Analysis Of The Images Created In Painting Arts Homework Essay Sample


The analysis of picture and art semiotics is generally associated with the necessity to read the meaning of an image from the perspective of several assessment factors. Thus, any particular element on an image may give or take specific sense, and the aim of this paper is to analyze the manipulated images, compare them with the original pictures, and give the real meaning of all the pictures.

Eva Mendes and Chupa Chups

The meaning of the original image is closely associated with the necessity to create the brutal atmosphere, the atmosphere of ignorance and independence. Considering the fact, that most young women consider smoking as a sign of spiritual force and fashion, the image is aimed to encourage women being independent and fashionable. The exposition of the image provides the bright contrast between shadowed and lighted areas, thus, representing the meaning of contradiction between the fashionable images and the real necessity to follow this image (Hawkes, p. 45). Thus, the exposition contrast is aimed to emphasize the image of a pretty girl, who may be womanly enough, and the junction of this image with a male image and habits.

This example is closely associated with the necessity to attribute the existing cultural experience of the society and attribute the symbolic meaning to the product. Originally, if this image is used for cigarette ad, the levels of meaning are not numerous. However, the brand name is not stated, and it may be used for social ads (emphasizing the contras between lighted and shadowed areas, and pointing out the closed eyes). The possibility to summarize the significance of the product is associated with the actual cultural overtones, represented in the image.

As for the manipulated picture, the connotation of the elements, presented on it, may be interpreted from the perspective of pleasure, which a girl gets from a candy. The exposition contrast may be regarded as the contrast between life with and without Chupa Chups. Thus, the meaning of the image is changed completely, and the value of the semiotic analysis will be based on the representation of the free, independent and fashionable girl, who prefers sweets to tobacco, for instance. Moreover, is the two images are presented jointly, these may represent the meaning of choice, or even anti commercial, if required. Thus, in accordance with the research by Chandler (p. 132), the following fact should be emphasized:

Thus the cultural context of the brand name plays an important role in the recipient perceptions of it. The importance attributed to the context of the sign is also evident in any commercial image is an advertisement for a brand name. As the name suggests this is a product exclusively aimed at particular target audience, the meaning of the same image may vary.

Tiffany & Co, and Sperm Bank

The original image is aimed at representing the image of women’s happiness. The main object is a lady with a baby, and the photographer aimed to show that she looks happy. The subsidiary element of an image is a ring. On the one hand it shows that lady is at least engaged, on the other hand, the ring is not a simple wedding ring. It is from an exclusive collection of Tiffany and Co. Thus, the authors of the image hint at the fact that happiness can not be full without jewelry from Tiffany & Co. The exposition of the image is totally lighted (however, without over lights), and there are no significant elements hidden in the shadows (Semiotics and Communication, p. 43).

The blown hair signifies the rapid moment of time, which was caught. Thus, this element signifies the rapid and hardly catchable moment of happiness, which is the main aim of showing such sentimental themes.

The manipulated image shows the same lady, however, the ring was removed, and the sperm bank message is inserted. In fact, it does not look suitable for the atmosphere of this photography, as crisis can not be pictured with the atmosphere of happiness and calm gladness. (Mansell, 89) The only element which points out the artificial fertilization is the lack of a wedding ring, however this is indirect evidence. Considering the fact that some religious confessions and ethnic groups are against artificial fertilization, this image does not correspond with the cultural diversity of the American population (Silverman, p. 39).

If the main aim of this ad is to encourage males to become a sperm donors, the image of a happy woman with a baby is not suitable for it. Thus, the image and the message are absolutely different.


Finally, it should be emphasized that the meaning of the images and the combination of the elements create the atmosphere of the image, which is the defining factor. Thus, the message and the additional elements (like brand names), should be selected in accordance with the initial atmosphere. Moreover, there is strong necessity to hit the cultural experience of the target audience.

