Analysis Of Dartmoor Zoo Social Media Activity Free Writing Sample

INTRODUCTION

Animal enthusiasts and those concerned about the environment flock to Dartmoor Zoo regularly. In the outskirts of Plymouth, in the southwestern region of England, you may find it situated on a land area of 33 acres (Liston-Heyes, 2022, P. 1). The zoo first opened its doors in 1968. Still, since then, it has expanded to become a significant tourist destination that houses a diverse collection of species from all over the world (Liston-Heyes, 2022, P. 1). Almost 75 different kinds of animals, such as large cats, monkeys, and reptiles, call Dartmoor Zoo their home. The zoo places a significant emphasis on the care of animals, conservation, and education. It is dedicated to encouraging the preservation of endangered species and the environments in which they live (FitzGerald et al., 2021, P. 270). Visitors at Dartmoor Zoo can participate in various activities, including educational seminars and events, animal interactions, and guided tours.

Figure 1: Source: Authors' research online: Dartmoor Zoo.
Figure 1: Source: Authors’ research online: Dartmoor Zoo.

Below is the age distribution of the visitors on Dartmoor Zoo’s social media.

Figure 2: Age distribution. Source: Similarweb analysis 2023
Figure 2: Age distribution. Source: Similarweb analysis 2023

The zoo also provides a number of facilities and activities tailored specifically to the needs of children, such as a play area and a petting zoo. Dartmoor Zoo has experienced various issues in recent years, including financial difficulties and poor publicity due to the production of a movie based on the life of the zoo’s founder (Vozar, 2021, p. 1). Despite this, the zoo has successfully overcome these challenges, and it continues to be a well-liked attraction among residents and tourists. The Dartmoor Zoo has a presence on many social media platforms, which is one way it promotes itself. The zoo maintains an active presence on the social media platforms Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, where it publishes news updates and uploads images. It details upcoming zoo activities (Wartmann et al., 2019, p.102112). The zoo can communicate with its guests in real-time and reach a far larger audience thanks to social media.

Figure 3: Rankin and overview of Dartmoor Zoo. Source: Similarweb analysis 2023
Figure 3: Rankin and overview of Dartmoor Zoo. Source: Similarweb analysis 2023

Below is the gender distribution of visitors who visits Dartmoor Zoo’s social media.

Figure 4: Gender distribution. Source: Similarweb analysis 2023.
Figure 4: Gender distribution. Source: Similarweb analysis 2023.

This analysis aims to conduct an in-depth review of Dartmoor Zoo’s social media activity across three platforms: Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. The study will focus on the effectiveness of Dartmoor Zoo’s social media marketing strategy, identifying strengths and weaknesses and making suitable recommendations to improve engagement, reach, and brand awareness. The content of this analysis will include a detailed review of Dartmoor Zoo’s social media presence, analyzing metrics such as reach, engagement, and impressions. Based on this analysis, we recommend optimizing social media marketing efforts, including best practices, strategies, and tactics to improve concentration and reach a wider audience. All recommendations will be grounded in established social media theory and concepts and supported by relevant social media analytics data.

FACEBOOK ANALYSIS

With over 2.7 billion monthly active users, Facebook has established itself as the most popular platform for social networking. Almost 96,000 people follow Dartmoor Zoo on Facebook, giving the organization a significant online presence. They publish on a consistent basis, with at least one post each day, and the substance of their postings includes marketing, updates about the animals, and instructional pieces. Their postings consistently garner healthy interaction, averaging between 100 and 200 replies, 10 to 20 shares, and 5 to 10 comments in each post (Gutiérrez-Barroso et al., 2019, pp.573-595).

Figure 5: Dartmoor Zoo Facebook Page. Source: Dartmoor Zoo Facebook page 2023
Figure 5: Dartmoor Zoo Facebook Page. Source: Dartmoor Zoo Facebook page 2023

We will look at key metrics such as reach, engagement, and impressions to analyze Dartmoor Zoo’s Facebook activity.

SOCIAL MEDIA METRICS ANALYSIS

  • Reach refers to the number of people who have seen a post (Zimmermann et al., 2019, p. 1). On Facebook, the reach can be divided into organic and paid reach. Organic reach refers to the number of people who have seen a post without any paid promotion, while paid reach refers to the number of people who have visited a post due to paid advertisement. Looking at Dartmoor Zoo’s Facebook page, their organic reach is substantial, with most posts reaching between 1,000 to 3,000 people (Gatis et al., 2022, p.e12162).
  • Engagement: Engagement refers to the number of interactions a post receives, including likes, comments, and shares. Engagement is vital because it indicates how much people interact with a brand on social media (Shahbaznezhad et al., 2021, p.49). Dartmoor Zoo’s posts receive good engagement, with an average of 100-200 reactions, 10-20 shares, and 5-10 comments per post.
  • Impressions: Impressions refer to the number of times a post is seen. Appearances are important because they indicate how far a brand’s message is spreading on social media (Delbaere et al., 2021, p. 107). Dartmoor Zoo’s posts receive good impressions, with most reaching 5,000 to 10,000 people.

RECOMMENDATION TO DARTMOOR ZOO ON FACEBOOK

  • To increase paid reach, Dartmoor Zoo could invest in Facebook advertising, which would allow them to target specific audiences and expand their reach.
  • To increase engagement further, Dartmoor Zoo could try the following: Post more user-generated content, such as visitor photos and experiences at the zoo, which can increase engagement and create a sense of community: Utilize Facebook Live to showcase animal encounters and behind-the-scenes affairs, as this will increase engagement and create a more personal connection with visitors: Respond to comments and messages promptly to develop a sense of engagement and interaction with followers.
  • To increase impressions further, Dartmoor Zoo could try the following: Use Facebook advertising to increase reach and attract new visitors to the zoo; Develop a social media calendar to ensure consistent posting and to increase engagement through thematic content; Incorporate more visual content, such as photos and videos, as these tend to perform better on Facebook.

