EXECUTIVE SUMMARY EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The textile industry is mainly a labor intensive industry as it provides livelihood to the huge population, mainly consist of unskilled workers, thus plays a pivotal role in the development of any economy. As this particular industry also comes under the basic necessities of human beings, it impacts a lot to the society as a whole. There has been increase in demand of textile products in last few decades globally, mainly due to rapidly changing social and economic structure of the countries worldwide.
In past few years, especially after the removal the trade related tariffs and non tariff barriers in 2005, Asian countries such as India, china, hongkong and Japan have emerged as major players in this particular industry, mainly due to their ch eap, trained and easily accessible manpower and low cost of the raw materials. In this particular study of textile industry, we have focused mainly on Indian scenario.
Textile industry in India is a major contributor in the overall development of the economy, it contributes 4% to the GDP and 14% to the industrial production. India stands apart from the rest of the world due to its favorable social, political and economical condition for this particular industry. Moreover India is one of the biggest producer of the cotton in the world and it have a huge pool of young, skilled and cheaper workforce which have enabled India to become one of the largest exporter of textiles products in the world. Since the economic reform of the Indian economy, textile industry has grown with a much faster rate.
As this is export oriented sector, it also helps India to maintain positive balance of payment. Government of India have taken many initiatives to promote this particular industry such as- Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS), National Textile Policy 2000 etc, moreover the removal of world trade barriers have also given Indian exporter a much needed booster. The demand of textile products have also risen domestically as the purchasing power of people have increased over the past few years and even introduction of organised retailing in the Indian market have increased the demand.
The world economy is also recovering fastly from the recession, there is strong indication that the demand of textiles will increase worldwide and this gives India an opportunity to utilize its potential at full extent. In the analysis of this particular industry we have considered the present and probable future global scenario and their impact on the Indian textile industry. We have taken top and bottom 3 companies of Indian textile industry to analyse the trend. We also have considered in our study the impact of current budget to predict impact of this on the future if the textile industry. This have enabled us to have a thorough knowledge of this industry.
The textile industry is very unique in itself because it is an independent industry. It fulfills its own necessities, right from the basic requirement of raw materials to the final finished products. The development of this industry mainly started in the Britain, as the spinning and weaving machines were invented in that country. There were various stages – from a historical perspective – where the textile industry evolved from being a domestic small-scale industry, to the status of supremacy it currently holds.
Textile is a group of related industries which uses a variety of natural (cotton, wool, etc. ) and/or synthetic fibres to produce fabric. It is a significant contributor to many national economies, encompassing both small and large-scale operations worldwide. The classical method of categorizing the industry involves grouping the manufacturing plants according to the fibre being processed, that is, cotton, wool, or synthetics.
The modern approach to textile industry categorization, however, involves grouping the manufacturing plants according to their particular operation. The industrial revolution in the 18th century acted as an incentive for the growth of textile industry, and mass production of clothing was turned into mainstream industry. Later, in the 20th century textile industry gained a rather bad reputation since the labour force was made of immigrants working in illegal “sweat shops”, workers being paid less than minimum wages.
While globalization has contributed to outsourcing the manufacturing process, in those areas where textile trade was common, the focus was later changed to the white collars, and so the industry of fashion design, and fashion modelling have began to flourish. Also known in the United Kingdom and Australia as the Rag Trade, the Textile Industry is concerned with designing and manufacturing clothing items, together with distributing using textiles.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Several researches have been done on the various aspects of the textile industry. Some of these research areas are: According to Nordas ,the report which we have considered has been taken from WTO site. The title of the report is “The Global Textile and Clothing Industry post the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing. ” This report is written by Hildegunn Kyvik Nordas. This report tells us how the textile industry has been affected after the agreements had taken place. The developed countries have “temporarily” protected their textiles and clothing sectors for 40 years.
Among the most distorting measures to have prevailed are import quotas allocated to some, mainly developing countries on a country-by-country and product-by-product basis, while other countries face no quotas. This has led to a pattern of specialization where countries with the strongest comparative advantage for textiles and clothing, such as China and India, face binding quotas, while others receive investment in the sector motivated by unfilled quotas and may well find that these investments are unsustainable in a trade regime based on the principles of the GATT.
Most analyses of the impact of the phasing out of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) conclude that China and India will come to dominate world trade in textiles and clothing, with post-ATC market shares for China alone estimated at 50 per cent or more. It is argued, however, that these estimates only tell part of the story, as they are totally driven by changes in relative prices and cost competitiveness.
The main contribution of the paper is thus to take into account recent developments in the organization of the textiles and clothing sector, where vertical specialization is an important feature. Vertical specialization implies that the inputs embodied in the final product cross borders several times and such trade is very sensitive to the tariff level. Hence the outcome of the phasing out of quotas will depend much more on the prevailing tariff rates and the preference margins of countries receiving such references than is captured by the conventional estimates.
