Analysis Of “Sonnet 18: Shall I Compare Thee To A Summer’s Day?”, A Poem By Shakespeare Free Essay

Introduction

Sonnet 18, written by the renowned playwright and poet William Shakespeare, is regarded as one of his most famous works. In this poem, the speaker attempts to “compare his beloved to a summer’s day”. He starts by stating that his beloved is more beautiful and temperate than a summer day. He also compliments the beauty of summer days, noting that the sun is not too hot or too cold and that the winds are gentle. He then explain why his beloved is superior to a summer’s day, claiming that her beauty will never fade, unlike the summer, which eventually comes to an end. He ends the poem with the line, “So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,/ So long lives this and this gives life to thee.” This line serves to reinforce the speaker’s point that his beloved’s beauty will last forever, whereas the beauty of a summer day is fleeting. Sonnet 18 is a timeless classic that has captivated readers for centuries. Its message of everlasting love is one that will remain relevant for generations to come. Numerous stylistic devices, including imagery, are used in sonnet 18 to explore themes such as love.

Sonnet 18 poem analysis

Shakespeare explores the theme of love in his sonnet 18. The sonnet “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?” is one of the works of William Shakespeare, and it is a perfect example of how he explored the theme of love in his works. Shakespeare expresses his love for the beloved person beautifully and poetically through the poem. He compares the beloved to a summer day and then explains how the beloved “is better than a summer day in every aspect. He says the beloved is more lovely and temperate”, hinting that he is more beautiful and balanced than a summer day (Shakespeare). He then explains that the beloved will never fade or age, unlike a summer day, and that the beloved will always remain in his heart, even after death. He concludes the poem by asserting that his love will never fade and his poetry will stand the test of time, immortalizing the beloved. Through this poem, Shakespeare successfully explores the theme of love by expressing his feelings in a beautiful, poetic way.

The speaker uses “natural imagery to create a picture of the young man’s beauty”. The speaker uses natural imagery to describe the beauty of the young man he is praising. He compares the “young man to a summer’s day; he says that the young man is ‘more lovely and more temperate’ than a summer’s day” (Shakespeare). He talks about how the summer days are too hot and with too much sunlight. He also mentions how the summer ends too quickly, which is a metaphor for the fleeting nature of youth and beauty. The speaker then states that the young man will outlive the summer and its qualities, as his beauty will never fade. He also mentions the elements of nature that accompany summer, such as ‘rough winds’ and ‘dimm’d clouds’ (Shakespeare). The speaker uses natural imagery to depict the young man’s beauty vividly. He compares the young man to a summer’s day but states that the young man is much more beautiful and ‘temperate’ than a summer’s day. He talks about the elements of summer that accompany the heat, such as ‘rough winds’ and ‘dimm’d clouds,’ which are symbols of the fading of beauty. He also mentions how the summer ends too quickly, which is a metaphor for the fleeting nature of youth and beauty. The speaker conveys eternal beauty and love by stating that the young man’s beauty will outlive the summer and its qualities. Therefore, the speaker is using “natural imagery to create a picture of the young man’s beauty”, which is immortal and will never fade.

In addition, Shakespeare explores the theme of immortality throughout sonnet 18. This poem is a timeless masterpiece that immortalizes the beloved in literature. The speaker list the various shortcomings of a summer’s day, remarking on how quickly time passes and how even the beauty of a summer’s day fades. The speaker then states that the beloved’s beauty and worth will never fade. This is an example of how Shakespeare explores the theme of immortality throughout the poem. The poem then claims that the beloved’s beauty and worth will be remembered through the ages, immortalized in the poem. This is expressed in the lines, “So long as men can breathe or eyes can see/So long lives this, and this gives life to thee (Shakespeare).” This speaks of the idea that the beloved’s beauty and worth will be remembered forever and will never fade or die. This is another example of how Shakespeare explores the theme of immortality throughout the poem. Finally, the poem ends with the speaker declaring that people will still be reading and appreciating the poem in the future. This suggests that the beloved’s beauty and worth will be remembered through the ages as long as the poem is read. This is another example of how Shakespeare explores the theme of immortality throughout the poem. By using the idea of immortality, Shakespeare is able to emphasize the beloved’s beauty and worth and ensure that they will be remembered forever.

Shakespeare’s use of hyperbole in Sonnet 18 is extensive and compelling. The poem begins with the poet “asking if he should compare his beloved to a summer’s day”, an obvious exaggeration by comparing a person to compare to a beautiful summer season (Shakespeare). He then says that the summer’s day is too short, too hot, and too rough with its winds, all of which are exaggerations. He further emphasizes the beauty of his beloved by saying that the summer’s day lacks the beauty of her eyes, the harmony of her lips, and the worth of her heart, all of which are far above the summer’s day. He also states that his love is not affected by the changing seasons and not affected by time, which is a considerable exaggeration (Shakespeare). All of these exaggerations and hyperboles help Shakespeare emphasize his beloved’s beauty and his undying love for her. By using hyperboles in the poem, Shakespeare is able to create a vivid and powerful image of his beloved and his love for her.