In conclusion, by focusing on reach, engagement, and impressions, Dartmoor Zoo can improve its Facebook activity and increase its social media presence. These recommendations are grounded in established social media theory and concepts and are supported by relevant social media analytics data.

TWITTER ANALYSIS

Twitter is a platform that enables companies to communicate news and updates with their followers and engage in conversation with those individuals. The Twitter account for Dartmoor Zoo has more than 18000 followers, and it is routinely updated with tweets that discuss the activities and events that take place at the zoo. They offer news and updates on the animals and educational and promotional items on their Twitter account. On the other hand, the engagement percentage is relatively low, coming in at an average of 0.03% for each tweet.

Figure 6: Dartmoor Zoo Twitter Page. Source: Dartmoor Zoo Twitter page 2023
Figure 6: Dartmoor Zoo Twitter Page. Source: Dartmoor Zoo Twitter page 2023

We will look at key metrics such as reach, engagement, and impressions to analyze Dartmoor Zoo’s Twitter activity.

SOCIAL MEDIA METRICS ANALYSIS

  • Reach: On Twitter; reach refers to the number of unique users who see a tweet (Zimmermann et al., 2019, p. 1). Dartmoor Zoo’s organic reach on Twitter could be much higher, with most tweets reaching only a few hundred users.
  • Engagement: Engagement on Twitter includes metrics such as likes, retweets, and replies (Shahbaznezhad et al., 2021, p.49). Dartmoor Zoo’s tweets receive low engagement, with most tweets only receiving a few likes and retweets.
  • Impressions: Impressions on Twitter refer to the number of times a tweet is viewed (Delbaere et al., 2021, p. 105. Dartmoor Zoo’s tweets receive low impressions, with most tweets only reaching a few hundred users.

RECOMMENDATION ON TWITTER

  • One way to increase reach on Twitter is by using relevant hashtags, which can help increase visibility among users interested in related topics.
  • To increase engagement, Dartmoor Zoo could try the following: Increase the frequency of tweets to create more opportunities for engagement: Use more visuals, such as images and videos, as these tend to receive higher engagement on Twitter: Engage with followers by responding to their tweets and participating in relevant conversations.
  • To increase impressions, Dartmoor Zoo could try the following: Use relevant hashtags to increase visibility among users interested in related topics: Develop a social media calendar to ensure consistent posting and increase engagement through thematic content: Use Twitter advertising to increase reach and attract new followers.

In conclusion, by focusing on reach, engagement, and impressions, Dartmoor Zoo can improve its Twitter activity and increase its social media presence. To do so, they should post more frequently, use more visuals, engage with followers, use relevant hashtags, develop a social media calendar, and consider using Twitter advertising. These recommendations are grounded in established social media theory and concepts and are supported by relevant social media analytics data.

INSTAGRAM ANALYSIS

Instagram is a social networking service that enables businesses to post photographs and videos with their customers. The Instagram account for Dartmoor Zoo has more than 27,000 followers, and it is routinely updated with posts that provide information about the zoo’s many educational opportunities, animals, and events. Images and videos of their animals, employees, and visitors, as well as instructional pieces and promotional information, may be seen on their Instagram page. The average number of people engaging with a post is 3.51%, which indicates a high engagement rate.

Figure 7: Dartmoor Zoo Instagram Page. Source: Dartmoor Zoo Instagram page 2023
Figure 7: Dartmoor Zoo Instagram Page. Source: Dartmoor Zoo Instagram page 2023

We will look at key metrics such as follower growth, engagement, and reach to analyze Dartmoor Zoo’s Instagram activity.

SOCIAL MEDIA METRICS ANALYSIS

Follower Growth: Dartmoor Zoo’s Instagram account has been experiencing steady growth, which is a positive sign.

  • Engagement: Engagement on Instagram includes metrics such as likes, comments, and shares (Shahbaznezhad et al., 2021, p.50). Dartmoor Zoo’s posts receive high engagement, with many receiving hundreds of likes and comments.
  • Reach: On Instagram, reach refers to the number of unique users who see a post (Zimmermann et al., 2019, p. 1)—the size of its follower base limits Dartmoor Zoo’s reach.

RECOMMENDATION ON INSTAGRAM

However, they could try the following to accelerate their follower growth:

Use relevant hashtags to increase visibility among users who are interested in related topics:

  • Engage with other Instagram accounts by commenting on their posts and participating in relevant conversations: Host Instagram contests and giveaways to attract new followers.
  • To increase engagement, Dartmoor Zoo could use Instagram Stories to showcase behind-the-scenes content and create interactive experiences: Use captions to encourage followers to leave comments and share their thoughts: Engage with followers by responding to their words and messages.
  • To increase reach, Dartmoor Zoo could use relevant hashtags to increase visibility among users interested in related topics: Collaborate with other Instagram accounts in the animal or tourism industries to increase exposure to new audiences: Consider using Instagram advertising to target new audiences.

