Analysis Of Olivia Rodrigo’s “Get Him Back” Song


Olivia Rodrigo’s “Get Him Back,” which joins the U.K. Top 40 on November 1, 2023, explores the intricacies of post-breakup feelings. Rodrigo’s sorrowful lyrics and expressive voice highlight the subtle effects of lost love. The song depicts the explosive mix of love, loss, and longing, brilliantly expressing the emotional rollercoaster that follows a separation. Rodrigo’s natural voice portrays yearning and genuinely dealing with the fallout. It is a relatable anthem about post-breakup feelings. This demonstrates Rodrigo’s profound understanding of the many sides of the human experience. Thus, this analysis seeks to untangle the emotional complexities of Olivia Rodrigo’s “Get Him Back,” delving into its storytelling, vocal expression, instrumentation, and lyrical nuances to expose its depiction of post-breakup inner suffering.

Background Context

“Get Him Back” portrays Olivia Rodrigo’s sincere exploration of the various emotions of a breakup(Mali, 2023). Lines like “He argued with me about everything” vividly convey the turbulent aftermath. This shows universal feelings of post-breakup anguish. Rodrigo’s honest testimony goes beyond storytelling. It, thus, delves deeply into the complexities of loss and offers genuine insight into her journey. She co-wrote “Get Him Back” with Nigro and discussed its inspiration in an interview with Zane Lowe for Apple Music. Rodrigo detailed her post-“Sour” experiences. This included feeling obligated to meet standards and making choices she could later regret. Teasers and reveals around the single, from enigmatic video teasers to the unveiling of the tracklist, have spurred anticipation for its release as part of the album “Guts” on September 8, 2023, via Geffen Records.


Concerning instrumentation, this song is a minimalist musical arrangement with delicate acoustic sounds. The song’s foundation is based on modest acoustic guitar strumming, creating an intimate sound backdrop. This choice allows Olivia Rodrigo’s vocals to shine, making them the track’s focal point. The acoustic foundation creates a mood that blends seamlessly with Rodrigo’s passionate delivery, allowing the genuine emotions embedded in the words to take center stage(Mali, 2023). The simple instrumentation serves as a canvas, accentuating the depth of Rodrigo’s vocals and the melancholy story of the song.


Also, Olivia Rodrigo’s song “Get Him Back” follows a traditional verse-chorus-verse structure, allowing her to express her emotions effectively after a breakup. This style allows for a slow progression through each stage of her emotional journey, giving listeners a clear narrative arc (Taylor, 2023). The chorus repeats as a pattern, highlighting the song’s central theme of desire and reflection. It acts as a familiar, reassuring element in the song, anchoring the listener in Rodrigo’s changing emotional picture. This structural arrangement allows for a smooth transition between the verses and the recurrent chorus, increasing the overall impact of the song’s story.


Furthermore, Olivia Rodrigo chooses an emotionally charged, stripped-down acoustic ballad for “Get Him Back,” which is consistent with her unique style. Her style is based on sincerity and sensitivity, both present throughout the tune. Rodrigo’s storytelling ability emerges in the song’s expressive lyrics, creating an intimate and accessible narrative for her audience (García López, 2023). This creative orientation reflects her established persona, allowing listeners to relate deeply to the feelings she depicts. The acoustic-driven arrangement’s minimalism wonderfully matches Rodrigo’s empathetic storytelling, creating a simple musical space in which her vocals and lyrical profundity shine. This seamless style demonstrates her musical prowess and confirms her ability to write emotionally charged songs that genuinely connect with audiences.


Regarding expression, Olivia Rodrigo’s vocal delivery of this song is a masterclass in expressive expression. Her performance spans a range of emotions, perfectly expressing the core of the song’s lyrical complexity. Rodrigo’s voice oozes vulnerability, infusing each phrase honestly and drawing listeners into the depths of her emotional journey. From moments of grief to flashes of frustration, her vocal subtleties seamlessly mimic the contrasting sensations depicted in the words (Taylor, 2023). Her voice is expressive and resonates with people as she navigates the complexities of post-breakup upheaval. Rodrigo’s ability to portray genuine emotion through her singing strongly connects with the audience, encouraging empathy and understanding. Her passionate delivery adds complexity to the story, transforming “Get Him Back” into a riveting emotional experience long after the song ends.

Time and Place

Concerning time and place, Olivia Rodrigo’s “Get Him Back” explores the emotional aftermath of a separation that transcends time and geography (García López, 2023). Its examination of post-breakup emotions – agony, longing, and contemplation – resonates universally, regardless of era or region. The song avoids specific references, allowing listeners to recognize their experiences reflected in the narrative, building an emotional connection that transcends time and location. It is a timeless portrayal of human interactions reverberating across decades, nations, and boundaries, forming an intimate bond that binds listeners together via shared emotional experiences.

Lyrics, Language, and Meaning

Olivia Rodrigo’s “Get Him Back” creates a rich tapestry of emotions, capturing the turbulent aftermath of a shattered love. Rodrigo navigates the maze of conflicting sensations that define the post-breakup period with evocative lines, providing a vivid image of inner upheaval and introspection.