Second, time to market is important and increasingly so, particularly in the fashion clothing sector. Therefore, countries close to the major markets are likely to be less affected by competition from India and China than has been anticipated in previous studies. Mexico, the Caribbean, Eastern Europe and North Africa are therefore likely to remain important exporters to the US and EU respectively and possibly maintains their market shares.
This is even more likely given the preferential access they have to the markets through regional trade agreements. Thus, it is shown in the paper that having a common border with the importer and facing low or zero tariffs have a substantial impact on bilateral trade. The countries that are most likely to lose market shares are those located far from the major markets and which have had either tariff or quota-free access to the United States and EU markets, or which have had non-binding quotas. These countries will undoubtedly face adjustment challenges.
Also local producers in EU, the United States and Canada are likely to lose market shares. These producers have enjoyed more than 40 years of “temporary” protection, but nevertheless face a long-term structural decline. Thus, adjustments costs due to changing comparative advantage in the textile and clothing sector are not new, and it is not confined to the ATC countries, as the experience of some of the major Asian exporter such as Hong Kong, China; Chinese Taipei and the Republic of Korea shows.
To conclude, there is no doubt that both China and India will gain market shares in the European Union, the United States and Canada to a significant extent, but the expected surge in market share may be less than anticipated, as proximity to major markets assumes increasing economic significance and tariffs are increasingly restraining trade due to the fact that products cross borders several times. Furthermore, other developing countries are catching up with China in terms of unit labour costs in the textile and clothing sector and China has of yet not shown competitive strength in the design and fashion segments of the markets.
According to Steering Group() textile industry can increase their production capacity, how much they can be funded and how much investment should be made. The textiles and clothing sector is the largest employer after agriculture and its importance in India’s economy is recognised for its contribution to industrial production and export earnings.
The following were conclusions drawn out from the report: There is a consensus that there should be unbroken CENVAT chain, without exemptions, with 8% duty and also dis-continuation of deemed MODVAT credit. The fiscal policy should aim at providing a level playing field for orderly growth and sustainence of various sectors of the industry such as man-mades and cotton. Bridging the difference in duty structure between these two sectors could be considered, in a gradual manner, over a period of time, so that both the sectors could grow in a healthy competitive environment.
The Ministry of Textiles prepare a base paper for debt swapping/ debt management/ debt restructuring for the textile industry, so that the potential and viable units could be revived. The administrative issues related to import of second hand machinery need to be sorted out by the Ministry of Textiles with the Ministry of Commerce. The principle should be that the Government should not micro-manage such commercial decisions of the companies with respect to the use of technology.
TUFS be extended up to the end of 10th Five Year Plan i. e. , year 2007, in view of the positive impact of the scheme on modernization of the industry. The Ministry of Textiles should consider setting up of an Industry Government Group to study the Chinese model of providing policy support for growth and investment of textile industry. The Indian textile and clothing industry, the oldest industry of the country, which meets one of the basic needs of the population i. e. , clothing, will have to be supported and strengthened and for this purpose, the Government and the industry should work together. All existing textile units in the organised sector who have been assisted by FIs/banks would be eligible.
However, in each case restructured debt servicing capacity would be assessed. At the time of restructuring all penal interest and liquidated damages would be waived. Rate of interest for term lending would be pegged at a threshold level of 14%. Effective rate of interest would be in the range of 8% to 9% and the difference would come as contribution from the proposed reconstruction fund. However, SBI was of the view that rate of interest for term lending should be pegged at a threshold level of 12. 5% and contribution from the reconstruction fund could be limited to 3. 5% to 4%. Technical and financial templates need to be worked out very carefully by an independent expert body/organization/institution.
The repayment period would be a maximum of 7 – 10 years including two-year moratorium after debt restructuring. Additional security in the form of personal guarantee of promoters or pledging of shareholding may be considered, if required by the FIs/Banks. Modalities to ensure promoters commitment to the scheme must be worked out. Promoters should be willing to write down equity when necessary and give personal guarantee for restructured loans.
Some units which were doing well and were servicing their debt regularly and earning profits were not very keen to participate in debt restructuring scheme and instead have proposed that they should be given an option to avail longer repayment period, say 10 years, for loans taken under TUFS after the cut-off date i. e. announcement of the scheme. Their argument was that longer repayment period would give additional surplus cash to the units, which in turn could be ploughed back for extension/modernisation. These units wanted to kick start the investments in textile through credit support.
