Analysis Of Perceptions Of Long-Term Care Homework Essay Sample

Long-term care is a major site for people who have severe chronic conditions and are close to death. However, most people do not enter long-term care sites willing to receive end-of-life care, and many older persons stay at home to receive their long-term care (Sussman et al., 2019). According to Pratt (2015), the greatest need in our long-term care system is operating in a highly efficient and cost-effective manner. The reason for that is the character of third-party payers that has become much more restrictive when it comes to the costs they are willing to pay (Pratt, 2015). Our long-term care system is associated with both benefits and challenges that are revealed to any recipient of long-term care. The most significant advantage of our long-term care system is that it is now involved in substantial healthcare networks, meaning that people can now choose from a wider variety of healthcare providers (Pratt, 2015). However, healthcare providers nowadays have to care about their financials, costs associated with their work, advertising, reimbursement, and other similar things (Pratt, 2015). Thus, people can meet unqualified commercial healthcare providers in the long-term care system.

The ideal long-term care continuum is difficult to describe as many significant elements should be addressed. However, some specificities can be discussed to define the long-term care continuum as an ideal one. According to Sussman et al. (2019), long-term care services are mainly required when a patient has some ongoing disabilities, including both cognitive and physical impairments and loss of functions related to daily living. Therefore, the ideal continuum of long-term care, or the one close to perfection, is created when the patient (or patients) are provided with everything they need to address their current condition comfortably.


Pratt, J. R. (2015). Long-term care managing across the continuum. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sussman, T., Kaasalainen, S., Lee, E., Akhtar-Danesh, N., Strachan, P. H., Brazil, K.,… & Young, L. (2019). Condition-specific pamphlets to improve end-of-life communication in long-term care: staff perceptions on usability and use. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 20(3), 262-267.

Navy Development In Ancient Egypt, Greece And Rome


This essay argues that, while the leading powers of the archaic period eventually came to acknowledge the necessity of a strong navy, each of them demonstrated a separate range of factors contributing to the process. The list of examined nations includes Egypt, Greece, and Rome in their ancient periods. The Mediterranean Sea was at the intersection of these countries’ zones of influence. However, they pursued different routes on the path to a strong maritime presence.

For Egypt, control over its bodies of water was a matter of national survival in a difficult environment. Irrigation by the waters of the Nile, combined with occasional commercial activities in the Mediterranean, provided the kingdom with the required resources. In Greece, the maritime presence was conditioned mainly by economic factors, as the primary link between city-states divided by the terrain. In addition, the dominant poleis relied on their fleets for the purposes of defense and domination. Finally, for the Roman Empire, the creation of a strong navy became the gateway to expansion and glory. At the same time, maritime operations enabled efficient logistics within the vast Empire.

Historical Perspective

Ancient Egypt

In order to review the factors, which contributed to the development of ancient civilizations’ marine power, it is vital to establish a clear historical context. Ancient Egypt was one of the dominant nations of its time, which encompassed the period from – to – (Van De Mieroop, 2021). The nation could be considered one of the superpowers of the era due to the development of sciences, arts, architecture, and ancient technology. From a geographical perspective, the kingdoms of Ancient Egypt occupied massive territories in Northern Africa, and the nation was mainly land-based.

Nevertheless, the lives of Ancient Egyptians remained inseparable from the kingdom’s main bodies of water. First of all, while the territory of the nation was considerable, most of its population was condensed along the basin of the Nile (Figure 1). The legendary river served as the key artery and played a role of paramount importance in Egyptian culture, mythology, and folklore.

From a practical point of view, the Nile remained a convenient transportation route, as it was much easier to carry people, including soldiers, construction materials, and food by water than through a deserted landscape. In addition, the northern borders of Ancient Egypt were marked by the southern banks of the Mediterranean Sea, which was the intersection of the most developed civilizations of the time.