The lyrics cover a wide range of emotions, including a sad blend of longing and wrath that reflects the complexities of human emotions in the aftermath of heartache. Lines like “So I miss him some nights when I am feeling depressed” express the raw sensitivity of missing someone, no matter how much misery they inflicted. This attitude contrasts with the ambivalence in “Do I Love Him? Do I Hate Him? I Guess It is Up and Down,” emphasizing the confusion and emotional strife that frequently accompany a breakup (Taylor, 2023). This combination of need and uncertainty deepens the song’s emotional terrain, resonating with listeners who have faced the intricacies of post-breakup feelings.

Likewise, amidst these competing emotions, the sentence “He argued with me about everything” establishes the relationship’s combative nature. It reveals the continual arguments and underlying tension that plagued the partnership, foreshadowing the unhappiness and strife that eventually led to its dissolution. This line is a sharp reminder of the relationship’s dysfunctional dynamics, heightening the song’s emotional impact.


Moreover, the melody in “Get Him Back” is a beautiful compliment to Olivia Rodrigo’s passionate tale. It results in a riveting narrative that heightens the song’s emotional effect. The melody is supported by a stripped-down acoustic accompaniment, which allows Rodrigo to navigate complex emotional territory. It becomes her guide. Thus, this allows her to articulate the nuances of her breakup through subtle, emotional notes. The chorus’s melodious repeat of “I wanna get him back” is the song’s emotional foundation. Its simplicity and repetition heighten the emotional impact of Rodrigo’s contradictory ambitions (Willman, 2023). Each occurrence of this sentence exacerbates her inner distress, echoing her internal conflict between desiring vengeance and hoping for reconciliation. The melody’s repetition not only underlines the song’s primary topic but also serves as a familiar anchor, emphasizing Rodrigo’s emotional depth and the cyclical pattern of her thoughts.

Beyond the chorus, the melody modulates gently, following Rodrigo’s emotional changes. During verses like “He argued with me about everything,” the music takes on a slightly gloomy tone, matching the contours of her thoughtful lyrics. Its slow rise and fall complement the narrative by showing the relationship’s tension and discontent. The melody’s rhythm matches the emotional beats of the lyrics, heightening their impact on the listener.

Furthermore, Rodrigo’s vocal delivery is carefully woven into the melody, infusing it with various emotions. When she sings lines like “So I miss him some nights,” her melodic phrasing is softer and more introspective, emphasizing the words’ fragility and sorrow (Willman, 2023). In contrast, lines like “I wanna key his car” are given a harder edge, infusing the melody with hatred and frustration.

The melody’s simplicity serves a function other than musicality; it becomes a receptacle for Rodrigo’s sincere expression. Its repetitious nature does not lessen its power but enhances the emotional resonance, allowing listeners to delve deeper into the complexities of post-breakup feelings. Rodrigo’s ability to handle the melody with such emotional skill adds to the song’s realism, giving it an engaging depiction of the internal struggle and suffering that follows the end of a romance. For instance, the second pre-chorus alternates between Fand C5, with each syllable representing a note. Each bar ends with a pause for the background vocals to join in before the final chorus begins.

shows the transcription of the first melody before the chorus.

Figure :1 shows the transcription of the first melody before the chorus.

The outro consists of melismatic humming that follows a similar path as the backup vocal harmony during the chorus, culminating in the unique ‘I wan na’ notion.

Transcription of the Outro Buzzing Melody

Figure 2: Transcription of the Outro Buzzing Melody


additionally, Rodrigo’s delivery in “Get Him Back” deftly navigates the emotional landscape of a breakup (García López, 2023). Her delivery fluctuates significantly to express the complexities of post-breakup emotions, incorporating various articulations to match the internal difficulties depicted in the lyrics.

Rodrigo’s careful enunciation and slightly strained tone portray a mix of rage and resignation in lines like “Yeah, I pour my little heart out, but as I am hitting send,’” This reflects the internal contradiction of sensitivity and hesitancy, underlining the difficulty of moving on after a breakup.

Rodrigo’s delicate articulation evokes meditation and longing in gentler passages, while strong delivery emphasizes resolve or annoyance. These changes enhance the song’s authenticity, connecting with listeners’ emotional experiences.

Tone Color

Olivia Rodrigo’s vocal agility drives the emotional journey in “Get Him Back.” Her verse delivery is quiet and introspective, capturing raw vulnerability, particularly in lines like “So I write him all these letters, then I throw them in the trash.” In contrast, the chorus explodes boldly (Mali, 2023). Rodrigo’s vocals deepen, echoing determination with the repeated “I wanna get him back.” Layered percussion, ranging from sharp claps to solid drum beats, heightens the chorus in this song, enhancing Rodrigo’s emotional narration.


The song features a variety of timbres in vocals and accompaniment. Her vocals shift from gentle, breathy tones in introspective times to more robust, more noticeable tones in the aggressive chorus, adding to the song’s emotional complexity (García López, 2023). The track moves through dynamic shifts, from subtle piano melodies to heightened percussive arrangements and vocal layering. The emphasis on percussion tambourines and drum samples provides rhythmic impetus and contrasting timbral layers to Rodrigo’s voice, boosting the song’s tonal complexity and affective power.