According to Willbanks (2008) Textile is part and parcel of human life. It does not meet only our basic needs, but also gives a large contribution in our economy. Textile Industry employs over 1. 4 million, more than any other industry. In clothing segments, technological advances I is easily recognised in compare to other segments of textile industry ie. spinning textile, weaving textile, woolen textile etc. There are varieties of products that is preparing by the help of textile. There are some important roles that textiles play in other industries. In food industry, textile are use to cover plants and wrap trees for protection from weather and insects. Non –woven textile is use to made coffee filters and tea bags. In building Industry, textiles are used to insulate the building from heat and cold. Textiles are used in wire covering, roofing materials, for door and window screens.
In health industry, invention of disposable clothing helps in preventing from bacteria. Gloves and bandages, surgical masks are other examples of textile use in healthcare industry. Helmets and pads are made of textile that protects the player during game . Many sports equipment is made of textile fibres like sailboats, hockey sticks, fishing rods, tennis rackets, golf clubs etc. According to unnamed (2008), the Indian textile industry is mainly export oriented and labor intensive. This industry was already wobbling due to rupee appreciation and rising cotton prices and is hit harder than other sectors by the recession.
The Confederation Of Indian Textile Industry (CITI) reports that 7 lakh people have already left the jobs and count is expected to rise (according to Nov. 2008 estimation), majority of lay-offs are targeted towards daily labors who make almost 25-35% of a company’s workforce and 35 million out of total workers in the Indian textile industry. As this industry is also dependent on the seasonal and festive demands but due to current economic slowdown the demand has been sluggish as the purchasing power of people have reduced.
According to some experts India has fared better than its neighbors (except Bangladesh) due to cheap and easily accessible labor-force. They also suggested that by turning fixed cost into variable cost and by innovative product and better quality, Indian textile industry can be back on high growth track. According to Rajeshwari (2009), the Indian Handloom industry is the second largest in India in providing employment to rural mass and its contribution to GDP. Due to the brutal competition in the textile market and from other sectors, Handloom has lost its significance and market share.
In many countries it has almost become unreal now. However India and some other Asian countries have been able to sustain this industry. With efforts of government in enhancing the technology and supply chain of this industry, India can be a global supplier of handloom articles. This sector has a very characteristic supply chain which serves the low and the high ends of the value chain, as it produces and supplies both mass consumption products for use in countryside as well as niche products for urban and exports markets. Supply chain management will involve collaborative work between buyers and suppliers.
To become a global leader of handloom products, India needs to give special emphasis on supply chain management of this sector. According to unnamed (2009), there has been a drastic change in the Indian textile industry, it has grown from small cottage industry to huge textile industry that use sophisticated machines. It is the second largest employment generator in the country and employee around 88. 02 million peoples in the country. Before the recession took place Indian textile industry was one of the best performing sectors of the country.
Due to the downtrend in the industrial graph, there have been many job cuts in this sector; it is expected to reach 6 million. About 60% of the total garment manufactured is exported and which generates up to US$52 billion. Due to the recession in the US and EU there has been great impact on the Indian textile industry, which resulted in the drastic decline in the textile exports to other countries. As food comes first then comes clothing, due to the recession in US and other countries people in those country started purchasing less clothes which lead to reduction in the exports and which ultimately lead to layoffs.
During October 2008 when the recession started, the output of the textile industry dropped by 10%. Simultaneously the investment in the sector also decreased which ultimately affected the profit of the textile sector. Some of the biggest textile industries are located in Ludhiana in Punjab, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu which had great impact of recession because of which they had to do cost cutting and lay off employees. During this period textile industry was running at its 75% of capacity and manufacturers have reduced their three shifts into one.
Textile industry in India is hit hard by heavy interest rates, less domestic consumption, and cancelled export orders. It is feared by the textile industry people that the slowdown would not improve in the near future. A further meltdown will be a huge blow on the economy of the country, and it is believed by the experts that the worst is not yet over for the textile and apparel sectors. According to Singh (2003), the textile industry has a great potential of development in India. This report is giving us the information about SWOT analysis of Maharashtra state.
The global textile industry is likely to grow thrice within coming years and India has greater opportunity in this sector but the textile industry of China is likely to grow at much faster rate than India. This industry can grow due to availability of abundant raw materials, skilled labor at low cost and growing domestic market. The strengths of Maharashtra for textile industry are that the state has the advantage of being in close of natural fabric, man-made fiber fabric and imported fiber through ports.
It has best available skilled labor force in industry, presence across the value chain, and has one of the highest State Domestic Products in host to a burgeoning middle class. The weakness of the textile industry in the state is due to the historical effects of government policies, lower productivity and competitiveness, fragmented industry and technological obsolescence. The opportunities for this industry in the state are research and development, product development and the challenges posed by world class textiles mills.
The threats for this industry in the state are competition in the domestic market, ecological and social awareness, and regional alliances. Therefore, we can say that the textile industry has a great opportunity in our country and industry has to work towards developing a competitive advantage to project textile industry in the global market. According to Dhanabhakyam and Shanthi, the textile sector is the second largest (21%) employment generator after agriculture. It accounts for 14% of the total industries production and 4% in the GDP of India and contribution to nearly 30% of total exports.