In conclusion, by focusing on follower growth, engagement, and reach, Dartmoor Zoo can improve its Instagram activity and increase its social media presence. To do so, they should use relevant hashtags, engage with other Instagram accounts, host Instagram contests and giveaways, use Instagram Stories, encourage followers to leave comments, respond to comments and messages, collaborate with other Instagram accounts, and consider using Instagram advertising. These recommendations are grounded in established social media theory and concepts and are supported by relevant social media analytics data.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, Dartmoor Zoo has a solid social media presence, with active Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram accounts. Overall, Dartmoor Zoo’s social media activity effectively promotes its brand and educates its audience on animal care and conservation (FitzGerald et al., 2021, P. 270). Their posts receive moderate engagement, with some receiving hundreds of likes and comments, indicating a dedicated following. However, there are opportunities for growth and improvement, such as increasing follower growth, boosting engagement, and expanding reach. By utilizing established social media theory and concepts and using relevant social media analytics data, we have made recommendations for each platform, including utilizing advertising, posting at optimal times, creating visually appealing content, and using interactive experiences like Facebook Live. By implementing these recommendations, Dartmoor Zoo can continue to strengthen its social media presence and connect with its audience meaningfully, furthering its mission of promoting animal care and conservation.

REFERENCES

Delbaere, M., Michael, B. and Phillips, B.J., 2021. Social media influencers: A route to brand engagement for their followers. Psychology & Marketing38(1), pp.101-112.

FitzGerald, O., Collins, C.M. and Potter, C., 2021. Woodland expansion in upland national parks: an analysis of stakeholder views and understanding in the Dartmoor National Park, UK. Land10(3), p.270.

Gatis, N., Carless, D., Luscombe, D.J., Brazier, R.E. and Anderson, K., 2022. An operational land cover and land cover change toolbox: processing open‐source data with open‐source software. Ecological Solutions and Evidence3(3), p.e12162.

Gutiérrez-Barroso, J., Báez-García, A.J. and Flores-Muñoz, F., 2019. Emerging practices in Facebook at national parks. Scientific annals of economics and business66(4), pp.573-595.

Liston-Heyes, C., 2022. Dartmoor National Park Visitors Survey, 1996.

Shahbaznezhad, H., Dolan, R. and Rashidirad, M., 2021. The role of social media content format and platform in users’ engagement behaviour. Journal of Interactive Marketing53(1), pp.47-65.

Vozar, E., 2021. Mindfulness as an approach to understanding visitor-environment relationships: the case of Dartmoor National Park (Doctoral dissertation, University of Exeter).

Wartmann, F.M., Tieskens, K.F., van Zanten, B.T. and Verburg, P.H., 2019. I am exploring tranquillity experienced in landscapes based on social media—Applied Geography113, p.102112.

Zimmermann, M., Static, C.A., Tenny, C. and Pradel, M., 2019, August. Small World with High Risks: A Study of Security Threats in the npm Ecosystem. In USENIX security symposium (Vol. 17).

APPENDICES

Dartmoor Zoo Twitter posts
Dartmoor Zoo Twitter posts

Dartmoor Zoo Facebook posts
Dartmoor Zoo Facebook posts

Dartmoor Zoo Instagram posts
Dartmoor Zoo Instagram posts

Real Estate Sustainability In The United Kingdom (UK) Essay Sample For College

Executive summary

The real estate market in the UK is a dynamic and complex sector that contributes significantly to the country’s economy. Despite some uncertainties surrounding Brexit and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the industry has shown resilience and remains attractive to domestic and international investors. In recent years, the UK has experienced a housing crisis, with demand outstripping housing supply, particularly in urban areas. This has led to a significant increase in property prices, making it difficult for first-time buyers to enter the market. The commercial real estate market in the UK has also been affected by the pandemic, with the shift to remote working leading to changes in demand for office space. However, the industrial and logistics sectors have experienced increased demand due to the rise of e-commerce. Institutional investors have traditionally dominated investment in the UK real estate market. Still, a recent trend has been toward more significant involvement by private equity firms and individual investors. The UK government has implemented several policies to address the housing crisis, including increased funding for affordable housing and measures to support first-time buyers. There are also plans to reform the planning system to increase the housing supply. Generally, while the UK real estate market faces challenges, it remains an attractive and resilient sector with significant potential for growth and investment.

Introductions

The concept of sustainability has become increasingly important in the real estate sector, as the environmental impact of buildings and their operations is recognized as an essential contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental problems. In the United Kingdom (UK), sustainability has become a focus for real estate professionals, policymakers, and investors, as the country seeks to transition towards a low-carbon economy and meet its climate change targets (Ionașcu et al., 2020, p. 78). This has led to various initiatives and regulations to promote sustainable real estate practices, including energy efficiency standards, green building certifications, and financial incentives for sustainable development. This essay will explore the current state of real estate sustainability in the UK, examining the key drivers and challenges and the opportunities and benefits associated with sustainable real estate practices.

Commercial real estate has recently realized that sustainable development is crucial for preserving natural environments and attracting tenants, investors, and consumers (Crosby et al., 2020, p. 90). This awareness came about as a consequence of coming to terms with the fact that sustainable development is vital for maintaining the natural environment and an essential component. This moment occurs as a direct consequence of the dawning comprehension that the preservation of natural habitats is inextricably linked to the practice of sustainable development (Ionașcu et al., 2020, p. 78). Many businesses implement corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities (Wilkinson et al., 2018, p.89).

More than 1.8 million commercial and industrial businesses may be found in the United Kingdom. More than fifty percent of the total stock of non-residential buildings was constructed before 1985. The hospitality sector is home to most of the nation’s oldest buildings, with 67% of the store built in the 19th century (see Figure 1). The decades after World War II, namely between 1940 and 1985, saw the construction of almost half of the current stock of industrial buildings. The non-residential component accounted for 23% of the total floor space developed in 2013 (3,469.0 million square meters), while the residential segment accounted for 77%. Manufacturing and storage facilities comprise the most significant room in terms of floor area; nevertheless, the combined office and retail space account for 31% of the total area. The industries that use the most space are warehouses and distribution centers. Private offices account for 80.5% of the total floor area on the office level and are thus included in the office category. There were 128,550 transactions involving commercial or industrial real estate in 2017. It is crucial to remember that there is a vast diversity of ownership, decision-making processes, and geographic coverage when describing the industry as a whole. This is something that must be kept in mind at all times. It is possible to work with a commercial real estate business that is local, regional, national, international (with operations in many countries), or even global.