In addition, this song uses dynamics carefully to create impact. Subtle dips before choruses build suspense, resulting in solid climaxes. Rodrigo’s vocals range dramatically, from reserved verses to emotionally powerful choruses. Nuanced dynamic changes, particularly between the piano and percussion, add to the song’s richness. These dynamic variations heighten emotional resonance and provide complexity to the musical narrative.


The harmonic essence of the “Get Him Back” song revolves around a recurring C minor chord sequence reflected in the consistent piano loop. Harmonic depth grows as the chorus progresses, revealing exquisite vocal harmonies, particularly in expressive lyrics like “So I miss him some nights when I am feeling depressed.” However, the bridge deviates, bringing complex chord variations, breaking away from prior repetition, and heightening the song’s emotional impact.


The song’s texture changes dynamically, particularly in the choruses. Each chorus builds, layering singers to produce a more giant, more immersive sound than the verses, intensifying the song’s climactic essence. Rodrigo’s vocals are skillfully layered throughout the song, particularly in the choruses, combining various sounds to create a rich, textured vocal arrangement (Taylor, 2023). This textural richness extends to the instrumentation, which begins lightly in the verses and gradually incorporates layers of percussive sounds and harmonies in the chorus, increasing the song’s overall depth and complexity.


The “Get Him Back” has a steady 108 BPM tempo, which provides a stable rhythmic framework suitable for dancing and retaining momentum. When the chorus arrives, it amplifies the pace with rapid drum beats and strong claps, increasing the song’s rhythmic intensity. Rodrigo’s vocal diversity appears in various rhythmic patterns, particularly in the second verse, when she adopts a rap-like delivery while navigating faster-paced, syncopated rhythms, demonstrating her adaptability within the song’s rhythmic environment.


García López, S. (2023). Margarita, the Big Bad Wolf, and the film censor: film, feminism, and dictatorial repression in Spain. Feminist Media Studies, 1–16.

Mali, S. (2023, October 11). The Real Meaning Behind Olivia Rodrigo’s Get Him Back. The List.

Taylor, S. (2023, September 13). Olivia Rodrigo has dropped a new video from “GUTS.” check out “Get Him Back!” Dork.

Willman, C. (2023, October 10). Olivia Rodrigo and Dan Nigro Use Intimate Storytelling Show in L.A. to Recall the “Toil and Jubilation” of Making “Guts”: “I Was Scared.” Variety.

Balanced Curriculum For Holistic Development


Creating an effective curriculum requires rigorous preparation to ensure students study important courses and develop many skills and thinking abilities. Teachers use the curriculum to help students flourish. This quick introduction covers the basics of creating a curriculum combining academics and skills. A solid curriculum meets student needs and modern reality. Critical thinking, creativity, communication, and cooperation are essential for 21st-century success; thus, it values them over memorization.

Clear learning objectives underpin any curriculum. These objectives set expectations for students’ knowledge, skills, and competencies for educators and students—balance topic knowledge and abilities by combining traditional academic content with active learning and application methods. Assessments are essential to curricular success. Students’ content understanding and practical application should be assessed. Performance assessments, project-based evaluations, and collaborative projects let students display creativity, problem-solving, and communication.

The balanced curriculum recognizes children’s different learning styles and requirements. It fosters inclusivity and personalized learning, letting students work on their strengths and limitations. Balancing subject knowledge and talents requires careful preparation, clear learning objectives, innovative teaching methods, and rigorous testing. Educators may help kids excel intellectually and adjust to a changing world.

Four Theories of Education

Traditional Academic Theory

An intellectually stimulating curriculum follows Traditional Academic Theory, which stresses learning a well-defined body of knowledge and important abilities. Based on mathematics, literature, history, and the liberal arts, this approach promotes systematic study to build children’s intellectual foundation. Traditional Academic Theory asserts that a curriculum that fosters intellectual progress emphasizes the systematic study of fundamental academic subjects. Students studied arithmetic, literature, history, and liberal arts extensively. Factual knowledge and critical thinking are taught in this structured approach to grow students cognitively.

This plan would have traditional academics study these key principles to develop a solid intellectual foundation. History shows social growth, mathematics teaches logic, literature fosters diversity and narrative patterns, and liberal arts teach culture. The curriculum smoothly transitions from basic concepts to more advanced and specialized topics, fostering intellectual progress. Traditional Academic Theory stresses foundational knowledge for higher education. This approach assumes a well-defined corpus advances knowledge. Traditional academic disciplines provide analytical and critical thinking for lifelong intellectual inquiry and advancement and a complete comprehension of certain subjects. Traditional Academic Theory provides a disciplined and thorough framework for examining human knowledge’s foundations, fostering intellectual growth.

In this educational paradigm, education should develop intellectual ideas and reasoning while preserving a cultural heritage based on great historical literature. Students display passion by studying classic literature and philosophy that influenced human thought. This technique emphasizes a permanent or essentialist curriculum that gives all students a firm foundation. A Traditional Academic Theory-based high school curriculum can include classical literature, math, and history to build student knowledge. Besides knowledge, Traditional Academic Theory teaches ethics and civic involvement.