And about 27% of the foreign exchange earnings. In contrast to other major textile-producing countries we find that in India we have mainly small-scale industries because of the legacy of tax, labor and other regulatory policies that have favored small-scale and labor-intensive enterprise. Its structure comprises mainly of non-integrated spinning, weaving, finishing, and apparel-making enterprises. The key advantages of Indian textile companies are as follows:
India is the 3rd largest producer of cotton and an edge in low cost cotton sourcing compared to other countries. Average wage rate of 40-50 percent lower than that in the developed countries. The industry is investing in technology and increasing its capacities which should prove a major asset in the years to come. Its contribution to the Indian economy is manifested in terms of its contribution to the industrial production, employment generation and foreign exchange earnings. In world textile scenario, it is the largest producer of jute, second largest producer of silk, third largest producer of cotton and cellulosic fiberyarn and fifth largest producer of synthetic fiberyarn.
According to verma (2002),the textile and garment sector plays an extremely significant role in terms of value added shares, foreign exchange earnings and providing employment to over 35 million peoples. The objective of this study is to evaluate export-competitiveness for textile and garment exports in India with a view to access competitiveness in preparation for the quota free trade beyond 2004. This sector contributes around 4% to GDP and 14% of industrial output owing to the unique place in Indian Economy.
It is also one of the largest net foreign earner, and earning almost 35% of foreign exchange. This sector again is completely self sufficient and complete in its chain. A product is said to be competitive if its growth rate increases, market share grows over that period. The study is based upon India’s competitive performance in the US and EU market considering MFA products competitiveness is about productivity, which in turn depends upon cost of product, delivery schedules, reliability of producers, and also image of that country, company and brand equity.
India was not of an issue till Short Term Arrangement (STA) of 1961, under which trading of textile and cotton took place in managed way. The objective of this study is to evaluate export competitiveness of Indian textile and clothing sectors. Since Indian textile sector is cotton based study focuses on cotton textile and apparel and on its retail distribution. Evaluating the demand side of this sector, highlights trade policy environment, Regional Trading Arrangements [ RTA’s ], tariff peaks and environmental and labour standards.
On the other hand for supply side focuses on opinions of its bottle-necks, data/numbers. This infers more about supply-side factors which is based on opinions of exporters. During the MFA period: a) the share of developing countries in textile exports declined by almost 19. 2% and that of developing country increased by 18. 8%. Clothing exports showed decline of top 13 exporters and new entrants have came. b) In textile non-preferred group fought for the pie that was declining, resulting to a high-level of intra-industry and intra-firm in clothing than in textiles.
India’s competitive performance grew in 2000 in US increasing by 10% in cotton dresses (336), woven shirts (341) and skirts (342). market share grew for 336 and 341, however US import need grew for 341 and 342 and not much for 336. China being an exporter became a threat thus and targeted 341 segments and also upgraded in this segment. Concurrently India targeted low value segment in most cotton apparels in US. Lesson for India from their other competitor was thus that India should not only upgrade its values, but should also compete on non-price factors.
Within Textiles, India did well in 362 and 363. Also in fabrics Indian exports was not coming to be competitive. The study concludes that while there is little doubt regarding the immense potential that the Indian industry-specially garment sector- has, several policy reforms are needed urgently in order to unlock this latent capability. Besides, from the emerging nature of global trading environment, it appears that market access would become an increasingly important aspect of translating competitiveness into export performance.
The textile industry was one of the first industries to develop in the world history. This was mainly originated in Britain, as the spinning and weaving machines were invented in that country. This particular industry is labor intensive, and this have a higher impact on society as a whole. According to Economy Watch it is one of the highest employment generators and thus plays a pivotal role in the development of any economy.
Position With the advent of textile industry in the UK, the textile production was spread over to the rest of the world in an organized way. In the 18th century, the industrial revolution acted as a booster for the growth of textile industry, later on in the 19th century, mechanization was introduced in this sector and thus played a major role in the stupendous growth of this sector. After this Asian countries like Japan, India, Hongkong and china have achieved dominant position in the textile sector due to their cheap and easily accessible labor supply. Global textile & clothing industry is currently pegged at around US$ 440 bn. US and European markets dominate the global textile trade accounting for 64% of clothing and 39% of textile market.
With the dismantling of quotas, global textile trade is expected to grow (as per Mc Kinsey estimates 2006) to US$ 650 bn by 2010 (5 year CAGR of 10%). Although China is likely to become the ‘supplier of choice’, other low cost producers like India would also benefit as the overseas importers would try to mitigate their risk of sourcing from only one country. The level of export in textiles from developing countries is increasing, thus the developed countries are facing heat due to continuous competition from the developing economies, but they are responding with advanced technology and increased market awareness.