The structure of William Shakespeare’s poem, Sonnet 18, is instrumental in shaping its meaning. The poem is composed of fourteen lines divided into three quatrains and a couplet. Each quatrain contains a specific thought or argument, and each line follows the traditional iambic pentameter form. By using this structure, Shakespeare is able to create a sense of balance and order, thereby emphasizing the poem’s theme. The first quatrain introduces the poem’s theme: the comparison between the beauty of the beloved and that of the summer season. The second quatrain describes the various aspects of summer that are vulnerable to change and decay, while the third quatrain states that the beauty of the beloved will not fade with time (Shakespeare). The couplet concludes the poem, emphasizing that the beloved’s beauty will outlast that of the summer season. Through this structure, Shakespeare can effectively convey the poem’s main idea. The structure of the poem also helps to convey its tone and mood. By using the traditional iambic pentameter form, Shakespeare creates a lyrical and melodic rhythm, which helps to convey the poem’s romantic nature. Additionally, the poem’s repetition and parallelism further enhance its romantic atmosphere.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Shakespeare’s Sonnet 18 is an exquisite poem about the beauty of his beloved. It is a timeless classic that has lasted for centuries due to its beautiful language and powerful imagery. Through the poem, Shakespeare reiterates the idea of immortality through art and how his beloved will live forever through his words. He states that all the beauty of summer could not compare to his beloved and that her beauty is even more significant than the beauty of nature. Therefore, Sonnet 18 is a tribute to the beauty of his beloved and an immortal love poem that will stand the test of time. The structure of William Shakespeare’s poetry, Sonnet 18, is instrumental in shaping its meaning. Through the use of traditional poetic forms and devices, such as the iambic pentameter and repetition, Shakespeare is able to effectively convey the poem’s central theme and create an atmosphere of romance and beauty.

Works Cited

Shakespeare, William. “Sonnet 18: Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?” Poetry Foundation, 2019, www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/45087/sonnet-18-shall-i-compare-thee-to-a-summers-day.

The Early Dynastic Period Writing Sample

Was the Early Dynastic period the first phase of “history” in Mesopotamia?

The early dynastic period marked a critical phase in Mesopotamia’s history. It saw the emergence of large cities like Uruk and Kish, which displayed the characteristics of urban centers today. The cities had large buildings constructed using the architectural designs of the time. The cities led to significant population growth, revolutionizing social and economic. These cities also encouraged the growth of political systems to govern the people and control resources. Influential cities like Ummah and Lagash controlled neighboring regions and their resources, accelerating growth. The Early Dynastic period in Mesopotamia, characterized by the growth of the first cities, intricate political systems, writing, and record-keeping, was the beginning of “history” in the region because it established the basis for the civilization that would follow. The primary sources from this era have some biases on the historical events in the region. These sources’ strengths, insights, and potential biases must be examined to understand the Early Dynastic period as the first phase of history in Mesopotamia.

History studies past events that have impacted how people live in modern times. It helps scholars understand people, communities, and cultures that lived in the past (Benati 2014). History can be studied by examining primary resources created during the time. Historians also use secondary sources such as journals and books to gain the context of the events. History seeks to understand how and why past occurrences shape the present, helping people determine the future by making informed decisions (Wencel 2016). Additionally, it helps people understand the experiences and points of view of those who lived in the past (Bartash 2015). Consequently, history is not merely a record of past events but a body of knowledge that helps people understand past communities and their cultures.

One of the most notable developments during the Early Dynastic period was the birth of recording through writing. The cuneiform maintained records of economic, political, and legal events. This highly advanced writing allowed people to record sounds and syllables, capturing many current affairs (Van De Mieroop 2016). The invention of writing and record-keeping was a significant turning point in Mesopotamia as it catalyzed the growth of administrative and economic systems. Van De Mieroop (2016) writes that administrative records from this period are significantly more than other documents from the Early Dynastic period. They contain a wide range of easily understood information because they use spoken language by incorporating phonetic and grammatical elements (45). The bulk of these texts can be traced back to the end of the Early Dynastic period indicating that writing became more advanced with time.

In addition to record-keeping, writing allowed Mesopotamians to pass knowledge among communities and time. According to Charpin (2010), writing is considered one of the hallmarks of civilizations as it indicates that a society has reached the age of preserving knowledge for future use. The cuneiform script enabled the people of Mesopotamia to preserve information on technologies, advancing them further (Lecompte and Benati 2021). As mentioned above, the cities in Mesopotamia featured unique architectural designs found in other cities centuries later (Sazonov 2018). The advancement of these designs was made possible by writing. Additionally, Mesopotamia had complex agricultural systems in places like Sumeria, allowing the society to thrive even when others faced drought.