Along with utilitarianism, this strategy promotes academic success and independence. The curriculum’s breadth and depth encourage intellectual rigour, academic competency, and global perspective. Traditional Academic Theory holds that education transforms students by giving them intellectual and cultural abilities to contribute to society.

Social Efficiency Theory

The Social Efficiency Theory prioritizes job and social skills over academics. This theory indicates that education should closely match labour market demands to prepare students for work. Social Efficiency Theory says the curriculum is structured with labour market-relevant goals. This alignment emphasizes practical and applied knowledge above theoretical understanding to give students professional capabilities. Industry-specific vocational training is a key Social Efficiency Theory approach. Some jobs require particular expertise from these programs. Information technology, healthcare, and skilled trades training may emphasize hands-on, industry-relevant skills. Students can study theoretical ideas and practical skills related to their careers using this method.

Social Efficiency Theory teaches job-ready skills to boost students’ employability. This paradigm stresses practical skills and aligns educational goals with labour market needs to close the education-employment gap. This approach adapts to the changing work market and equips students for success. According to Social Efficiency Theory, education is a purposeful plan to provide students with the practical skills they need to succeed in their vocations and contribute to society.

The Social Efficiency Theory emphasizes relevant and applicable education to prepare students for citizenship. Students can work together on real-world problems in project-based learning. This teaches workplace-valued skills like problem-solving, creativity, and communication. The Social Efficiency Theory links education to labour market needs. Technology-related courses ensure that students are competent in today’s work market’s new tools and technologies, as well as literacy and numeracy. Social Efficiency Theory states that education creates flexible, talented, and capable workers who can handle modern workplace issues. Education imparts knowledge and gives people the practical skills they need to live in a changing society.

Learner-Centered/Progressive Theory

Progressive Theory transforms education by prioritizing the learner and promoting freedom, choice, and personalization. This method stresses adapting education to students’ interests, needs, and experiences to promote active learning. A Learner-Centered Theory-inspired curriculum may include project-based assignments, letting students choose topics they like and instilling ownership and enthusiasm for learning.

The learner-centred theory emphasizes a broad, demanding, engaging curriculum with meaningful and collaborative learning. Field trips and hands-on exercises improve understanding and suit different learning styles. Growth, including emotional and experiential learning, is promoted by this idea. Reflective exercises or debates can help students understand their own and others’ emotions, making instruction more complete.

Learner-centred theory views education as a natural development, emphasizing conceptual understanding over memory. Students are encouraged to ask questions, investigate, and critically analyze knowledge in inquiry-based learning. This technique improves cognitive skills and fosters a lifetime love of learning, promoting the idea that education should be fun and vital. Learning-centred theory fosters creativity, autonomy, and a love of learning, developing knowledgeable, enthusiastic learners who can adapt to a changing world.

Social Reconstruction Theory

The radical educational paradigm Social Reconstruction Theory claims that education can reform society, liberate individuals, and remove systematic oppression. This critical philosophy promotes praxis—the seamless integration of ideas and practices to change. Inclusive and culturally relevant courses that address past injustices and better represent diverse views exemplify Social Reconstruction Theory. Students can critically scrutinize society, challenge customs, and actively deconstruct authoritarian structures.

Student participation in their communities is also encouraged by Social Reconstruction Theory. Students apply classroom knowledge to real-world situations through service-learning initiatives. Community involvement helps students improve society and comprehend its difficult concerns. Social Reconstruction Theory challenges the status quo, fights hegemony, and resolves social conflicts through education. Leaders and intellectuals lead movements and fight hidden inequity under this technique. Social Reconstruction Theory emphasizes social movements and popular fronts in creating a just and equitable society and regards education as a powerful tool for revolution and empowerment of the disadvantaged.

Analysis as Applicable in Scotland

Traditional Academic Theory

A normal academic program is based on subjects, which teach important abilities. Think of a secondary school that teaches math, literature, and history individually with specialized instruction. As students earn grades, this scenario progresses from a simple introduction to these concepts to more in-depth assessments. Traditional Academic Theory emphasizes cultural understanding and academic skills to prepare students for employment, which correlates with economic growth, human capital development, and economic skills. The need for certain workers reflects the traditional approach to education, which uses a standardized curriculum to fulfil economic goals.

” Safe and appropriate social attachments and relationships are constantly negotiated during play. As demonstrated through the working definition, play allows children flexibility in their behaviours as they experiment ‘outside of time’.” (2019, Scott-McKie & Campbell)

The curriculum reflects Traditional Academic Theory, which emphasizes discipline-based learning. Secondary education should prioritize academic disciplines, according to this approach. This paradigm teaches academic and cultural skills by discipline to prepare students for careers. Traditional schooling integrates classes to give students a well-rounded education in multiple topics.

Traditional Academic Theory stresses secondary school discipline-based learning. This revolutionary method engages students and helps them understand complex topics by exploring each subject’s knowledge base. Literature, math, history, and science help pupils understand academic subjects holistically by exploring multiple fields. This method illustrates the theory’s claim that education imparts information and cultural values through academic and cultural literacy. Traditional Academic Theory regards education as constantly interacting with issues that increase specialization and depth. Students master academic disciplines using subject-focused learning. This sequential approach promotes the premise that education should build on past knowledge to better academic comprehension.