This company was founded on Jan 25, 1964 as Blue Ribbon Sport by Bill Bowerman and Philip Knight and officialy became Nike . Inc in 1978. The company mainly deals with the sports wear and their primary focus is on youth customer segment. They contacted with more than 700 shops around the world and has offices locateed in 45 countries outside the US. Their most of the factories are located in Asia and as per the 2009 annual report, their revenue was $ 18. 627 billion. H Hennes & Mauritz AB (popularly known as H), is a Swidish listing company, known for its fast fashion clothing.
H has around 2000 stores in 37 different countries and employ over 74,000 people. They are headquartered in Stokholm, Sweden and their revenue was 118,697 million (accrding to 2009 annual report). They also have collaborated with several players such as Fashion design, Madonna in 2007 etc. Zara Zara is the flagship chain store of Inditex group owned by Spanish tycoon Amancio Ortega, headquartered in A Coruna, Spain and as per their 2008 annual report their revenue was & 6. 824 billion. They have mainly men’s clothing and women’s clothing.
Zara is a vertically integrated retailer and unlike others controlls most of the steps in the supply chain, even it design, produces and distributes itself. Esprit Esprit is an international youthful lifestyle brand offering smart, affordable luxury and bringing newness and style to life. The Group operates more than 800 directly managed retail stores worldwide and distributes its products via more than 14,000 wholesale locations internationally, occupying total selling space of over 1. 1 million square meter in more than 40 countries.
Esprit licenses its logo to third-party licensees that offer products bearing the same Esprit quality and essence to consumers. Esprit also operates the Red Earth cosmetic brand which includes cosmetics, skin care and body care products. The Esprit brand is sold in five continents and more than 40 countries, 640 freestanding stores and over 12,000 wholesale customers. More than 20,000 products are designed each year for 12 product lines for women, men and kids – and in addition a wide variety of license products for every part of life.
Next Next is a UK based retailer offering stylish, good quality products in clothing, footwear, accessories and home products. Next distributes through three main channels: Next Retail, a chain of more than 500 stores in the UK and Eire; the Next Directory, a direct mail catalogue and transactional website with more than 2 million active customers; and Next International, with more than 170 stores overseas.
There have been several reforms in the world textile industry since the advent of this industry. The majority of reforms have been seen in the relation with the trade, which have impacted the textile industry worldwide, especially developing economies like India and China. Protection of the textile and clothing sector has a long history in United States and Europe. In the1950s, Japan, Hong Kong, China, India and Pakistan agreed to voluntary export restraints for cotton textile products to the United States. In 1962, a Long Term Agreement(LTA) regarding international trade in cotton textiles was signed .
The LTA was renegotiated several times until it was replaced by the Multi Fibre Agreement (MFA), which came into force in 1974. The MFA, as the name suggests, extended restrictions on trade to wool and man-made fibres in addition to cotton. According to Krishna and Tan (1997), by the end 1982, 80 percent of imports of textiles and apparel into US were covered by bilateral quota agreements with 20 countries and by consultative mechanism with another 11 countries. There were several criticism of MFA in that time such as non transparency and discrimination against developing nations.
MFA was renegotiated four times (last time in 1991) and finally expires in 1994. The expiration of the MFA did not, however, mean the end of quotas on textile and clothing exports from developing countries. Instead the MFA was followed by the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), which came into force with the establishment of the WTO in 1995. On 1 January, 2005, these quota restraints expired, finally bringing to an end four decades of restrictions on trade in textiles and garments among World Trade Organization (WTO) members. Trade in these products is now governed by normal WTO rules.
Technological Changes The clothing industry is labor-intensive and it offers entry-level jobs for unskilled labor in developed as well as developing countries. Job creation in the sector has been particularly strong for women in poor countries, who previously had no income opportunities other than the householder the informal sector. Moreover, it is a sector where relatively modern technology can be adopted even in poor countries at relatively low investment costs.
These technological features of the industry have made it suitable as the first rung on the industrialization ladder in poor countries, some of which have experienced a very high output growth rate in the sector (e. g. Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Viet Nam and Mauritius). The major changes have been seen since the invention of the sewing and weaving machines in the Britain, since then there have been several technological changes in the textile industry and this have brought a revolution in this industry worldwide.
Due to the implementation of newer technology there have been tremendous increases in the production efficiency of the textile companies. Technological changes in the textile industry during the last forty years can be broadly divided into three phases. High-speed spinning frames and looms, with reduced vibration levels, were developed in the 1950s and early 1960s. The most radical alterations in the core technology of spinning and weaving came in the late 1960s and during the 1970s, with the introduction of rotor spinning and shuttle less looms.