Figure 1 Distribution of non-residential buildings (%) by category and building period.

Distribution of non-residential buildings (%) by category and building period

(Adopted from Janda, K., Kenington, D., Ruyssevelt, P., & Willan, C. (2021). Towards Net Zero in UK Commercial Real Estate: Key information, perspectives, and practical guidance.)

The Figure 3, which illustrates these findings, the demand for energy in non-residential buildings may be broken down into two categories: those that require the use of electrical equipment and those that do not involve the use of electrical equipment (Hiep et al., 2021, p. 36) The categories are established according to the purpose that the structure is eventually intended to fulfill. This demonstrates that most of the demand for non-electrical energy is used to heat spaces and provide hot water. In contrast, the applications for electrical power are much more varied and include things like lighting, heating, cooling (both space cooling and cooled storage), information and communication technology equipment, and catering, amongst other things.

Figure 2 Energy consumption in non-residential buildings by energy type and energy end use (England and Wales)

Energy consumption in non-residential buildings by energy type and energy end use

(Adopted from Janda, K., Kenington, D., Ruyssevelt, P., & Willan, C. (2021). Towards Net Zero in UK Commercial Real Estate: Key information, perspectives, and practical guidance.)

History and Context of Net Zero

The Paris Agreement and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), finalized in 2015, have the United Kingdom’s signature. With the signing of the Paris Agreement, nearly two hundred countries have made a commitment to one another for the first time to hold the rise in global temperature to well below 2 degrees Celsius and to pursue measures to restrict the warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius (Wilkinson et al., 2018, p.89). This is a significant step forward in international cooperation. This promise was made in Article 18 of the Paris Agreement. To achieve the temperature goal for the long term, it is vital to make this commitment. The ability of countries that have signed the Paris Agreement to determine their contributions and plans to reduce or capture greenhouse gas emissions, which are the primary cause of climate change, is an essential component of the agreement. These contributions and plans are known as Nationally Determined Contributions or NDCs. The United Kingdom’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) details the continuous efforts being made by the nation toward the goal of reaching Net Zero emissions.

The aim for the net UK carbon account has been changed from “at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline” to “at least 100% lower by 2050″20 according to an amendment that was made to Section 1 of the Climate Change Act (2008). Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on 1.5 °C, which warns of dangerous impacts from an additional half a degree of global warming, this target was changed to strengthen the United Kingdom’s commitment to limiting global temperature rises to 2 °C. This change was made in response to the IPCC report.

There has yet to be an effort made to transform the lofty goals established for the CRE business in the UK into legally enforceable standards. As a direct consequence, there has yet to be an official government rating system with an acceptable degree of quality assurance and a verification requirement for those who claim that they have Net Zero carbon emissions. Even with this, BEIS was surveyed on the topic in March 2021; however, the consultation results still needed to be made public when this article was written (Wilkinson et al., 2018, p. 90). This framework will be introduced as part of the government’s plans to introduce a national performance-based policy framework for rating commercial and industrial buildings’ energy and carbon performance. These proposals were prepared in close conjunction with representatives from the industry, and their overarching goal is to build upon the successful strategies used in other contexts.

Figure 3 Trends in annual mean temperature divergence from the mean of 1961–1990

Trends in annual mean temperature divergence from the mean of 1961–1990

(Adopted from Janda, K., Kenington, D., Ruyssevelt, P., & Willan, C. (2021). Towards Net Zero in UK Commercial Real Estate: Key information, perspectives, and practical guidance.)

Drivers for Net Zero

Building retrofits are crucial to achieving net-zero emissions in commercial real estate. Retrofitting refers to upgrading or modifying an existing building to improve its energy efficiency and reduce its carbon footprint. Retrofitting can include upgrading HVAC systems, insulation, lighting, and windows and incorporating renewable energy sources like solar panels (Devine et al., 2022, p. 45). Commercial buildings account for a significant portion of global carbon emissions, with estimates suggesting that they contribute around 20% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Retrofitting these buildings can help reduce these emissions by improving energy efficiency and reducing energy waste. In addition to the environmental benefits, retrofitting commercial buildings can yield significant financial savings for building owners and occupants. Energy-efficient buildings require less energy, lowering energy bills and operational costs. Additionally, retrofitting can increase the value of a building and make it more attractive to potential tenants, leading to higher occupancy rates and rental incomes (Wilkinson et al., 2018, p.89). Governments can implement policies and incentives to encourage building retrofits and achieve net-zero emissions to encourage building owners to undertake retrofit projects. This can include financial incentives, such as tax credits or rebates, and regulatory measures, such as building codes and standards requiring new buildings to meet specific energy efficiency criteria.

Government Initiatives

The government of the United Kingdom has indeed declared its intention to achieve net zero carbon emissions by the year 2050. This effort is known as the Energy Savings Opportunities Scheme (ESOS), and it was one of the most important things that have been done. Also, businesses need to study the myriad of opportunities available to them to reduce the energy they use. The federal government has started providing several financial incentives, such as the Green Homes Grant and the Renewable Heat Incentive, to stimulate financial investments in energy-saving technology further.