Works Cited

  1. Chandler, Daniel. Semiotics: The Basics. London: Routledge, 2002.
  2. Hawkes, Terence. Structuralism and Semiotics. New York: Routledge, 2003.
  3. Mansell, Darrel. “Language in an Image.” Criticism 41.2 (2005): 187.
  4. Semiotics and Communication: Signs, Codes, Cultures. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.
  5. Silverman, Kaja. The Subject of Semiotics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Beauty Virtues Of Mosques


“Architecture is the imaginative blend of art and science in the design of environments for people.” (An Introduction to Architecture). The area of architecture has brought about tremendous betterment due to the unity of sculpture and skills. An architect has to be keen on accomplishing the maximum beauty and adore the work he is handling. “Decision-making, team leadership and creativity are the key elements of making architecture.” (An Introduction to Architecture).

The five virtues of beautiful buildings are: first, “The archdave, frieze and cornice, were designed to be designed to be one-fifth of the height of the column”, secondly,” while a Corinthian capital had to be equal in height to the breadth of the columns at its lowest point,” thirdly, “ rooms should be as high as they are broad,” fourthly, “ correct ratios between the lengths and the sides of the rooms were 1:1, 2:3, 3:4,” and finally, the” hall should be placed at the central axis in absolute symmetry to both wings of the house.” (The architecture of happiness 171-172).

It is believed that the concept of true and immaculate beauty is indescribable and may not always be practicable to execute.

The proper approach to the work to be completed is the first requirement. The main architect should be able to coordinate the entire members of the group of workers. Creativity is the major constraint for a beautiful creation of sculpture. “The architect must also protect the health, safety and welfare of the general public and the users of the buildings.” (An Introduction to Architecture). The focus of the architect should never remain on the beauty, profit and speedy completion of the work. He should always concentrate on the public wellbeing, protection and benefits along with considering the clients of the structure.

Beauty concept in Islam

The religion of Islam supports the appreciation of beauty. It has the root from the fact that Hadith describes that the Lord Almighty is beautiful and He loves beauty. The philosophy of Islam is embedded in the eternal beauty and prevalence of purity. “The nature of beauty was addressed by Islamic philosophers in the course of discussions about God and his attributes in relation to his creation, under the inspiration of Neoplatonic sources such as the pseudo-Aristotelian Theology of Aristotle, a compilation based upon the Enneads of Plotinus.” (Black).

There are two aspects of Islamic architecture. The first is the physical aspect, the style and the second is the meaning or the functional aspect of the mosque. Although mosques are viewed as serious places of public worship, they need to conform to Islamic tenets both in their exterior and interior composition.

Islamic Art and Architecture

The mosques are the architectural contributions of the religion of Islam. They have the belief that mosques are the houses of their Lord Almighty and so they wish those to be in the best appearance they can. Thus to be clear to the fact it is very important for the followers of the religion of Islam to support the best architecture for their mosques.

The expedition for the architectural glow is being carried out worldwide. Architectural beauty was investigated in the book named “Architecture of Happiness” by Alain de Botton. “A concern for architecture has never been free from a degree of suspicion. Doubts have been raised about the subject’s seriousness, its moral worth and its cost.” (The Architecture of Happiness) says the Architecture of Happiness.

A contemplation maddening quantity of the earth’s majority of intellectual inhabitants always had condescension on the awareness of adornment and plan, connecting satisfaction with discarnate and imperceptible stuff as a substitute. The literature goes through various themes cited by different philosophers on the matter of buildings and houses. The philosophers support having houses but for them, those are groups of stones and mud connected with cement rather than an art or skill. Their view but cannot be accepted to a human as a whole because beauty is the one always adored without fail.

“Common interpretations of Islamic architecture include the following: The concept of Allah’s infinite power is evoked by designs with repeating themes which suggest infinity… Foliage is a frequent motif but typically stylized or simplified for the same reason. Arabic Calligraphy is used to enhance the interior of a building by providing quotations from the Qur’an. Islamic architecture has been called the “architecture of the veil” because the beauty lies in the inner spaces (courtyards and rooms) which are not visible from the outside (street view).” (Encyclopedia: Islamic Architecture).