Ancient Greece

Greece is one of the primary aspects associated with the archaic period of civilization. Its development comprises a rather long period from the 12th century B.C. to the beginning of the 7th century A.D. Throughout its history, Ancient Greece underwent major transformations in terms of its territory and internal organization. Notwithstanding these changes, the nation is always closely connected to the sea. The Greek mainland is mountainous, which prompted its inhabitants to move closer to the shore of the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas (Lovano, 2019). Furthermore, a considerable portion of the Greek territory comprised multiple islands scattered across these bodies of water (Figure 2).

Therefore, water transportation was a key aspect of life and a matter of national security and prosperity. Lovano (2019) mentions that the advancements of Ancient Greece served as the foundation for the latter stages of humanity’s development. Democracy, natural sciences, and the arts of the world have been largely inspired by the Greek legacy. The Navy is another crucial feature of Ancient Greece’s influence, as the seafarer’s expertise contributed to the nation’s prosperity while setting the direction for future development.

Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome has rightfully claimed a place among the most significant nations in the history of the Earth. The civilization, which stemmed from the city of the same name, shortly expanded its influence to immense territories. Romans dwelled on the scientific and military expertise of their ancestors and prior civilizations, namely Greece, and developed them even further. As a result, the nation eventually became one of the largest and strongest empires in the world’s history (Zoch, 2020).

Sea travel and the navy played a pivotal role in the strength of Ancient Rome. Historically, the core of the Roman civilization comprises the Italian Peninsula, but conquest and diplomacy allowed the Empire to extend its frontiers by a fine margin. At its peak, Rome controlled the entire Mediterranean Sea, from Northern Africa to Europe and the Middle East, which was only possible through immense marine expertise (Figure 3). In addition, the Roman civilization incorporated the benefits of water into the country’s life.

Aqueducts and canals of the Empire have redefined water supply and irrigation, introducing a new era the humanity’s development. These achievements, along with the profound knowledge of ship construction and navigation, have remained impressive until today.

Characteristics and Development of the Navy

Ancient Egypt

The history of ancient Egypt comprises many centuries, during which the nation experienced significant changes. At certain points, it dominated the Mediterranean region and its vicinity, whereas, during other periods, Egypt was subjected to the influence of other civilizations. Nevertheless, the core factors, which prompted the development of the nation remained mostly unchanged. The Nile is one of the main features generally associated with the Egyptian civilization.

As such, the entire course of the kingdom’s development was projected in regard to the influence of one of the world’s mightiest rivers. Egyptian towns, villages, and temples spanned across both banks of the Nile, and its valley became the center of the nation. This status is enabled through irrigation, which played a particularly vital role (Haug, 2017).

Most of the country’s territory was occupied by infertile deserts, which makes Ancient Egypt’s attraction to large bodies of water natural. Floods on the Nile provided the nation with sufficient irrigation, enhancing its otherwise poor agricultural capacity. In a way, Egyptians became the world’s pioneers of irrigation and large-scale agriculture.

Therefore, the nation depended heavily on the Nile and its properties, which explains the respect for the river embedded in Egyptian myth and chronicles. In addition to ensuring the kingdom’s sustenance through irrigation, the Nile also was the primary transport artery. Egyptians relied on it for transportation, especially during the construction of the famous pyramids and immense temples.

However, the nation also boasted expert seafarers, who embarked on long voyages through the Mediterranean and the Red Seas. However, sea travel was mostly a matter of necessity for Egypt which experienced a natural shortage of certain raw materials (Khalil, 2019). Therefore, the pursuit of new modes of trade instigated the naval expertise of Ancient Egypt.

In fact, the development of the country’s navy also depended on external contacts, as well as natural factors. Khalil (2019) mentions that the fleet of Ancient Egypt became particularly strong during the period of Ptolemaic Alexandria. At that time, the kingdom had “2,000 barges propelled by poles, 1500 galleys, warship, and 800 cabin ships” (p. 13).