Increasing pressure from investors

There has been increasing pressure from investors in the UK to take action on climate change and support the transition to a low-carbon economy. In recent years, investors have become more aware of the financial risks associated with climate change, including the physical dangers of extreme weather events and the transition risks related to the shift to a low-carbon economy.

To address these risks, investors are increasingly calling on companies to take action on climate change and to disclose their plans for managing these risks. This has led to the growth of several initiatives in the UK aimed at promoting sustainable investment and encouraging companies to take action on climate change (Kaklauskas et al., 2021, p. 12). One such initiative is the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD), established in 2015 by the Financial Stability Board. The TCFD provides a framework for companies to disclose their climate-related risks and opportunities to investors, enabling investors to make more informed decisions about the companies they invest in.

Another initiative is the UK Sustainable Investment and Finance Association (UKSIF), a membership organization for sustainable and responsible investment in the UK. UKSIF promotes sustainable investment practices and encourages companies to take action on climate change. In addition to these initiatives, there has been a growing trend of investors divesting from fossil fuel companies and other high-carbon industries. This has been driven by concerns over the financial risks associated with climate change and the need to align investment portfolios with the goals of the Paris Agreement (Kaklauskas et al., 2021, p. 12). The shift in investor mood toward investing in initiatives that may assist in accomplishing sustainability goals can be attributed to several factors. The growing knowledge of climate change’s effects on the environment and the economy is one of the primary causes of this. Investors are becoming increasingly concerned about the long-term risks associated with climate change. These risks include the physical risks of extreme weather events, the transition risks related to the shift towards a low-carbon economy, and the reputational risks of being associated with companies that are not taking action to reduce the number of carbon emissions they produce.

The real estate industry is one of the most significant contributors to worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. As a result, real estate leaders are responsible for revaluing assets, decarbonizing, and creating new business opportunities that address climate change and sustainability challenges (Kaklauskas et al., 2021, p. 12). Real estate leaders should revalue their assets to reflect the actual cost of their carbon footprint. This means accounting for the environmental impact of the building’s energy consumption, waste generation, and water usage, among other factors. Real estate companies can better understand the risks and opportunities associated with climate change by valuing assets based on their environmental impact. Additionally, it can help them identify opportunities for improvement, such as investing in renewable energy, retrofitting buildings to be more energy-efficient, and implementing sustainable waste management practices.

Decarbonization is the process of reducing or eliminating the carbon footprint of a building or a portfolio of buildings. Real estate leaders can achieve this through various measures, including investing in renewable energy, retrofitting existing buildings to be more energy-efficient, and adopting sustainable design practices for new developments. By decarbonizing their assets, real estate companies can reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, lower energy costs, and create healthier and more sustainable environments for occupants. The real estate industry can be critical in addressing climate change by creating new business opportunities that promote sustainability (Kaklauskas et al., 2021, p. 12). For example, real estate companies can develop green buildings designed to minimize their environmental impact while providing a healthy and comfortable living or working environment. Additionally, they can invest in renewable energy projects, such as solar and wind farms, which can generate revenue while reducing their carbon footprint. The circular economy is an economic system that seeks to eliminate waste and maximize resource efficiency. Real estate companies can adopt circular principles by using recycled materials in construction, repurposing old buildings, and adopting sustainable waste management practices. By doing so, they can reduce their environmental impact, create new revenue streams, and differentiate themselves from their competitors.

Increasing energy costs

UK energy prices have skyrocketed; economic and political forces caused this surge. This rise has hurt the nation’s economy. Consequently, firms in many industries are pressured to minimize their energy usage and research more efficient and sustainable energy sources. Oil and gas prices have risen, which has raised UK energy prices. Awareness of fossil fuels’ environmental impacts has increased pressure on governments to switch to greener energy sources. This has increased pressure on fossil fuel businesses and governments to minimize their dependency on them (Kaklauskas et al., 2021, p. 12). Due to this pressure, the UK government has implemented many programs to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency (Patrick et al., 2018). These policies and initiatives are categorized. The Clean Growth Plan aims to cut UK carbon emissions and promote low-carbon technologies. The strategy promotes low-carbon technologies. The plan includes building energy efficiency requirements and incentives for firms to invest in renewable energy and energy efficiency. These are only two instances of plan measures. Commercial firms are financially rewarded for energy-saving investments under the scheme. In response, several firms have invested in renewable energy and energy efficiency (Muldoon-Smith and Greenhalgh, 2019, p .90). Businesses have installed solar panels or wind turbines to generate renewable energy. Nonetheless, some companies have cut energy usage by improving their facilities or buying environmentally friendly equipment. These actions will minimize the company’s carbon impact and long-term energy costs. Consumer and investor demand for climate change action has increased.

Changing customer attitudes

Buyers and lessees have been more ecologically conscious in recent years. Nowadays, more people want corporations to minimize carbon emissions. In the UK, people are becoming increasingly environmentally conscious. Commercial real estate firms must cut their carbon emissions to meet client needs. A corporation might do this by improving the energy efficiency of its facilities. Solar panels, wind turbines, energy-efficient lighting, insulation, and heating systems may accomplish this (Wilkinson et al., 2018, p. 90). These may include financial incentives for renters who use energy-efficient lighting, appliances, and public transportation or carpool with other residents. Renters who take public transport or carpool might get cash incentives. Businesses may also provide renters financial incentives to recycle, compost, and save water.

UK initiatives and policies assist commercial real estate sustainability. The UK Green Building Council also promotes green business practices in the industry. Several commercial real estate firms have started seeing the benefits of greenness and meeting consumer needs. Reducing energy use and emissions may lower electricity costs. Nevertheless, sustainable design may attract renters and increase a building’s worth (Muldoon-Smith and Greenhalgh, 2019, p .90). Companies and customers prioritize environmentally friendly activities, and organizations are responding to this demand by moving toward sustainability in the commercial real estate business.