Architecture of Happiness

The main purpose of mosques is congregational worship and venerates God through prayers and propitiation. The first mosque was built “around the Kaaba” in Mecca, in the 7th Century. (Tristam).


“The careful study of the finest buildings promised to lead to laws of beauty.” (Botton, 171). The most prominent sculptured illuminations all around the world have some principles of beautification as common. The skills of architecture largely depend on the creativity and talents of imagination of the architect which is the backbone of any carve produced. The notion of exquisiteness has been estimated intrinsically hard to pin down and therefore gently bypassed. “Pinning down the architectural equivalents of generosity or modesty, honesty or gentleness” (Botton, 174) is seen significantly worldwide.

The “concept of order” and “coherence” accompanied by “linearity” (Botton, 175) are the key ideas kept firm in the architectural field of the contemporary world. The base to all the architectural development is the necessity proposed by the client in need. The inspiration from this part should be strong enough to motivate the architect to result in a well beautified compact site of work and skills.

Architectural Virtues of Islam

For devout Muslims, calligraphy is a manifested form of spiritual concept. It is also considered as the link between the languages of Muslims within Islam. The Holy Quran has played a significant role in the development of Arabic languages and inscriptions are found in calligraphy. “The traditional minbar is a common element of Islamic mosque architecture throughout the world.” (Huda).

Minarets and towers were originally used as torch-lit watchtowers in the Great Mosque situated in the Syrian capital of Damascus. The Mihrab is the prayer area that is towards the direction of Mecca, the holy shrine. Perhaps this has been derived from earlier use of the area of prayers from the setting of Torah, scrolls of Jewish synagogues, or haikal or Coptic churches. Also the provision for central fountains for ablutions and cleansing the body before prayers.

The attributes of beauty virtues and architecture of Islam are considered during the architectural appraisal and investigation leading to the finalization of building plan for mosques. “Who hath created seven heavens in harmony. Thou (Muhammad) canst see no fault in the Beneficent One’s creation; then look again: Canst thou see any rifts? Then look again and yet again, thy sight will return unto thee weakened and made dim. (Al-Mulk 67:3-4).” (Badr). The connection of beauty and divinity was appreciated by the philosophers of Islam to a depth of love to God as explained by the Holy Quran and Hadith.

Islamic Architecture and Beauty

Much of Islamic architecture has been derived from Persian architecture. Besides, Mogul, Hindu and Egyptian/Byzantine architectural cultures are also evident.

“Among the divine names al-Farabi lists ‘beauty’ (al-Jamal), ‘brilliance’ (al-Baha’i), and ‘splendour’ (al-Zina). Although the connotations of these terms are principally visual and hence sensible, al-Farabi argues that beauty in all things is primarily ontological: the more any being attains its final perfection, the more beautiful it is.” (Aesthetics in Islamic philosophy).

The attitude of Islamic beauty is depicted within the triple beauty values of the religion. The Creator God is the symbol of beauty, the manner of His creation is beautiful and the belief of the existence of an invisible God is beautiful as well. So the concept arises on the matter that God loves beauty supported by many Hadith and hence the house of God should be built with the beauty philosophy itself. The philosophers quote those three pillars of the virtue of beauty as the illustrations of God in terms of the significance He kept for beauty for His creations. Thus the stability in the architectural beauty virtues of mosques is inevitable.

The architecture of the mosque tries to attain the maximum perfection in all aspects because it is the house of The Perfect who exhibited His perfection through his creations and blessings. The virtue of architectural perfection always depicts morals, principles, ethics and art. structural design and the sculpture in their substance from the Islamic wisdom of Islam straightly, and a different imperceptible and religious, facilitating the observer to expand intellect of illustrative contact and substantial places if required or sculptural beautification and captions, that with every statement depicts a pious direction to attain the discrete purpose of expansion because of which it is seen as effectual and provides a reflection for the necessity for lengthy conversations with the creator and contemplation permitting the channel of spending the time and also exhibiting the architectural highness in the context of sculpture and structural design.