This was the period when new technology was sought to increase productivity and thereby to combat the cost-based competitiveness of lower wage producers from Asian countries. From the late 1970s onwards, the changes in the textile industry of the developed countries have been characterized by the introduction of microelectronics based technology and the automation of industrial processes. The new technologies have allowed the various production stages to become one continuous process of interrelated activities, resulting in higher quality and flexibility and thus a faster response to changing market conditions.
The full exploitation of these technological improvements is dependent on further complementary changes in organization and management. During the 1990s, rapid response to market conditions is likely to become an even more important force behind technological innovation and is likely to focus on increases in speed and flexibility rather than on cost-cutting. Investment costs associated with technology improvements in the textile sector have raised considerably. About US $1 billion per year has been invested in the European Union, and twice as much in the USA, throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s.
These levels could double in the coming years. The impact of automation on employment has also been significant. During the last 15 years, employment in the textile and clothing industry in the entire EU area has declined by 40 per cent, and the forecast for the 1990s is a loss of 700,000 to I million jobs in the textile sector alone. The occupational structure has also changed, with the proportion of operators and unskilled laborers decreasing while the share of technical and management staff increases. The new technologies require specialized skills in textile engineering, maintenance, design, computer science, and marketing.
The most significant innovations took place in the pre-assembly stage, where computer-aided design (CAD), computer numerical control (CNC) cutting systems, and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) led to material and labor savings. In the assembly stage, which accounts for 80 per cent of the manufacturing value added (MVA) and of the workforce in the industry, technological change has so far been relatively modest. The main improvements have been microelectronic control units which are attached to the standard industrial sewing machine to handle the more complex tasks.
These can either be used to speed up production on task dedicated machines or to increase the flexibility of multi-purpose machines. The major technological innovations of the 1990s are likely to build on these developments.
Indian textile industry is as old as the word textile itself. This industry holds a significant position in India by providing the most basic need of Indians. Starting from the procurement of raw materials to the final production stage of the actual textile, the Indian textile industry works on an independent basis.
Indian textile industry includes various segments like:
- Woolen Textile
- Cotton Textiles
- Silk Textiles
- Readymade Garments
- Jute And Coir
- Hand-Crafted Textile Like Carpets
- Man Made TextilesIndian textile Industry is growing day by day.
These are the some key advantages that are helping this segment to grow. India’s advantages
- India offers cheaper production and marketing costs.
- Abundant and low cost availability of raw-materials: A variety of raw-materials- Cotton, Synthetic, wool, jute and silk are available in the country.
- This inherent strength in availability of raw-materials prevents any supply-side shock.
- Skilled labour at low cost: India has abundant availability of manpower with skill sets across all activities of the textiles value chain.
- Growing domestic demand: Disposable incomes have been rising steadily in India and it is expected that the consuming class constitute 80% of the population by 2010. The mindset of consumer is changing that led to an increasing spend on consumption, including textiles.
- Government Support: The government is taking many initiatives for revitalization of Indian Textile Industry.
The government encourages institutes such as National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), Apparel Training and Design Centre (ATDC) and engineering colleges to offer courses in textile engineering. Government has been extended The Technology Up gradation Fund Scheme (TUFS) until 2011-12. It is taking several measures to encourage public-private partnership in textile. Government is doing revival of sick mills by the National Textile Corporation (NTC). 6. Increasing Foreign Investment: The country allows 100 per cent FDI in the textiles sector so the foreign investment is growing comparatively.
According to the Minister for Textiles, Mr Dayanidhi Maran, around US$ 5. 14 billion of foreign investment is expected to be made in India in the textile sector over the next five years. Apparel Export Promotion Council (AEPC), which comes under Union Ministry of Textiles, has undertaken the task of attracting foreign direct investment by showcasing the huge untapped domestic market in India. The AEPC highlighted the conducive environment for manufacturing in the sector and raised the slogan of “come, invest, produce and sell in India”, coined by Textiles Minister, Dayanidhi Maran.
Two years ago, the Indian textiles industry was supposed to have been on the threshold of rapid growth. Today it is in urgent need for resuscitation. Even the figure of 1. 2 million job losses put out by the association, the Confederation of Indian Textiles Industry (CITI), could prove to be an underestimate. Roughly half the total production of textiles and garments in India is exported, 60 percent of it to markets in the United States, Japan and the European Union. The recession in the West had adversely impacted these economies the most as a result of which exports from India are projected to fall sharply in the coming months.
Rising prices of raw cotton have become a contentious issue for the industry. The government is reluctant to reduce the prices paid to cotton farmers as suicides have been widespread in cotton-growing areas. India is the world’s second-largest producer, exporter and consumer of cotton. With cotton prices rising over the last year, cotton textiles and garments are being priced out of international markets. A number of textile mills have begun ‘voluntary retirement schemes’ for workers.