The Cooper readings provide meaningful insight that indicates the Early Dynastic period was the first phase of “history” in Mesopotamia. They outline the events that happened during the Umma and Lagash border conflict. The readings outline the social, political, and economic events that culminated in the conflict. They enable historians to understand the reasons that catalyzed battle in ancient Mesopotamia. They also provide information about the administrative structure of the community and how this shaped the conflict.

The Cooper readings allow for historical constructions of the Umma-lagash conflict and other historical contexts allowing readers to understand the events that transpired. In addition to social, cultural, and political factors, the texts explore the religious aspects of the community and the rulers of Umma and Lagash. The religious records show that Mesopotamia was advanced in religion, and the people worshiped in temples and sanctuaries. The reading state that the king of Lagash built a temple of bricks and named it “Bagar provides justice” (24). From this, historians can infer that Mesopotamia linked religion to justice like many societies do today. The king also authorized the construction of shrines and statues in Gatumdug and Lugalurtur (25). These structures had symbolic meanings, emphasizing the spirituality of ancient Mesopotamia.

The readings also give a step-by-step development of the conflict. The leader of Lugash captured opposing kings and generals and conducted burial rights for them. This is an indicator of the ruthlessness of battle during the Early Dynastic period. Eliminating the opposing forces helped victorious kings gain easy control of the citizens of captured territories and their resources (Nowicki 2016). Although from distant civilizations, the narrations share characteristics with those of battles in recent history (Dijk-Coombes 2018). This allows for historical reconstructions as scholars can relate these happenings to those in similar battles.

The Cooper readings have some limitations and potential biases. The texts are mainly a construct of the leaders of Umma and Lagash. This exposes the texts to one-sided biases as each individual records the happenings in a way that favors their point of view. Consequently, the text might be inaccurate for historical reconstructions and require historians to refer to other sources for guidance. At the same time, the texts might fail to capture the entire context of the events during the Early Dynastic period since they mainly focus on elite conflict. They do not explore the experiences of the lower cadres of citizens, which is vital to understanding a community’s history completely.

Another potential limitation of a primary source is outlined in the course textbook. Van De Mieroop (2016) notes that sources from the third and second millennia outline the experiences of kings. Although they are well-detailed and are popular in modern research, they are unreliable (46). Factors such as that long reigns that lasted more than three millennia make the primary sources suspect because the conflicts during the era minimized the possibility of such long eras.

The Early Dynastic period was an essential phase in the development of “history” in Mesopotamia. Writing and record-keeping facilitated knowledge spread and the emergence of new technologies. It also helped the people of the region to preserve information. The Cooper readings, a primary source highlighting the Umma-Lagash border conflict, provide meaningful insight into Mesopotamia’s political, social, and religious landscape during the Early Dynastic period. However, primary sources have limitations and potential biases. The leaders and administrators of Umma and Lagash wrote the Cooper texts. They might be skewed and reflect the views of those individuals.

Bibliography

Bartash, Vitali. 2015. “New texts from the early dynastic i-ii period*.” Rivista Degli Studi Orientali 88 (14): 119–27. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24754110.

Benati, Giacomo. 2014. “The beginning of the early dynastic period at ur.” Journal of Asian History, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1017/irq.2014.5.

Charpin, Dominique. 2010. Writing, Law, and Kingship in Old Babylonian Mesopotamia. University of Chicago Press.

Dijk-Coombes, Renate Marian van. 2018. “Mesopotamian Gods and the Bull.” Sociedades Precapitalistas 8 (1). https://www.memoria.fahce.unlp.edu.ar/library?a=d&c=arti&d=Jpr9363.

Lecompte, Camille, and Giacomo Benati. 2021. “The Scale and Extent of Political Institutions in Early Dynastic Mesopotamia: The Case of Archaic Ur.” Hal.science. https://hal.science/hal-03333543/.

Nowicki, Stefan. 2016. “Women and References to Women in Mesopotamian Royal Inscriptions: An Overview from the Early Dynastic to the End of Ur III Period.” Studia Orientalia Electronica 4 (April): 36–52. https://journal.fi/store/article/view/47198.

Sazonov, Vladimir. 2018. “Universalistic Ambitions, Deification and Claims of Divine Origin of Mesopotamian Rulers: The Lagaa II Dynasty.” Usuteaduslik Ajakiri, no. 1 (72): 42–58. https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=779493.

The Cooper readings

Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2016. A History of the Ancient near East, Ca. 3000-323 BC. Wiley Blackwell.