The limitations in Islam for the architecture of mosques are identified with depth and the recent advents try to develop an Islamic architectural method to articulate the illustrative beauty of the sculpture. The architectural notion of Muslims is supported by the divine laws of creation, natural examples of purity, beauty and excellence. The truth in the creation is the impartiality and rightly placed approach of Lord Almighty. The creations of God should never try to imitate any lively creation of God as it is often seen as disrespect to God in Islamic religion which is also applicable in the case of His house built by the His creations. The perfect contrast is thus made at the architectural plan of the mosque. This limitation makes the difference witnessed between other architectural styles and Islamic architecture. The planner sought out various other methods for beautification and adornment to achieve the beauty of perfection. So the Islamic inscription, various prototypes representing the natural beauty, etc came up with importance in Islamic architecture. In addition to this more normally any form of generalization that can declare to have a position of nonfigurative sculpture is used to expand Islamic architecture worldwide. The Islamic is basically a meditative sculpture, which intends to articulate on top of all, a bump into the heavenly existence. “The origin of Islamic art has often tried to be explained through tracing it back to some precedent in Byzantine, Sassanid, Coptic or other art, yet what is lost sight of, is the intrinsic and original unity of Islamic art and thus the ‘seal’ that Islam conferred on all borrowed elements.” (Introduction).

Islamic architecture is not an independent method of sculpture but an integration of various architectural styles of the cultures around the globe.

The constructions of mosques are a very important aspect of heavenly presence. The mosque is the representation of the reconstruction of heavenly thoughts on Earth. It is the holy place to pray; although it is supposed to have blissful modes, it is not so. All mosques give signs of Macca or Qibla known as Mihrab. Often it is constructed as a forte on the wall. A covered portion is provided before Mihrab or doors are built where Mihrab is not there. Masjids which are the sacred places of devotion were places of recreation for other religions as well.

History of Mosques’ Development

Macca was the mosque built before any others which the area surrounding the divine shrine was called Ka’ba which is seen as the Qibla by Muslims. The mosques that prevailed at the times of the Prophet, mosques were built in the style of the Prophet’s house at Madina made during the year of 622 A. At that time the Qibla was towards the track of Jerusalem which was then shifted to the current Qibla, Ka’ba.

At the start of the preaching of Islam, there were no mosques as such for performing the prayers and also the number of followers was very less. So the prayers were conducted at the house of the Prophet itself. Later as the religion began to grow the need for more space came and newer mosques were made. “In addition to the early mosques of Mecca and Madina, there are sources indicating other contemporary mosques in other towns.” (Kjeilen).

The people thought that building a mosque would bring around their transparency and devotion and they started with it to create their own mosques or donating considerably to make a portion of the mosque. But recently there are changes to the age-old customs and traditions. The mosques built at those ancient times were common to all who need to offer their prayers which now came up with divisions in sharing. The discrimination inside the religion of Islam has brought about the situation of choosing the mosques for their prayers.

Architectural Evolution of Mosque

During the initial centuries, there viewed an extensive conversion of churches to mosques sometimes with and else without the permission of Christians. At many places, the people were converted to Islam and the churches gradually were accepted as mosques for them to perform their prayers. In some areas, they had full support from the Christian community so that Muslims were allowed to treat churches as their own holy places.

As time passed over, many rooms were integrated into the mosques to perform various activities include the social lessons, proficient errands of the mosques and the motel provisions for the traveler, aged and ill. Pious and abstinent frequently stayed in the mosque, conceivably still inside the minaret. “A minaret is a tall, thin tower, usually with a cone, or circular shaped crowns on the top. Some are free-standing, while others are connected to another building. Minarets are usually found built with Islamic mosques.” (What is a Minaret?).