The method suggests organizing educational goals by subject to achieve results. The conventional academic curriculum prepares pupils for work by discipline. Traditional intellectual Theory promotes professional success by stressing intellectual and cultural abilities in all topics. A well-defined academic program based on Traditional Academic Theory prepares students for their future careers. This shows how Traditional Academic Theory promotes education disciplines. Students receive a comprehensive and structured education that prepares them for academic achievement and career prospects by organizing the curriculum around standard courses.

Social Efficiency Theory

Economic issues, challenges, and advances affect Social Efficiency Theory. According to this view, education provides practical skills and training to meet economic and social needs. Solution-oriented social efficiency theory addresses economic issues. Consider a vocational education program using Social Efficiency Theory to tackle an economic problem in a place with a shortage of trained industrial workers. This curriculum teaches local industry-specific skills. Through hands-on learning, students develop technical and problem-solving skills applicable to local economic issues. We want to create a workforce that boosts regional economies.

“Curriculum for Excellence is designed to transform education in Scotland, leading to better outcomes for all children and young people.” 2009: 4 (Scottish Government).

The specialized vocational education curriculum follows the Social Efficiency Theory, which asserts that education should directly solve societal concerns, particularly economic ones. The curriculum gives students industry-relevant skills to meet the region’s shrinking manufacturing workforce. This proactive approach promotes regional economic growth and community well-being. The program tailors schooling to an economic difficulty to demonstrate the theory’s focus on problem-solving and tying educational successes to society’s demands.

Based on Social Efficiency Theory, the program emphasizes hands-on learning and practical skills. Instead of a standard academic curriculum, this approach emphasizes industry-relevant skills that address neighbourhood economic issues. The program’s departure from theoretical abstraction shows the theory’s dedication to practical, outcome-oriented education that can restore the economy. Social Efficiency Theory supports vocational education’s purpose of revitalizing the local economy by training workers. This theory states that education should address social challenges and prepare students for jobs and economic and social advancement. The curriculum becomes an intentional effort to teach people how to solve economic problems by applying the theory.

The scenario removes a government passage to demonstrate Social Efficiency Theory’s applicability beyond government laws. Its adaptability lets the theory handle economic and social issues in various circumstances. The theory can inform education beyond government regulations by customizing vocational curricula to local demands. Finally, Social Efficiency Theory-based vocational education addresses community economic issues. The theory may promote economic and social development in a changing environment since the program emphasizes practical skills, hands-on learning, and local requirements.

Learner-Centered/Progressive Theory

Learner-Centred/Progressive Theory emphasizes citizenship, identity, and social issues. This approach stresses customized learning, personal growth, and education’s role in developing workforce skills and holistic persons who may benefit society. Progressive education alters values. Consider a progressive, learner-centered secondary education model. The curriculum promotes critical thinking, creativity, and self-expression while imparting information. Students should choose transdisciplinary projects that match their passions over traditional themes. Science, sociology, and economics can help students grasp environmental sustainability. It develops subject-specific expertise and the ability to apply information to complicated challenges.

“The experiences and outcomes also provide the basis for challenge, enjoyment, and progression. Undemanding experiences, such as worksheets, copying, word searches or repeated low-level activities, are unlikely to provide effective tools for learning through the experiences and outcomes; the experiences and outcomes are designed to open up opportunities for active, challenging and enjoyable learning.” (Scottish Government (2008)

The Learner-Centered/Progressive Theory emphasizes human growth and individual learning. This curriculum encourages students to pursue hobbies and confront societal concerns through transdisciplinary projects. This method shows the theory’s dedication to holistic, socially beneficial people. The curriculum’s progressive design lets students interact with themes more dynamically and integrated. This shift from a subject-centric structure lets students build their learning experiences, supporting the theory’s learner-centred approach.

The example shows the education model’s progressive commitment to environmental sustainability and other social issues. Students should use their studies in real life. The approach emphasizes education as a vehicle for social improvement by teaching students how to solve complicated social issues. Students who study social issues together gain skills, identity, and civic obligation. The learner-centred, progressive approach to teaching encourages students to develop a community-oriented identity through teamwork and diversity projects.

Social Reconstruction Theory

Social Reconstruction Theory promotes social cohesion, reduces conflict, includes minorities, and maintains an ideological project/narrative. Addressing socioeconomic inequities, promoting equality, and teaching social responsibility through education promotes social transformation. Consider a secondary school using Social Reconstruction Theory to change social norms and structural inequality. This curriculum goes beyond usual themes to critique historical narratives and society. Students could study how colonization affected indigenous Scottish communities. This integrative research teaches Students about cultural legacy, inequality, and social regeneration. The curriculum encourages pupils to change stereotypes and promote diversity, promoting social responsibility.