Archaeological findings suggest that the construction of the Egyptian vessels varied from the medieval and modern understanding. Instead of having a skeleton for internal support, most ships of Ancient Egypt were built with a single hull. It appears nearly impossible to state whether a similar construction was used for all types of vessels. Nevertheless, despite the unusual composition, the Egyptian navy remained capable of prolonged missions, as well as effective defense of the nation (Westphalen, 2020).

According to historical accounts, Ptolemaic Alexandria had a large military harbor, which provided 22 quadriremes and five quinqueremes for the war against Julius Caesar in 48 B.C. (Khalil, 2019). In the peaceful time, the primary purpose of the fleet was to guard the mouth of the Nile, thus defending the gateway to the heart of Egyptian civilization.

Overall, following the aforementioned facts, it appears possible to outline the array of factors, which instigated the development of the Egyptian navy. First of all, due to geographical factors, Ancient Egypt had to utilize the Nile to the full extent. In addition to providing vital irrigation for the kingdom’s agricultural activity, the river remained the key route of transportation. Second, despite the immense influence of Ancient Egypt at its prime, the kingdom still lacked certain resources and raw materials. The necessity of trade with the nations beyond the sea prompted Egyptians to sophisticate their means of naval transportation.

Finally, the navy of the kingdom was closely connected to external relations. From one perspective, the cultural and technological influence of other nations supported the implementation of breakthrough technology and materials. On the other hand, the increasing number of emerging powers in the Mediterranean, namely Greece and Rome, required an enhanced naval capacity. While Ancient Egypt showed significant progress in terms of ship-building and naval operations, it still remained a land-based nation, making it difficult to consider the kingdom a naval superpower of the era.

Ancient Greece

The contemporary civilization owes a considerable number of achievements to the foundation laid by Ancient Greece. This archaic nation provided modern science with extensive knowledge in regards to both theoretical and practical sciences. A significant portion of these advancements found application in the naval activities of Ancient Greeks. As established prior, Greece was surrounded by seas, and much of its territory was based on islands.

Traveling through the mountainous central parts of the country was a challenging task, making it vital to create stable routes across the seas. Accordingly, seafaring in Ancient Greece became a natural consequence of the nation’s geography and terrain (O’Halloran, 2018). Through marine routes, Greek merchants transported goods to other regions and countries, thus promoting economic development.

Simultaneously, in a region with numerous islands, it would be nearly impossible to assert military dominance without an emphasis on the navy. Therefore, sea and marine travel became the cornerstone of Ancient Greece’s economy, security, and general well-being of the nation.

Generally, expertise in navy and seafaring was a vital necessity for Ancient Greece. Furthermore, the civilization had an array of strong enablers, which were utilized in order to meet these needs. Among other fundamental achievements, Ancient Greece boasted considerable advancements in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, and physics. The names of the period’s greatest scientists, such as Pythagoras, Archimedes, and Euclid, are engraved in the annals of history for eternity.

These scientific disciplines are directly related to searing through the advanced means of navigation. Ancient Greeks relied on their knowledge of navigation by stars and the sun, as well as precise mathematical calculations (O’Halloran, 2018). The need for precision was conditioned by natural factors, as well, because multiple islands forming the archipelagos of the Aegean Sea posed a serious danger for vessels (Westphalen, 2020).

The implementation of the emerging scientific principles of the time contributed to the safety and efficiency of navigation. Merchant vessels could deliver the goods quickly, whereas warships provided a timely response to military threats.

For a considerable period of its history, Archaic Greece represented not a single entity but a group of poleis or semi-independent city-states. A powerful navy was one of the pillars upon which rulers of the poleis built their dominance across Ancient Greece. However, as the city-states varied in terms of economic and technological development, the development of Ancient Greece’s navy cannot be viewed as a single phenomenon. Kuciak (2020) explores the matter based on the example of Polycrates of Samos, a grand tyrant of Ancient Greece.