Challenges

Even though several motivations encourage the commercial real estate industry in the UK to cut its emissions to reach the Net Zero Carbon goal, several problems also need to be addressed. In this sense, some of the most significant issues that the industry is now confronting are as follows:

A shift in business models

UK energy companies are becoming green and energy-efficient. This modification aims to combat climate change and reduce carbon emissions (Scofield, 2013). This aim requires enterprises in this sector to invest in cutting-edge technology and knowledge, change their business operations, and change their energy source. Renewable energy sources, including wind, solar, and tidal power, are crucial to this revolution and its significant effects. It will need to spend heavily on new infrastructure, technology, and energy production and delivery to achieve this goal. Companies in this sector must also prioritize energy efficiency. They include improving infrastructure energy efficiency. Innovative grid technology, reducing waste and pollution, and New skills and competencies are needed to move to more environmentally friendly activities. This may include retraining current staff, hiring renewable energy and energy efficiency experts, and working with university institutions to create new training programs. This may entail employing new workers. Energy business paradigms are changing. Reducing emissions and meeting the UK’s legally bound climate change objectives drive this trend. The energy industry is crucial to the UK’s 2050 net-zero emissions goal. Greener and more energy-efficient businesses demand a significant transformation in company structures and operations. To adapt to this transformation, businesses need new technology, skills, and energy supplies.

Lack of Technological Expertise and Data

The achievement of Net Zero Carbon objectives is becoming an increasingly pressing need for businesses in every industry, as is the reduction of emissions, which is one of the essential goals that can be pursued. The industry or field to which you are referring might be anything, including but not limited to agriculture, transportation, energy, or manufacturing, to name a few examples. Reducing emissions involves a mix of methods and technology, which often calls for specialist knowledge and access to data, which is true regardless of the industry. Increasing energy efficiency is a crucial component of many emission reduction strategies. This might entail adapting buildings and equipment to consume less energy, as well as switching to technologies that are more energy efficient. The transition to low-carbon or renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, or geothermal energy, is another critical policy that should be implemented. In addition, businesses could have to adjust their operational models, supply networks, or manufacturing procedures to cut emissions.

For organizations in this sector to develop effective strategies for lowering emissions, they will require access to data and expertise in various areas, including energy management, carbon accounting, and technologies for renewable energy sources. This may require entering into a partnership with professional consultants, engaging with research institutes, or investing in the knowledge of employees inside the organization (Devine et al., 2022, p. 45). In addition to having technical skills, a commitment to establishing and attaining aggressive emissions reduction objectives is required to decrease emissions. This might entail defining objectives for specific departments or facilities and creating overall goals for the firm. It is essential to ensure that significant activities and investments support these goals. Some examples of such actions and investments are using renewable energy, implementing energy efficiency measures, and converting to low-carbon fuels. Ultimately, reaching the Net Zero Carbon objectives will need a concerted effort from all parts of the economy (Pike, 2020). By lowering their emissions and investing in environmentally friendly business methods and technology, companies operating in this industry have the potential to play a pivotal part in the movement toward a low-carbon economy.

Planning restrictions

The UK’s planning restrictions may limit ecologically friendly building and refurbishment projects. These rules typically limit energy efficiency and carbon reduction possibilities by limiting materials, designs, and building methods. These rules limit construction projects’ materials, plans, and building methods. These rules frequently specify the materials, plans, and construction techniques allowed in building and infrastructure projects. According to planning rules, new structures may need environmentally friendly materials (Muldoon-Smith and Greenhalgh, 2019, p .90). Examples include low-carbon concrete and responsibly obtained timber. Similarly, some policies may require specific construction processes or building materials to meet minimum insulation or energy efficiency requirements. Certain building materials or procedures may be needed to fulfill specific insulation or energy efficiency standards. These guidelines aim to preserve nature and promote environmentally friendly behaviors. It is important to remember this aim even when it is hard to meet these criteria. With local authorities and industry experts, one may design and build environmentally friendly buildings that meet planning rules and have excellent energy efficiency and emission reductions.

Conclusion

In this study, we outlined some of the most significant statistics, offered the viewpoints of CRE enterprises operating in the UK as well as those based in other countries, and provided insights into some of the practical difficulties that the UK commercial real estate market will confront on the route towards Net Zero. The commercial real estate industry in the United Kingdom will face several significant challenges over the next ten years. On the other hand, there will be a wealth of opportunities to reduce the sector’s overall carbon footprint and improve its general sustainability. Amid this age marked by uncertainty and transition, it is essential to focus more on workplaces to ensure economic productivity for the Kingdom, protect the environment, and foster social well-being.

Bibliography

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Johnson And Johnson Company Sample College Essay

Brief company background

Johnson & Johnson is a multinational healthcare company in the pharmaceutical, medical devices, and consumer goods sectors. The company is listed on the New York Securities Exchange with a ticker symbol, JNJ. The current market capitalization is circa 500 billion making it one of the most valuable companies globally. It is a component of the S&P 500. The company has three segments; the Pharmaceutical segment, the MedTech segment, and the consumer segment, which offers various products and services. The author examines JNJ’s financial performance through various financial analyses, such as fundamental and technical analyses. Fundamental analysis involves the evaluation of ratios and other financial metrics, as well as qualitative information, such as the company’s management.