“Discussing the availability of tangible resources, all participants reveal they frequently make resources such as worksheets, games and activities, due to a lack of supplies in school.” (McGuinness, 2023)

This supports Social Reconstruction Theory, which promotes education as a tool for change. The curriculum critically examines historical narratives and social institutions to address socioeconomic inequality and promote equality. The deviation from usual issues shows Social Reconstruction Theory’s revolutionary potential. The program challenges cultural norms using transdisciplinary modules instead of topic hierarchy. The ideology advocates using education to change attitudes and fight historical and structural inequalities.

The idea prioritizes minority views by examining colonization’s effects on indigenous Scottish people. These subjects encourage inclusivity and social reconstruction by helping students comprehend cultural legacy and systemic inequities. Critical thinking and interdisciplinary exploration empower students to shape society. According to Social Reconstruction Theory, this technique promotes social responsibility in students. Through critical analysis of historical narratives and social institutions, students become change agents who promote social cohesiveness and reduce conflict. Transformational education that addresses past injustices integrates minority perspectives, and promotes social responsibility is based on Social Reconstruction Theory.

Argument for Which of the Theories of Education Are Dominant

“Every child and young person is entitled to support to enable them to gain as much as possible from the opportunities to develop their skills, which Curriculum for Excellence can provide. Timely provision of support to meet individuals’ needs will enable children and young people to engage with opportunities for skills development effectively.” (The Scottish Government, 2009). The literature shows several educational philosophies, focusing on Social Efficiency and Traditional Academic philosophies. The text emphasizes economic concerns, human capital development, and worker skills. The Social Efficiency Theory says education solves economic and social issues. The Social Efficiency Theory dominates the text’s educational discourse, emphasizing economic growth, workforce preparation, and skill application (Education Scotland staff, 2014). Addressing economic issues shows the document’s pragmatic and practical approach to education, typical of Social Efficiency Theory.

Traditional Academic Theory emphasizes topics and a structured curriculum. In the Traditional Academic Theory, cultural knowledge and academic skills are valued, and subjects are important in knowledge formation. Although Learner-Centered/Progressive Theory and Social Reconstruction Theory are acknowledged, Social Efficiency and Traditional Academic Theories seem more important. The text emphasizes economic and labour issues, reflecting a utilitarian and practical Social Efficiency Theory approach (Priestley, 2010). Traditional Academic Theory emphasizes core academic knowledge and systematic learning. Finally, the article favours Social Efficiency Theory and Traditional Academic Theory. The article stresses economics, workforce skills, and a structured curriculum while acknowledging academic knowledge. This sophisticated combination acknowledges the complexity of education policy and practice and the diversity of educational concepts in context.

Aspects of the Text Reflective of The Political Ideologies, Social Factors or Economic Ideas

“Assessment has a central role to play in the new qualifications. In itself, the shift to almost universal use of graded coursework — i.e. assessment undertaken in the school which contributes to the final mark and grade — signals a significant change in terms of validity of the assessment.” (Education Scotland staff, 2014). The curricular authority text covers politics, society, and economics. A close reading shows how these aspects affect educational structure and curriculum goals. This study uses content and recent history to examine the complex relationship between political, social, and economic factors in education. The text suggests a political climate that values economic growth and national competitiveness. Neoliberal politics emphasizes market-driven policies and individual prosperity in a competitive global economy. The document’s focus on economic skills and strategic economic goals aligns with neoliberal beliefs that education creates a trained workforce to fuel economic growth.

Social cohesion, minority inclusion, and national language recognition show education’s goal for inclusivity and cultural identity. Education helps understand and treat variety, which promotes social unity. Seeing education as a way to improve society shows social well-being. Economics informs economic growth, human capital development, and worker skills. These ideas support economic theories that emphasize education’s role in wealth. Economic determinism supports education as a solution to economic issues and growth.

Given theadaptsmic, political, and social changes, the poem appears to adapt to contextual dynamics. Focusing on economic skills and strategic economic goals may help if the country has had economic problems or moved toward globalization. Political influences on national policy may affect content. Neoliberalism prioritizes profit and success. Alternative, social cohesiveness, minority integration, and national languages may show cultural recognition and inclusion. Finally, political, societal, and economic factors influence the curriculum authority’s content. The country’s sociopolitical and economic backdrop and recent historical changes inform the document’s emphasis on economic goals, social cohesiveness, and cultural diversity.


Education Scotland staff. (2009-2014). Publications to support teachers.

McGuinness, F. (2023). All Young People of Scotland Will Flourish Under Curriculum for Excellence: Mainstream Primary Teacher Perception of Additional Support Need Resources in Curriculum for Excellence. The Journal of Advancing Education Practice.

Priestley, M. (2010). Curriculum for Excellence: transformational change or business as usual?

Scott-McKie, L., & Campbell, L. A. (2019). Play as a Mode of Capability Development in Scottish Primary Schools.

The Scottish Government. (2009). Curriculum for Excellence: Building the Curriculum 4 – Skills for Learning, Skills for Life and Skills for Work.

The Scottish Government. (June 2008). A Framework for Learning and Teaching. Education.