Wencel, Maciej Mateusz. 2016. “Radiocarbon Dating of Early Dynastic Mesopotamia: Results, Limitations, and Prospects.” Radiocarbon 59 (2): 635–45. https://doi.org/10.1017/rdc.2016.60.

The Ethical And Legal Implications Of Discontinuing Ventilation For Brain-Dead Patients University Essay Example

Objectives

  • To evaluate the legal implications of discontinuing life support for brain-dead patients.
  • To analyze the emotional impact on medical professionals when withdrawing life support.
  • To examine the moral implications of withdrawing life support from brain-dead patients.
  • To explore the impact of brain death on families of brain-dead patients.

Introduction

The discontinuation of life support for brain-dead patients is a highly contentious issue that has been debated for decades by medical professionals, religious leaders, lawmakers, and patient’s families. The arguments for and against the withdrawal of life support raise essential questions about autonomy, the value of life, the sanctity of death and the rights of families. The moral implications of withdrawing life support are further complicated by debates surrounding euthanasia, the right to die and the use of life-sustaining therapies such as ventilators, dialysis and organ transplantation (Berkowitz et al., 2020). I, therefore, support a thorough discussion between medical professionals and families of brain-dead patients to reach a consensus of what is ethically permissible and what is not, as well as a clear legal framework that allows medical professionals to make informed, ethical decisions promptly. I provide evidence and reasons to argue against the withdrawal of life support from brain-dead patients.

Impact on Medical Profession

The disastrous effects of discontinuing ventilation in these cases can have moral and professional consequences for the medical profession. Research has highlighted the negative emotional impact on a healthcare team after the clinical decision to discontinue life support. A survey of intensive care clinicians revealed that one-third reported symptoms of depression or anxiety after withdrawing life support from a patient (Sulmasy et al., 2019). Furthermore, there are potential legal consequences if the decision to withdraw life support is perceived as unethical or not in line with accepted medical practices. This can result in a loss of professional credibility and negative media attention, which can further damage the trust people have in the medical profession (Lee et al., 2020). I, as a result of this, agree that healthcare providers must be diligent when making the difficult decision to withdraw life support from brain-dead patients. The potential moral implications should never be ignored; they must consider the patient’s wishes, medical best practices, and empathy for their families.

Preserving the Right to Life of a Brain-Dead Patient

The act of withdrawing life support from a brain-dead patient is immoral due to a natural inclination to preserve life in any form. This argument is supported by the legal rights associated with it, as individuals have the right to refuse certain types of medical treatment even if it means giving up their life (Nezamoleslami et al., 2021). Brain-dead patients may still be living and technically alive, as evidenced by their heartbeat and blood circulation. These patients retain some degree of consciousness and thus have the right to life, as it would be wrong to terminate life support services. Therefore the patient’s right to life should remain at the forefront of any decision.

The Impact of Brain Death on Families

In a study by Schwartz (2020), results indicated that families of brain-dead patients are affected in three main ways – grief, difficulty in decision-making, and struggling with different feelings of guilt. The researchers found grief to include “sadness, helplessness, and bitterness”. At the same time, the difficulty in decision-making resulted from conflicting opinions among family members and medical personnel and an overall sense of confusion. Additionally, many had difficulty knowing which decision to make, finding themselves in a difficult situation due to the ambiguity of the situation. Lastly, feelings of guilt were also expressed by family members, with those who chose to terminate life support feeling guilty for making such a difficult decision.

Conclusion

In conclusion, health professionals should be mindful of legal and ethical obligations when making life-support decisions, such as respecting informed consent, providing dignified end-of-life care, and ensuring that resources are distributed equitably. This essay has presented the arguments against discontinuing ventilation in brain-dead patients, highlighting the complexities of such a decision on the patient’s family and the actual life.

References

Berkowitz, I., & Garrett, J. R. (2020). Legal and ethical considerations for requiring consent for apnea testing in brain death determination. The American Journal of Bioethics20(6), 4-16. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15265161.2020.1754501

Lee, S., & Lewis, A. (2022). Brain Death/Death by Neurological Criteria in the United States: What Every Clinical Ethics Consultant Should Know. In Thorny Issues in Clinical Ethics Consultation (pp. 155–163). Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-91916-0_18

Nezamoleslami, D., & Kiamanesh, R. (2021). Brain Death, Challenges Between Reality and the New Concept of Death May Not Be Synonymous With the True Meaning and Need Redefining. Health, Spirituality and Medical Ethics8(3), 191-197. https://jhsme.muq.ac.ir/article-1-263-en.html

Schwartz, A. (2020). Issues Determining Brain Death: The Case for Religious and Moral Exceptions. https://scholarship.shu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2084&context=student_scholarship

Sulmasy, D. P. (2019). Whole-brain death and integration: realigning the ontological concept with clinical diagnostic tests. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics40(5), 455-481. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11017-019-09504-w