Economic environment

JNJ operates in a highly competitive industry and must continually innovate and develop new products to stay ahead. The company’s robust brand recognition, global presence, and diverse product portfolio maintain its position as a significant player in the healthcare industry. However, JNJ must remain vigilant and adapt to changing market conditions to remain competitive in the future.

Johnson & Johnson (JNJ) is a multinational company serving various healthcare industry segments, including pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and consumer healthcare products. JNJ competes with companies such as Pfizer, Novartis, and Roche in the pharmaceutical segment. These companies have a strong presence in the global pharmaceutical market and offer a wide range of products in various therapeutic areas. JNJ has a strong pipeline of products in development, including medicines for cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases, that help us stay ahead of the competition.

JNJ faces competition from companies such as Medtronic, Stryker, and Abbott Laboratories in the medical device segment. These companies offer various products, including implants, surgical instruments, and diagnostic equipment. JNJ has a strong presence in the orthopedic and cardiovascular markets but faces stiff competition from other players in other segments.

JNJ competes with companies such as Procter & Gamble, GlaxoSmithKline, and Bayer in the consumer health segment. These companies offer a variety of consumer healthcare products, including over-the-counter medicines, oral care products, and skincare products. JNJ has a strong presence in the baby care, oral care, and skin care markets but faces competition from other players in other segments.

Financial performance

A company’s financial performance can be measured by various techniques such as revenues, earnings, and financial using information provided by the company in the annual reports and comparing it with the industry. JNJ has performed well financially over the last three years, as observed in table 1. The table shows that revenue has increased from $ 82.58 billion in 2020 to 94.94 $ billion in 2022. Similarly, net income increased from $ 14.71 billion to $ 17.94 billion in 2022. There was a slight decline in earnings in 2022, as shown by the decline in EBITDA by $ 1.38 billion from the previous year.

Table 1: Financial Statement Items Source: Morningstar.com
Table 1: Financial Statement Items
Source: Morningstar.com

Table 2: Financial Ratios Source: Investing.com
Table 2: Financial Ratios
Source: Investing.com

Financial ratios provide crucial insights into the company’s performance since they provide quantitative figures that can be compared with previous periods or across the industry. Table 2 shows different financial ratios used to analyze the financial performance of JNJ.

P/E Ratio

JNJ’s P/E Ratio TTM (price-to-earnings ratio) is 24.06, higher than the industry average of -47.83. The P/E ratio measures the price investors are willing to pay per dollar of earnings. In this case, JNJ’s P/E ratio is higher than the industry average, indicating that the market values the company’s earnings more highly. It indicates that the company’s stock is overvalued, which indicates investor confidence.

Net Profit Margin

JNJ’s Net Profit Margin 5YA (net profit divided by total revenue over five years) is 16.74%, higher than the industry average of -35.78. The net profit margin measures the percentage of revenue after all expenses, including taxes and interest, have been deducted. JNJ’s high net profit margin indicates that the company is more profitable than its peers in the industry.

Return on Equity

JNJ’s Return on Equity 5YA (net income divided by shareholder equity over five years) is 22.32%, which is higher than the industry average of 12.31. The return on equity measures how much profit a company generates for every dollar of shareholder equity. JNJ’s high return on equity indicates that the company generates significant profits for its shareholders.

Return on Assets

JNJ’s Return on Assets 5YA (net income divided by total assets over five years) is 8.78%, slightly lower than the industry average of 9.78. The return on assets measures how much profit a company generates for every dollar of assets. JNJ’s return on assets is good, indicating that the company is efficiently using its assets to generate profits.

5 Year EPS Growth

Earnings per share is a crucial financial metric in equity market analysis. JNJ’s 5-Year EPS Growth 5YA (percentage change in earnings per share over five years) is 69.89%, which is significantly higher than the industry average of 7.91. The 5-year EPS growth measures the rate at which earnings per share have grown over five years. JNJ’s high 5-year EPS growth indicates that the company is experiencing robust earnings growth.

5 Year Sales Growth

JNJ’s 5-Year Sales Growth 5Y is 4.43%, slightly lower than the industry average of 7.1. The 5-year sales growth measures the rate at which a company’s revenue has grown over five years. JNJ’s sales growth is still positive but growing slower than its peers. This shows that JNJ is in the maturity stage of the business lifecycle compared to its peers, which are in the growth stage. The company’s management should use product innovation and business process reengineering to avoid a decline.

Current Ratio

This ratio measures the ability of a company to pay its short-term liquidity, that is, the ability to meet short-term obligations as and when they fall due. A ratio of 1 or greater is usually considered good, as it indicates that a company has enough current assets to cover its current liabilities. JNJ’s current ratio is 0.99, slightly lower than the industry average of 1.22. This may indicate that JNJ needs some help paying off its short-term liabilities in the short-term since it is less than 1. On the contrary, it also shows that the company’s operational efficiency is at top gear, such that it manages to operate effectively with minimal assets.

Debt to equity ratio

The debt-to-equity ratio shows the proportion of a company’s total debt compared to its equity. A lower ratio is usually better as it indicates a lower amount of debt in relation to equity. JNJ has a D/E ratio of 53.33%, lower than the industry average of 126.68%. This indicates that JNJ has a lower proportion of total debt than its equity, which is considered a positive sign.

Asset Turnover

This ratio measures the efficiency of a company in using its assets to generate revenue. A higher ratio is usually better as it indicates that a company generates more revenue with each dollar of assets. JNJ has an Asset Turnover ratio of 0.51, slightly lower than the industry average of 0.53. This may indicate that JNJ needs to use its assets more efficiently to generate revenue.