According to historical data, the navy played a pivotal role in Polycrates’ power. Kuciak (2020) notes that it is impossible to know the size of Ancient Greek fleets with precision, as the contemporary historians, namely Herodotus, either exaggerated them or preferred specific, symbolic numbers. Despite the questionable accuracy, Kuciak (2020) asserts that the navy of Polycrates was sizeable enough to complete topical objectives, both internally and externally. Ultimately, this example illustrates another critical factor, which contributed to the development of the Greek navy, which consists of its considerable military capacity.

Ancient Rome

Roman Empire is another ancient superpower, which left a lasting impact on the development of the entire world. The entire existence of this nation can be characterized by relentless expansion, through which the territory of Rome transcended the limits of the Italian peninsula by far. As discussed by Harris (2017), during the first centuries of its growth, the Roman Empire did not exhibit any specific interest in seafaring in the navy.

This idea stems from the works of Polybius, prompting historians to believe that the maritime activities of early Rome were limited to small boats and fishing near the coasts. Unlike the deserts of Egypt or mountain ranges of Greece, the Italia terrain was quite favorable for active agriculture and other vital activities. Accordingly, the Empire did not feel any need for sea voyages until a certain point.

From one point of view, the emergence of Romans’ interest in navy and seafaring can be considered an abrupt change. Harrris (2017) writes that the First Punic War served as the catalyst for this transformation. However, the Roman navy had not suddenly appeared by the year 260 B.C., when it defeated Carthage near Sicily.

Harris (2017) argues that the emergence of the fleet became a natural result of the Empire’s natural ambition growth. As such, already in the late 4th century B.C., Rome possessed the characteristics of an adventurous state with a desire for expansion. Being surrounded by sea, the leading minds of the Empire began to recognize the necessity of a strong fleet as a matter of both survivals in the face of foreign adversity and subsequent expansion (Gambash, 2017). Accordingly, Rome’s imperial ambitions and adventurism became the leading internal force, which contributed to the development of the navy. The First Punic War did not cause interest in the sea but rather reinforced it.

The emergence of a strong, capable navy became one of the turning points for Rome, defining its further strategy. Its role was essential in establishing the Empire’s security against its main rivals. Greek poleis and Carthage could threaten Rome from the sea, making it necessary to respond. Consequently, the military requirements led to a surge in the naval development of the Roman Empire.

It enabled the full conquest of Carthage, as well as the extension of the Pax Romana across the entire Mediterranean region (McGing, 2018). In other words, the combination of internal ambitions and external threats prompted Romans to lay a stronger emphasis on the navy. Ultimately, the largest superpower of the ancient era was created, and maritime domination made a substantial contribution to it.

In this regard, it appears possible to divide the development of Roman naval expertise into two major stages. The maritime needs of Rome did not end with the conquests. The newly acquired provinces of the great Empire demanded stable connections with the centers of decision-making in order to retain control and establish economic efficiency. As most of the territories faced the sea, the fleet remained the primary means of exchange within the Roman Empire (Gambash, 2017).

Along with the famous durable roads, the Roman navy ensured the quick delivery of goods and soldiers across unprecedently long distances. Therefore, the increasing need for a growing empire became another critical factor in naval development. However, the population of the country grew along with its territory, which imposed additional requirements in terms of sustenance and irrigation.

This factor contributed to the emergence of another landmark achievement, consisting of an unparalleled system of aqueducts delivering fresh water to densely populated areas (Deming, 2020). In the end, Romans utilized their ambitions and rich historical heritage to conquer the water in all its domains, both military and civic.


Ultimately, the leading nations of the ancient era followed different paths in their maritime development. The factors, which enabled such a phenomenon, also varied in each case, being conditioned both internally and externally. For Ancient Egypt, the historical attraction to water was strongly associated with the kingdom’s geographical conditions.