Bioinformatics Analysis Of A Cancer Microarray Dataset – Medulloblastoma And Subgroups


Genomics is a branch of data science and an intersection of biology, which mainly takes care of cancer research. This research has contributed to various scholars’ understanding of cancer diseases. The study of the genomes’ function, structure, mapping, and evolution characterizes this study area.2 Cancer lab results are studied and analyzed in this study by analyzing cancer microarray datasets. The focus of this analysis is on the Medulloblastoma. Focusing on Medulloblastoma mainly aims to show a great understanding of the bioinformatics procedure used in gene expression profiling, subgroup discovery, 1, and validation of the identified subgroups through a machine-learning classifier.

The workshop on “Microarray Analysis and Application to Cancer” has given insightful ideas on the complicated nature of the Medulloblastoma transcriptomic microarray dataset, which shows interesting subgroups. The “Gene set identification and annotation” workshop followed, which gave insights into identifying genes that show variations in expression. This workshop helped me identify the molecular insights into each of the subgroups as a student. The third workshop, “Designing and validating machine learning classifiers, introduced the research into a useful external dataset presented by evaluation and classifier developed from the genes.

This report tries to evaluate the biological and scientific procedures involved in gene expression analysis, three subgroup discoveries, and classifier identification, which were involved in this research. To fulfil our learning objectives, this report focuses on showing comprehension of the bioinformatics analysis of cancer datasets. It includes the results from different practicals and workshops. The final collection will comprehensively describe a microarray collection of cancer transcripts. The structure of this report starts with an introduction, a section on the subgroup discovery, four and a third section on the differentially expressed genes, the classifiers, and their application in the real world, and finally, the report conclusion.

Subgroup Discovery

There are several ways to use data to show four groups, but not five. One of the ways to perform this is through creating a frequency distribution table. Creating a frequency distribution table helps divide massive data, making the information accessible and easy to comprehend for the four groups. The type of table that will be created is the grouped frequency distribution table, which allows the researcher to group distinct groups of data regardless of the data gathered. The range of data can also be determined easily by creating a frequency distribution table.

There are several ways to explain the data. One way to interpret the data is through statistical analysis. Through statistical analysis, a researcher can visually represent the data being analyzed. The observations of the statistical analysis also help illustrate the data being analyzed. The second way to explain the data is through sociological experiments. The sociological experiments aid in describing situations and drawing the necessary conclusions while making the necessary inferences about the data being analyzed. Finally, there is data computation through advocating for the necessary procedures to comprehend relevant data.

There are several ways to conclude that it’s group 4 instead of group 3 or 5. The conclusion involves understanding the different subtypes and their allocation to the common t-SNE visualization. Out of 1501 samples, additional analyses of the performed subtypes were split, leading to the final consensus technique of the t-SNE. Overall, the conclusion was derived from groupings whereby groups 3 and 5 had cohorts NMF, t-SNE, and SNF, which differed from group 4.

Differentially Expressed Genes

It is essential to understand the nature of the patterns of gene expressions in the field of cancer genomics. Further than identifying the subgroups, the molecular nature of Medulloblastoma is only described clearly when we give attention to Differentially Expressed Genes, also known as (DEG) together with a deep comprehension of the biological mechanisms behind the aggressive disease, cancer.8 A complex symphony of gene activity characterizes the distinct stages of Medulloblastoma, each marking a considerable chapter in cancer development. The subsequent section in my report shows the proceeds through the process stages. It identifies and interprets the nature of the Differentially Expressed Genes together with the process of their development.7

The genomes develop continuously as we proceed from stage one to stage four. During this development stage, some genes become more prominent than others.11 It’s at this point where the malignant genes can be noticed. The molecular tree map that results from identifying the Differentially Expressed Genes at each stage of the development guides us through the intricate environment of the cellular functions and the signalling waves.7 Therefore, this part of the report explains how the disease develops at the genetic level. One of the most effective ways of classifying the Differentially Expressed Genes according to their biological functions and molecular roles is Gene Ontology (GO).6 The classification reveals a summary of the molecular process that the genes undergo, showing a possible explanation for the process resulting in the development of Medulloblastoma.19 This process helps us to connect the dots, linking the gene expression patterns to the functional symphony of cancer.10 We can identify the connection between molecular changes and biological functions through Gene Ontology.9 The complex nature of the Differentially Expressed Genes provides a basis for identifying potential targets for treatment strategies. At this point, developing targeted medicines specific to each subgroup is essential.

According to the Volcano Plot above, the Differentially Expressed Genes are shown in red.

Differentially Expressed Gene knowledge plays a vital role in understanding the molecular biology that happens so that cancer may develop. In this context, under-expression and over-expression of genes give essential information about the development of cancer, the stage of the cancer, and the possible medicine needed to start combating the disease. Group 1 genes are related to morphogenesis and help give insights into the stage of tumour development. The changes in cellular development are studied and become noticeable when the people involved look at the changes. Morphology shows the changes in the genes, which helps researchers to conclude that the cells are abnormal.

Consequently, group 4 cells show great spontaneous activity in cancer development. The group 4 cells show a higher cell differentiation, including neural relocation, inside the cancer microenvironment. Different gene expression patterns in the groups show the various stages of the cancer. Group 1 cells are always standard in the first stages of tumour development. Group 4 cells show how the cells behave in the later stages of the malignant cells’ growth.