Receivable Turnover

This ratio measures how efficiently a company is collecting its outstanding receivables from customers. A higher ratio is usually better as it indicates that a company is collecting its receivables more quickly. JNJ has a Receivable Turnover ratio of 5.92, higher than the industry average of 4.71. This indicates that JNJ collects its outstanding receivables more efficiently than its peers.

Dividend Yield

This ratio shows the percentage of a company’s current stock price that is paid out annually in dividends. A higher yield is usually better as it indicates a higher shareholder return. JNJ has a Dividend Yield of 2.58%, slightly higher than the industry average of 2.33%. This indicates that JNJ provides a slightly higher return to its shareholders through dividends than its peers.

The financial analysis above shows that JNJ generally performed well compared to the industry regarding profitability, growth, and debt management. However, the company’s liquidity and asset turnover are slightly weaker than the industry average. Nonetheless, JNJ is a strong brand, diversified product portfolio, and consistent dividend payouts, which make it a reliable investment option for long-term investors.

Absolute valuation

Absolute valuation determines a company’s intrinsic value based on fundamentals such as earnings, cash flow, and net worth. This includes using financial ratios and ratios to calculate a company’s value regardless of market conditions or share price. Absolute valuation methods include Discounted Cash Flow Analysis (DCF), which calculates the present value of expected future cash flows, and Dividend Discount Model (DDM), which calculates the present value of expected future dividend payments. Absolute valuations are useful for investors who want to determine whether a company’s stock is undervalued or overvalued relative to its intrinsic value.

Dividend Discount Model

It is possible to determine the absolute valuation of JNJ using the DDM. The required values include the cost of equity, the perpetual growth rate, and the expected. The expected dividend was determined using the current and average dividend growth rates. The cost of equity was obtained using the CAPM formula. The expected return is 7.5%, and the growth rate is assumed to be 5%. Using the DDM, the value of the company’s stock can be calculated as follows;

P0= D1/(r-g)

P0 = 4.73/(7.5%-5%) = 189.04

The actual stock value is $ 165.15. Compared to the estimated value of $ 189.04, the stock is overvalued.

Relative valuation

Relative valuation attempts to determine the value of an asset by looking at how it compares to the valuation of other similar assets in terms of underlying financial metrics such as revenue, sales, and book value. This approach usually involves using multiples like the price-to-earnings ratio (P/E), price-to-sales (P/E), or price-to-book value (P/E) ratio to compare the company’s valuation versus the index. Table 3 below shows the 5YA valuation ratios for JNJ versus the index.

Table 3: Valuation Ratios Source: Investing.com
Table 3: Valuation Ratios
Source: Investing.com

The price/sales ratio compares the company’s market capitalization to its annual revenue. The P/S ratio for JNJ is 4.74 compared to the industry’s 2.24. This implies that investors are willing to pay more for every dollar of JNJ’s sales than the industry. A high P/S ratio indicates that the market has high expectations for the company’s growth potential. JNJ has higher than the average industry ratios for all four metrics analyzed. This suggests that the market has high expectations for JNJ’s growth potential, earnings, cash flow, and assets.

Technical Analysis

Technical analysis involves the analysis of past stock prices using charts to predict future prices. Analysts use charts such as candlestick patterns, Bollinger Bands, moving averages, and RSI, among others, to make informed stock decisions. The researcher compared JNJ’s cumulative stock return with that of the S&P 500, and the results are shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1: Cumulative Return JNJ & S&P 500 Source: Author
Figure 1: Cumulative Return JNJ & S&P 500
Source: Author

Figure 1 shows the patterns for the cumulative returns of the JNJ stock versus the index. It indicates that the company’s stock has outperformed the market. There was a significant decline in the first quarter of 2020, coinciding with the height of the Covid 19 pandemic. Again, there has been a decline from the fourth quarter of 2021, which reflects the current issue of global inflation and geopolitical conflicts between Russian and Ukraine. Apart from the stock returns shown above, the author also utilized other technical indicators shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Technical Indicators Source: Investing.com
Figure 2: Technical Indicators
Source: Investing.com

Based on the technical analysis provided, Johnson & Johnson (JNJ) is a strong buy. The moving Averages indicators suggest that the stock has a generally positive trend, with the 20-day moving average crossing over the 50-day moving average and both pointing upwards. The Relative Strength Index (RSI) of 73.397 is above the threshold of 70, indicating that the stock is currently overbought. However, this suggests strong buying pressure in the market, leading to the current uptrend. The Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) indicator of 2.44 also suggests a bullish trend.

Investment Recommendation

Johnson & Johnson (JNJ) is a strong buy stock. JNJ is a large and well-established company with a market capitalization of $500 billion and good revenues and earnings annually. The fundamental analysis using financial ratios and other metrics shows that the stock has outperformed its peers. The valuation ratios indicate that the stock is over-valued, which suggests a high buying pressure.

JNJ also has a relatively low beta of 0.536, which indicates that its stock price is less volatile than the overall market. In addition, JNJ pays a dividend with a yield of 2.97%, which is attractive to investors seeking income. The stock is suitable for long-term investors who want to buy and hold. The holding period return is substantially higher than the S&P 500 index.

References

Johnson & Johnson (JNJ) Financial Ratios. (n.d.). Investing.com. https://www.investing.com/equities/johnson-johnson-ratios

Morningstar, Inc. (2023, April 7). Morningstar, Inc. https://www.morningstar.com/stocks/xnys/jnj/valuation

Morningstar, Inc. (2023b, April 7). Morningstar, Inc. https://www.morningstar.com/stocks/xnys/jnj/financials

Johnson and Johnson. (n.d.). 2022 Annual Report Johnson and Johnson. JNJ.com. Retrieved April 9, 2023, from https://www.investor.jnj.com/asm/2022-annual-report