The valley of the Nile served as the primary link, uniting the nation. In terms of external affairs, the Mediterranean fleet became the key to ensuring the stability and security of the kingdom’s heart. On the other hand, Ancient Greece had a strong enabler in the form of advanced scientific knowledge. Some of history’s most prominent personalities in mathematics, physics, and astronomy lived in the Greek poleis, providing sophisticated navigation expertise.

While the military factors of navy and fleet were important for Greece and Egypt, their status became unprecedently high in Ancient Rome. As the Empire experienced serious threats from the other side of the Mediterranean, Roman policies recognized the importance of a strong navy. As a result, its fleet became one of the pillars upon which the eternal glory of Pax Romana was built.


Deming, D. (2020). The aqueducts and water supply of Ancient Rome. Ground Water, 58(1), 152–161. Web.

Gambash, G. (2017). Servicing the Mediterranean empire: Non-state actors and maritime logistics in antiquity. Mediterranean Studies, 25(1), 9–32. Web.

Haug, B. (2017). Water and power: Reintegrating the state into the study of Egyptian irrigation. History Compass, 15(10). Web.

Khalil, E. (2019). The navy of Ptolemaic Alexandria. In C. S. Zerefos and M. V. Vardinoyannis (Eds.), Hellenistic Alexandria: Celebrating 24 Centuries – Papers presented at the conference held on December 13–15 2017 at Acropolis Museum, Athens (pp. 13-17). Archaeopress Publishing.

Kuciak, J. (2020). The fleet as the basis for Polycrates of Samos’ thalassocracy. Electrum, 27, 45–66. Web.

Lovano, M. (2019). The world of Ancient Greece: A daily life encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO.

Map of Ancient Greece. (n.d.). Ancient Greece. Web.

Mark, J. J. (2018). Roman Empire. Web.

McGing, B. (2018). Appian, the Third Punic War, and Polybius. In N. Militsios and M. Tamiolaki (Eds.), Polybius and His Legacy (pp. 341-356). Walter de Gruyter.

O’Halloran, B. (2018). The political economy of Classical Athens: A naval perspective. Brill.

Ross, T. (2020). Map of Ancient Egypt. Web.

Van De Mieroop, M. (2021). A history of Ancient Egypt. John Wiley & Sons.

Westphalen, N. (2020). Warfare, ships and medicine in ancient Egypt and Greece. Journal of Military and Veterans Health, 28(2), 18–30.

Zoch, P. A. (2020). Ancient Rome: An introductory history. University of Oklahoma Press.



The Map of Ancient Egypt.
Figure 1. The Map of Ancient Egypt (Ross, 2020).

The Map of Ancient Greece
Figure 2. The Map of Ancient Greece (Map of Ancient Greece, n.d.).

The Map of Ancient Rome
Figure 3. The Map of Ancient Rome (Mark, 2018).

The State Of Foreign Born Latinos In Haiti


The republic of Haiti occupies the western portion of the island of Hispaniola. It shares this end of the island with the Dominican Republic. A significant percentage of the country’s citizenry is made up of Latinos. The population of this group has been growing rapidly over the years. The increase has affected the nation both negatively and positively. Latinos are individuals who are originally from Latin America. The state of the foreign-born Latinos in Haiti is influenced by different factors. They include immigration and policies put in place by the government. The current population of foreign-born individuals in Haiti stands at 48,973 (Tovar et al. 360). The figure is equivalent to 61.7% of the total population. The number of native Latinos in Haiti is 30,392. It is equivalent to 38.3% of the population. The figure shows that the number of foreign-born Latinos in the region is higher than that of their native counterparts. According to demographic reports, the immigrants are engaged in both high-skill and low-skill jobs in the labour market.

In this paper, the author will analyse the state of foreign-born Latinos in Haiti. The author will, among others, highlight the representation of this group in the general population and in the labour market. Their contribution to the socio-economic sector of the Haitian society will also be reviewed.