Union commerce and industry minister Kamal Nath estimated that in the financial year that ended in March 2008, approximately 800,000 garment and textile employees had lost their jobs, almost half of the two million lost in export-oriented industries. The Indian currency, the rupee, started weakening against the US dollar from the middle of 2008. But exports did not pick up because from around this time, markets in the U. S. , Western Europe and Japan began shrinking. As debt-fuelled consumer spending declined in the rich nations, the markets for Indian textiles and garments started shrinking.
Literary Analysis: Romeo And Juliet
Metaphors are a useful literary device that help enhance the readers interpretation of the author’s intent and they provide clarity to the context. Gullet’s love is being expressed through the use of multiple complex metaphors that intensify the comprehension of the ideas. On page 40 line 133 Juliet expresses her love for Romeo in multiple different metaphors ” My bounty is as boundless as the sea, My love as deep[… ]. ” This tells us how much Romeo means to Juliet, she is comparing her love for Romeo to the “boundless sea”; therefore, this means that Gullet’s love is infinite– like the orison, it goes on forever.
Also by Juliet using this certain metaphor she wanted Romeo to know that their love would be unfathomable, like not knowing how deep the sea is. The sea is also a great analogy because it represents many of the qualities of love: it has the tempestuous characteristics, the reassuring and calming qualities of the waves washing on the beach, the sea has treasure deep within it, like the heart has love deep within. When reading these metaphors it conjures up mental image in the readers mind, along with any other related experiences and personal knowledge providing the best understanding of the text.
Another example is on page 68 lines 21-25 it is said that “Give me my Romeo; and when I shall die, take him and cut him out in little stars, and he will make the face of heaven so fine that all the world will be in love with night and pay no worship to the garish sun. ” Juliet fearful of death without her Romeo, desires his presence with her in heaven; furthermore, common knowledge says that heaven is out of our reach among the stars. Juliet is concerned about spending eternity alone, hence she cuts up Romeo to keep her company amidst the stars.
The heaven-lies are revered as the quintessential expression of cosmic beauty, but Romeos face will make it even more extravagant. Like the sun rising in the morning drawing the worlds attention, Romeos starlight will not only capture the gaze Of onlookers but their hearts as well. Romeos feelings are being captured through many intricate metaphors to describe the physical attributes of Juliet as well as his own desires for her. When Romeo is describing Juliet he says, 36 line 2-6, “It is the east, and Juliet is the sun! Arise , fair sun, and kill the envious moon, who is already sick and ale with grief. The sun is life and light, with its rising, Romeos hopes grow and his loneliness retreats with the darkness. He is comparing his fair Juliet to the rising sun, the sun is such a beautiful thing and comparing Juliet with such a highly worshiped object continues to keep the audience informed about his emotions. The sun lights up the whole world, as Juliet brings light to Romeos life; moreover, the sun is also the biggest star in the center of the solar system, as Juliet is the center of Romeos life. The sun rises in the morning, which starts day the for most everyone.
Romeos morning begins with Gullet’s sun rays on his face and in his heart. When the sun rises it kills all of the darkness and the fear of the unknown; Consequently, Romeos sense of loss is dispelled in her presence. Juliet is being metaphorically compared with the sun, where fixating on it can be harmful yet one is compelled to stare nonetheless. Further evidence is shown on page 29 lines 46-50, “O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright! It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night As a rich jewel in an Ethiopia Ear-?Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear! ”
Romeo informs us that Juliet burns brighter than that of the torches , metaphorically torches can not be taught to burn bright; even so, Juliet visage is beyond compare. Torches never being used in the day, tells us that she stands out amongst the darkness; all in all, the darkness being figuratively compared to all other women, and Romeo only sees her. She the jewel that stands out against the dark Ethiopia skin, drawing the attention of all who would behold her. She is simply to be admired and not tarnished by use. Juliet is too fine for the earth, belonging in the heavens amongst the angels.
Going anywhere besides earth would either be heaven or hell, in this case Romeo sees Juliet as a prized possession; furthermore, she belongs in the heavens with angels that are as great as she. Juliet is one of the heavenly bodies incarnate upon the earth, here only to be loved by Romeo. This helps us comprehend the unconditional love that Romeo feels for Juliet. With such intricate metaphors used throughout all of Shakespearean Romeo and Juliet it benefits the reader with constant evidence of the unique and extravagant love that the two main characters share.
Strategy – Hallmark
Hallmark traditionally has been viewed as the company to use “when you care enough to send the very best,” which Hallmark would like to keep in the minds of the target market, but also use to increase sales for non-holiday seasons.
Hallmark believes with continuous marketing efforts they can appeal to more women to buy cards for all occasions throughout the year.Marketing Objective Hallmark has developed the following marketing objective for the year 2001. In preparing this objective, Hallmark has estimated the cost of everyday cards at $0. 9 per card.
