brand image are two essential ideas in brand management and marketing. Brand image refers to the perception and associations that customers have of a brand based on their experiences and interactions with it, as opposed to brand identity, which refers to the visual and linguistic aspects that characterize a brand, such as its name, logo, colors, and messaging (Schivinski et al., 2020). In other words, the brand image refers to how people perceive the brand, but brand identity refers to what the corporation wants the brand to be.

A brand must have a strong and consistent brand identity to be distinct and identifiable. Consumers are more likely to recall and recognize a brand when its visual and verbal components are consistent across all touchpoints, which helps boost brand awareness and loyalty. Airbnb’s name, logo, and messaging all reference the idea of “belonging,” which serves as the foundation of the company’s brand identity. The speech bubble-shaped stylized letter “A” in the company’s logo is intended to symbolize the connection and communication hosts and guests can have. For example, the “Belong Anywhere” campaign from Airbnb promotes the concepts of community and belonging and positions the company as a source of distinctive and genuine travel experiences.

The “Belong Anywhere” campaign from Airbnb has been quite successful in helping the company achieve its goals, which include increasing brand recognition, fostering credibility and trust, and encouraging customer involvement and loyalty (Schivinski et al., 2020). Since its introduction in 2014, the campaign has grown to rank among the most lucrative and well-known in the travel sector. One of its main advantages is the “Belong Anywhere” campaign’s capacity to forge a powerful emotional bond with guests and visitors. The campaign’s narrative and graphics appeal to Airbnb’s target audiences by inspiring feelings of adventure, belonging, and community (Airbnb, 2020). The consumers of Airbnb have developed brand loyalty and spread favorable word-of-mouth thanks to this emotional connection.

Additionally, the “Belong Anywhere” campaign has successfully resolved issues with unfavorable brand perceptions and discrepancies between brand identity and brand image (Zhang, Isaeva, and Li, 2021). With certain towns and nations implementing limitations on short-term rentals, Airbnb has come under fire and faced regulatory problems in a number of markets (The Guardian, 2019). These issues have been addressed, and Airbnb has been positioned as an ethical and sustainable travel provider thanks to the “Belong Anywhere” slogan and other brand communication activities, such as its community-building programs. The campaign’s emphasis on authenticity and community is one of the primary factors contributing to its success. In order to build credibility and trust with Airbnb’s target audiences, the ad features real people and authentic experiences. Additionally, users are encouraged to engage and feel a feeling of belonging thanks to Airbnb’s community-building initiatives, like its Superhost program and Airbnb Experiences.

However, there have also been certain obstacles and complaints regarding Airbnb’s attempts to communicate its brand. The company’s branding and marketing have drawn criticism for potentially oversimplifying the complicated issues surrounding short-term rentals and the sharing economy (The Guardian, 2019). Concerns have been raised over how short-term rentals affect local neighborhoods and housing affordability in some cities (The New York Times, 2019). To address these issues, these worries emphasize the significance of ethical and sustainable tourism practices and ongoing communication initiatives.


Several suggestions have been made based on the research of Airbnb’s brand communication activities that could help to increase the efficiency of the company’s marketing initiatives and messaging. The following recommendations are listed:

  1. even though Airbnb has taken action to address concerns regarding the impact of short-term rentals, more has to be done to combat unfavorable impressions of the company (Zhang, Isaeva, and Li, 2021). One method of achieving this is to proactively address these issues in brand communication initiatives, for example, through tailored messaging and content that emphasizes the business’ dedication to ethical and sustainable tourism practices.
  2. Boost interaction with key audiences: Although Airbnb has a significant social media following, there is still room to grow this audience by creating interactive and immersive content (Kunwar, 2020). For instance, the business may offer interactive content that promotes user-generated content and participation or provide virtual tours of its most well-liked locations.
  3. Utilize brand ambassadors and influencers: To market the brand, Airbnb has already partnered with many well-known influencers and celebrities, like Beyoncé and Gwyneth Paltrow. However, there is a chance to broaden these initiatives and collaborate with more brand ambassadors and influencers to reach new audiences and increase credibility and customer confidence.
  4. convey the company’s distinctive value proposition to customers. While Airbnb has a strong brand identity centered on belonging, there is room for improvement. This can entail displaying the advantages of staying in a distinctive and genuine lodging or highlighting the regional experiences and activities offered through the platform.


The brand communication initiatives of Airbnb have been crucial in creating a potent brand identity based on the idea of belonging. However, the company has struggled to overcome unfavorable opinions and discrepancies between its brand identity and image. Airbnb has reached and engaged with its target consumers through its marketing efforts by using various methods and approaches, such as storytelling, social media interaction, and influencer marketing. Even though these initiatives have mainly been successful, there is still room for improvement. Examples include growing influencer connections and raising engagement through immersive content. By resolving these issues, Airbnb can maintain the effectiveness of its brand communication strategies’ effectiveness and increase its brand’s value in the cutthroat travel and hospitality sector.


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