Foreign-born Latinos in Haiti

Haiti is a low developed country. It is one of the poorest nations in the Americas. The population of this region is also lower compared to that in other nations in America. The presence of a high number of foreign Latinos in the region can be attributed to the historical backgrounds of the nations the immigrants come from. Haiti has encountered numerous natural calamities that have claimed the lives of many people in the region (Elo, Vang, and Culhane 2372). An example is the 2010 earthquake. Many foreign Latinos died in the tragedy. However, their number in the region still remains high. The economy of Haiti cannot support the entire population. In spite of this, availability of jobs is regarded as the main thing that has influenced people to move into the nation. The graph below shows participation of foreign-born Latinos in the labour force by age, sex, and ethnicity as of 2011:

Participation of foreign-born Latinos in the Haitian labour force
Figure 1: Participation of foreign-born Latinos in the Haitian labour force. Source: Elo et al. (2375)

Age Distribution

The age distribution of foreign-born Latinos in Haiti is shown in figure 2 below. Median age of this group is 42 years. That of non-citizens in the country is 39 years. The figures show that the number of old persons in Haiti is high. Having many aged persons in a country is a threat to the economy. The fact that this group is large shows that the economy is growing at a slow pace. Majority of aged persons cannot work effectively to build the economy. Most of them are retired and are not engaged in any economic activity. On the contrary, the youth have a significant impact on the economy, especially when it comes to the development of a nation (Elo et al. 2375). A figure of 73% is high for old people in the society. The fact that the youth make up only 27% of the population is an indication of a dormant economy.

Marital Status of Foreign-born Latinos in Haiti

The graph below shows the marital status of foreign-born Latinos in Haiti as from 1970 to 2009:

Marital status of foreign-born Latinos in Haiti
Figure 2: Marital status of foreign-born Latinos in Haiti (1970-2009). Source: Tovar et al. (360).

The number of married foreign Latinos stands at 24,687. The figure is equivalent to 53% of the total population. Native Latinos make up 47% of the married individuals. The reason for the high number of married Latinos in Haiti is the increased rate of immigration. A rise in the number of marriages has led to an increase in population. However, due to poor economic conditions, the country records high mortality rates among infants and mothers. The deaths are largely attributed to poor medical care. The fact that there are many married foreign Latinos in Haiti is not a guarantee that they live under good conditions. If the economy of the nation was better, then it would be easier for the Latinos to take good care of their families (Elo et al. 2376). Population growth in Haiti continues to suppress the economy of the nation. High population of Latinos in the nation would be advantageous if only the economy would be able to sustain them.

Most people in Haiti, especially foreign Latinos, receive a lot of support from the United Nations. Food and medicine are some of the effects that the country receives to boost its economy. Many marriages in Haiti do not pull through as a result of poverty. Even though many foreign Latinos in the country get married, supporting their families becomes difficult due to lack of income. The economy is stagnant at the moment but the humanitarian caregivers are making efforts to help it grow.

The migration of Latinos into Haiti has various positive impacts on the nation. The growth of this population creates labour for the few industries coming up in the region (Elo et al. 2380). The presence of quick and cheap labour is important in the process of building the economy. The high number of foreign Latinos in Haiti has made it possible for many industries to grow. It is noted that some of the immigrants in this country possess relatively high levels of skills. The presence of highly skilled foreign Latinos plays a major role in the development of the economy. The data touching on age and marital status clearly shows how the economy of the region is affected by foreign Latinos.

Education of Foreign-born Latinos in Haiti

Education is an important aspect of the economy. The number of educated people within a certain region gives an overview of how the economy is expected to behave in the next few years. In Haiti, the number of foreign Latinos with education below the level of high school is 7,055. The figure translates to 17.3% of the total population (Kritz, Gurak and Lee 528). It represents those people in the society who lack the skills needed to build the economy. The number of foreign Latinos with high school education is 13,550. The figure represents 33.2% of the total population. From the data, one can conclude such persons are capable of helping in different ways to build the economy of Haiti (Kritz et al. 528). The number of people who have attended college for a diploma or any other certificate course is 10,899. The figure is equivalent to 26.7% of the country’s total population. The number of foreign Latinos with a bachelor’s degree and above is 9,278. The figure represents about 22.8% of the total population of foreign Latinos in Haiti. The total population and the data indicated are made up of both citizens and non-citizens. The number of native born Latinos who have attained education of between high school and bachelor’s level is 5,137 (Kritz et al. 530). It is only 11.2% of total Latinos in Haiti. From the figures, it is clear that the immigration of foreign-born Latinos into Haiti is of benefit when it comes to education. The graph below represents this information:

Education of foreign-born Latinos in Haiti
Figure 3: Education of foreign-born Latinos in Haiti. Source: Kritz et al. (540).

From the data, it is clear and evident that most of the foreign Latinos in Haiti are educated. Only 17.3% of the total population can be termed as not properly educated. Consequently, it is a fact that a large number of Latino immigrants in the region are educated. However, the number of job opportunities is low. Some of these immigrants move to the area in search of employment (Kritz et al. 530). The economy of Haiti cannot sustain all these educated people in the job industry. As a result, unemployment in the region cannot be as a result of lack of education. The benefits of the education system can only be felt in the nation if the job market can sustain both natives and foreign Latinos.

Participation in the Labour Force

The importance of foreign-born Latinos in Haiti can be seen in their participation in the labour force. The element can tell how much a group of people are involved in growing the economy of a certain region. The number of foreign-born Latinos (both citizens and non-citizens) amounts to 34,714 persons. The number is high compared to that of native Latinos (Tovar et al. 358). The participation of foreign-born Latinos in the labour market stands at 75% of the total population. That of native-born Latinos is 25%.

The number of individuals involved in the labour market can tell the importance of foreign-born Latinos when it comes to the growth of the economy. The figures show that the economy of Haiti depends a lot on the labour of these individuals. The figures concerning education attainment also show that foreign-born Latinos are more educated than their native counterparts (Tovar et al. 359). As a result, it is easy for them to offer their labour to the economy because they are equipped with a number of skills unlike the natives. Education is a motivation with regards to participation in labour. The economy of Haiti is assisted to a large extent by foreign-born Latinos who provide their labour. The graph below shows participation of foreign-born Latinos in the country’s labour market for 2010 and 2012. Their engagement is compared to that of natives:

Participation of foreign-born Latinos in the labour market
Figure 4: Participation of foreign-born Latinos in the labour market. Source: Tovar et al. (360).


The figures above on labour force participation in Haiti provide more information with regards to unemployment in the region. The number of unemployed foreign-born Latinos in Haiti is 5,729. The figure represents 16.5% of the total population of both citizens and non-citizens. The number of the unemployed natives in the country is 2,491. The figure represents 28.3% of the population. By comparing the two figures, one can conclude that the highest number of the unemployed is made up of natives. The difference in the figures is brought about mainly by the aspect of education. The educated natives are fewer than the foreign Latinos and this translates to the unemployment rates (Tovar et al. 359).

From the figures, it can be stated that there is equal distribution of employment opportunities in Haiti. Equal distribution is important to the growth of an economy. In unequal distribution, the natives would have more employment opportunities even though their number is down in terms of education. The figures on unemployment in Haiti can change if the economy grows to accommodate and attract investors (Tovar et al. 359). The graph below relates to the data provided on unemployment and labour force in Haiti:

Unemployment rate. 
Figure 5: Unemployment rate. Source: Tovar et al. (362).

Occupation among Groups

Foreign Latinos in Haiti take up different jobs. The population is concentrated in white collar and blue collar jobs. The group is also represented in the service sector. Most foreign-born Latinos in Haiti are involved in the service sector. To this end, 60% of these individuals are in the service segment. 15% take up blue collar jobs, while 25% are involved in white collar employments. According to the figures, job opportunities in the service sector are many. It is rare to find blue collar jobs. White collar opportunities are more than blue collar jobs (Manuel, Taylor and Jackson 228). Earnings in the different sectors tell the effects of the occupational groups on the economy of the nation. Many people may be involved in the service industry. However, the payment here may be poor. Many natives are also in the service industry. It shows that this sector has both foreign and native Latinos.