During the calendar year for 2001, Hallmark will increase its dollar market share by two percentage points, from 40% to 42% in the $7 billion (volume) greeting card category. Advertising Objective The overall goal of this campaign is to increase brand consciousness among women age 18-34, who are employed full or part time or are full time students. Hallmark will use its new advertising campaign to convey this new image.From January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2001, Hallmark Greeting Cards will attempt to make 10% of the 22.
million females age 18-34, who are employed full or part time and have graduated high school aware that Hallmark Greeting Cards is just as important for daily use as it is for seasonal holidays.Media Objectives Target Market Concentrate message delivery toward current users of greeting cards, with primary emphasis on women, age 18-34, who are employed full or part time, or full time students. This gives Hallmark an estimated target market of 22,425,000. Promotion Recommend a promotion aimed at women in the target market in hopes that they will purchase Hallmark cards for all occasions throughout the year.
Reach and FrequencyDuring an average month of advertising, reach 40% of the target market at an average frequency of 9. Timing Increase competitive weight levels throughout the year as well as placing heavy advertising in the second and fourth quarters (specifically the months of April and November) in an effort to work in conjunction with normal seasonal increases in purchase. Geography Conduct a national campaign, with emphasis in the West region, where there is a high concentration of current Hallmark users. The West region includes the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
Also targeting metropolitan localities, which accounts for 83% of target market. Budget Achieve all of the above objectives as efficiently as possible within the overall media budget of $9 million. This $9 million is only part of a larger advertising budget of $50 million. Media Strategy and Tactics This section contains the strategy and tactics Hallmark will use in the calendar year 2001.
Here, the recommended media types are identified for Hallmark in order to deliver its message to the 22. 4 million in the target market. Again, the selected target market is women, 18-34, who are employed either full or part time, or are full time students.In the past, Hallmark has targeted all women 35+, since they fall in the largest card-consuming segment of the market.
In order to reach this audience, Hallmark has primarily utilized television, magazine, and newspaper media types. For Hallmark in 2001, a different strategic approach is recommended from previous media plans. Since Hallmark is targeting a younger audience, different media types are suggested to more effectively reach that audience. The media types recommended for 2001 are radio, newspaper, magazines, as well as outdoor.
Hallmark has traditionally used television and magazines as the primary media types for advertising. However, for the 2001media plan, radio will replace television in order to more effectively reach the new target market. Radio Strategy When looking at the quintile index of radio compared to other media types, radio is a very effective means to reach the desired target market of women age 18-34 employed full or part time, or are a full time student. The quintile index for radio drive time reveals that out of all women, those ages 18-34 are more likely to be heavy users of this medium and 12% more likely to be an above average user.
This means that Hallmark s target market of women age 18-34 is 24% more likely to be heavy and above average users of radio during drive time that the average woman. Radio mid-day terciles support radio as being a highly effective medium to reach the target market. The terciles group consumers into high, middle, and low users of radio. The indexes show that out of all women, those ages 18-34 are 14% more likely to be high users of radio (SMRB).
So given both quintile and tercile indexes, radio proves to provide an effective amount of exposure to Hallmark s target market.Aside from being highly effective in reaching Hallmark s target market, there are several advantages of using radio as a media type. First and foremost, radio reaches light TV viewers. This is ideal for Hallmark because data shows that women age 18-34 had relatively high indexes in the lightest user quintile for primetime and cable TV.
Radio is also an effective medium in obtaining a high frequency. This goes hand in hand with Hallmark s objective of raising frequency levels in order to increase brand consciousness. Another advantage of radio as a medium is flexibility in terms of both time and geographic location.Although radio will be used nationally, geographic flexibility allows Hallmark to utilize spot markets, which play a crucial role in placing emphasis in the Western region.
There are however, some disadvantages involved with using radio that should be noted. First, radio has been criticized for being a background medium and containing fleeting messages. Hallmark will minimize these disadvantages with strong creative. Another disadvantage of radio is that many markets have so many stations that the audience becomes fragmented.
Here, Hallmark will minimize fragmentation of its target audience by selecting those radio formats with the highest levels of target market listenership. Tactics Both network and spot market radio will be used by Hallmark in 2001 accounting for % of the total media budget which is $136,884. From that total, $64,572 will be used for network while $73,312 will go to spot market radio. Hallmark has selected Adult Contemporary as the format in which the ads will be aired.
This format has been selected because it was found to be the most popular format among the target market (SMRB).Spots for network radio will be purchased Monday through Friday as well both Saturday and Sunday. The daypart the ads will run in will be from 6 a. m.
to midnight for weekday as well as weekends. This daypart has been chosen because research reveals that 93% (21 million) of women in the target market listen to radio between 6 a. m. and midnight (SMRB).
For local markets, Hallmark has selected the Los Angeles area to run ads Monday through Friday. The Los Angeles market has been chosen because it represents an ideal metropolitan west coast locale.