Genes that are underexpressed or overexpressed are critical players in the critical molecular functions that result in disorders that involve their dysregulation, which is connected to a broad group of diseases. Comprehending underexpressed and overexpressed genes has become a key component in cancer research that helps researchers know about tumour biology. The knowledge is essential in understanding treatment for the tumours associated with abnormal genes. WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4 are the well-known subgroups that are responsible for brain tumours, which are malignant growth that mostly affect children.

Classifier and External Dataset Application

Cancer research is a complex field that requires detailed knowledge in classifying the cells suspected to be changing due to malignant growth. This research point involves using machine learning classifiers as a valuable tool that helps identify the complex patterns in the transcriptome microarray dataset for Medulloblastoma.17 To better understand and classify the Medulloblastoma subgroups, we explored the verification, use, and creation of a classifier built around the Differentially Expressed Genes at this point in our research.5 The classifier is a computational detective analysis trained to identify slight differences in the gene mutation that might not be visible in a typical identification process. It emerges from the challenging atmosphere of bioinformatics, where algorithms are improved to identify patterns corresponding to the subgroups discussed above within the specific dataset. The classifier’s effectiveness depends on its capacity to distinguish the subgroups and perform satisfactorily, providing dependable information for the medics to decide on the cancer stage.

The classifier is tested by connecting to an external dataset, which helps widen the scope beyond the initial dataset, allowing one to learn more. The most crucial stage of the process is confirming the classifier’s robustness and how accurately it groups the Medulloblastoma subgroups in several genomic environments.12 In this validation process, the report examines the classifier’s performance in a different context and shows how it performs as per expectation. We have to investigate the drawbacks and the strong points of the classifiers. The report examines the classifiers’ sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, comprehensively understanding the classifier’s usefulness and functionality. 14

Picking a suitable machine learning classifier is essential for precise, accurate, and dependable predictions regarding cancer cell diagnosis from the data sets. We will look at the chance that the chosen classifier is dependable. We will develop on the fact that the required classifier had been trained initially using data sets, which included the patient clinical history, patient demographics, and gene expression levels. We are going to test the classifier using other sets from the people who are undergoing a diagnosis. The chosen classifier has to show resilience by accommodating different fluctuations. The classifier’s effectiveness can be established when the new set of data shows a high level of efficiency, accuracy, and precision in the new data set.

When using R as a programming language in machine learning, finding the most refined classifier is tailored by the best cost, 0.0312 5 (2^-5). The most efficient way to improve the classifier is to control the cost parameter that has been found. Assessing the classifier’s performance on the data from group 2 shows a significant finding that all the numbers are offered in a visible diagonal way, meaning that group one data was analyzed with a high level of accuracy. However, group 1 needs classifications and shows a possible chance of overfitting. To correct the overfitting, cross-validation is applied, which is used to guarantee the classifier’s performance.

A classifier’s dependability and generalizability are evaluated when applied to fresh, untested data. This study used a unique dataset with 160 metagene-specific probes to assess the classifier’s effectiveness. The goal was to determine if the classifier could identify four subgroups in this test dataset. Referred to as the “test predictor,” the classifier was utilized to predict the categorization of the new dataset using the Affymetrix human genome U122 plus 2.0 array. Given the similarities to the paper’s analysis of 76 pediatric Medulloblastoma samples and the discovery of four expression classes, whether our classifier can correctly identify these four expression classes using the same array emerges from the confusion matrix, which indicates the specific misclassification in the event of one. If the classifier predicts G4, it is most likely G4. If it means G3, it is most certainly G3, although it is also conceivable that G4 will occur; these two groups may overlap. Upon generating the Cohen’s Kappa, the accuracy score of 0.8958036, or 89%, can be obtained. When we compare our findings with theirs, we can determine the location of the misclassification thanks to the heat map.

Five mismatches are shown on the heat map above.

Principal component analysis indicates if the expected groups fall in the correct locations. There are instances where the green and yellow dots are misclassified. Contamination due to misclassification might result from experimental issues. If the tumour is in a transitional stage, which is in between stages 1 and 2, it may be misclassified, the biopsy may be dissected incorrectly, and the results may be messy if the tumour is half stage 1 and a half stage 2.21


Assessing the relative contributions and interactions of the diverse groups is vital. The consensus subgroups, clinical factors, and novel subtypes are essential in understanding the concerted molecular features, like the whole chromosome and focal cytogenetic aberrations. The careful observations of the different subtypes are adequate and aid in distinguishing between them and identifying any malignancy from the gathered data. The report was critical in showing the genetic activity and how the cells coordinate in the development of Medulloblastoma. A machine learning classifier is essential to relieve this disease’s pain in the medicine specification. After applying an external dataset, confirming and establishing its effectiveness is essential. The Medulloblastoma genomic environment analysis helps to venture into a world of knowledge and research that helps relevant stakeholders know more about the disease. As evidenced above, using R, a statistical analysis language, is a powerful tool to help sort and identify the genetic differences underlying the cells being studied. The R programming tool makes understanding complex techniques and statistical analysis more accessible. It makes it easier to identify our four subgroups: WNT, SHH, Group 3 (Grp3), and Group 4 (Grp4).


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