The earnings of the employed persons in Haiti clearly show how people are affected by the economy and by unemployment. White collar jobs in Haiti offer 64.7% of the total earnings. Blue collar jobs take up 14.1% of the total wages. The service has the largest number of people. However, it offers the lowest wages in the three job categories. Service jobs involve the educated people in the society. What this means is that they should be paid more. The economy of Haiti, however, cannot be compared to that of other states in America. It is still growing and it cannot offer high earnings to many people within the largest occupation group. It shows that even though foreign-born Latinos are more educated and are willing to provide more labour in the market than other people, they are not rewarded accordingly (Manuel et al. 228).

Earnings are determined by the economy and not by the employer. Economic circumstances force institutions to set minimum and maximum wages at certain levels (Manuel et al. 228). The graph below illustrates the data given about the earnings of Latinos in Haiti for 2012:

Earning of foreign-born Latinos in Haiti
Figure 6: Earning of foreign-born Latinos in Haiti. Source: Manuel et al. (228).

Medical Insurance

The last measure of the status of foreign-born Latinos in Haiti is medical insurance. It is noted that 10% of the total population has medical insurance. The remaining 90% do not have. The same case applies to natives in Haiti (Tovar et al. 359). Foreign-born Latinos (both citizens and non-citizens) are not properly rewarded for their social, economic, and political efforts towards the development of the country. Most of the companies that are associated with recruiting and employing workers have a responsibility to insure them. However, the statistics show that only few workers enjoy insurance benefits. The figures on earnings show that foreign-born Latinos do not fully enjoy their salaries. Their earnings are low. However, this cannot be blamed on the employer.

The economy determines what a company can pay its workers and what types of benefits they can enjoy (Tovar et al. 358). The economy of Haiti is still growing and most employers want to make profits. It will be difficult for them to offer insurance benefits and high salaries and still expect to make profits. The graph below represents the percentage of native and foreign-born Latinos provided with medical insurance in Haiti between 2010 and 2012:

Medical cover for foreign-born Latinos
Figure 7: Medical cover for foreign-born Latinos. Source: Tovar et al. (361).


From the figures above, one can tell how foreign-born Latinos in Haiti are affected by different aspects of the economy. The population of these individuals in other nations is affected differently by prevailing situations. The variations depend on the state of the economy. The economy of Haiti has faced a number of setbacks. It is still developing. Consequently, it cannot sustain all individuals as expected. In light of this, it is not surprising to find low earning workers in the country. High rates of unemployment are also reported among these groups. The development affects the economy negatively.

Works Cited

Elo, Irma, Zoua Vang, and Jennifer Culhane. “Variation in Birth Outcomes by Mother’s Country of Birth among Non-Hispanic Black Women in the United States.” Maternal and Child Health Journal 18.10 (2014): 2371-2381. Print.

Kritz, Mary, Douglas Gurak, and Min-Ah Lee. “Foreign-Born Out-Migration from New Destinations: Onward or Back to the Enclave?.” Social Science Research 42.2 (2013): 527-546. Print.

Manuel, Ron, Robert Taylor, and James Jackson. “Race and Ethnic Group Differences in Socioeconomic Status: Black Caribbeans, African Americans, and Non-Hispanic Whites in the United States.” The Western Journal of Black Studies 36.3 (2012): 228. Print.

Tovar, Alison, Aviva Must, Nesly Metayer, David Gute, Alex Pirie, Raymond Hyatt and Christina Economos. “Immigrating to the US: What Brazilian, Latin American, and Haitian Women have to say about Changes to their Lifestyle that may be Associated with Obesity.” Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 15.2 (2013): 357-364. Print.

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