Minarets are the common architectural virtue seen in mosques worldwide. The architecture of Minaret has three components in common. The foundation, beam and balcony are the parts seen in any architecture of a mosques’ minaret. The base is made by digging the ground to depths to get a firm and rigid foundation for the entire structure because it is a tall and massy structure so could not make on the floor level. Various sustaining and stiff objects are used as supporting materials in the building of the base of the minarets. Minarets may possibly be tapering, quadrangle, cylinder, or else multilateral. The shaft has a staircase that is twirling in an anti-clockwise direction which requires null extra support due to extremely extended arrangement. The place occupied by the Muezzin for citing out the pray call is called the gallery. It is a terrace that surrounds the higher part of the minaret. It is enclosed by a crown resembling blind and decorated with embellishment, such as ornamental block and tile design, cornices, bends and writings, with the change from the streak to the porch normally fair corbels. Initially unadorned admired, a minaret’s basis in an instance can be resolved by its plane of flamboyance.

  • “Other elements inside a mosque include:”
  • “Dakka”: A raised area over which the Muezzin stands for performing the call to prayer, following the same performance from the minaret is named Dakka.
  • “Kursi”: A small table and a stool for keeping the Quran and for the person reading the Quran.
  • “Reliquaries”: These are places where the dead bodies, portions of the bodies or else the possessions of the pious and holy people are kept.
  • “Carpets”: The entire flooring of the mosques is covered by the carpets.
  • “Lights”: The lighting of the mosques is done by candles or bulbs which are not part of customs as such.
  • “Incense”: The holy house of God is always kept at pleasant fragrance. In the case of ceremonies, incense is given much priority which is surely a part of the customs.
  • “Water”: The provisions for water are kept in every mosque around the globe as ablution which is essential for performing the prayers is done using water. Also, drinking water will be present at any mosque. (Kjeilen).

The mosques that existed initially did not have any indications for the Qibla. During the reign of Uzman Bin Affan, the third Caliph, there was a decision to hang a sign of his to indicate the direction of Ka’ba to help the travelers in their prayers. Later, during the reign of Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik, there were steps taken to construct a niche similar to the Christian architecture in order to indicate Qibla. Under the supervision of Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz, a niche was built for Masjid al Nabawi where the sign of the third Caliph was hung. They named it Mihrab which is a reign followed in the architecture of mosques till now. Mihrab is defined as “an ornamental indentation in the wall of a mosque, which marks the direction of the Qibla. Mihrabs vary in size and color, but are usually shaped like a doorway and decorated with tiles and calligraphy to make it stand out.” (Huda). The setup of Mihrabs will be different for different mosques but are for the same purpose.

Minbar is another important construction in the architectural plan of mosques worldwide. Minbar is “a pulpit in a mosque from which the sermon is delivered. It takes the form of a domed box with a door at the top of a staircase.” (Minbar: Definition).

Every mosque has a lifted platform next to the Mihrab from where Khatib, the head of the mosques’ rituals, can perform a Khutbah which is always known as Minbar.

The architecture of Happiness & Islamic Architecture

The architectural aspects of mosques are of higher priority because of the precious position of the built-in cultural and belief aspects of religion as a whole. The virtues of the architecture should always match up to the concepts and faith of the people of Islam, keeping the Islamic philosophy and requirement to the essential limit. The main objective that should be kept in an architect’s design of the mosque is the reality that a mosque is representatively much significant for Muslims due to the fact of the existence of divinity and eternity in the mosque. The mosques are crowded by the followers of Islam five times a day when they perform their salah which is a compulsory ritual for them. The factual statement defines only the presence of divinity in the mosque but not the construction. The architectural build-up is a mix of all different sculptural styles of the world guided by the customs and traditions of Islam.

The mosques all over the world will have similar parts but never resemble their entire setup. The Minbar, Mihrab, or Minaret will have different looks at different places used for similar purposes. All those constructions are guided by the best and beautiful architectural virtues prevailing at the places of construction. If the mosques in eastern countries are considered, the observed architecture will show traits of Aryan style while the Middle East shows up the Arab and Iranian architecture; the church styles are seen in the western countries. The innovations of the architectural styles in the construction of mosques define the acceptance of beauty and the best for the building of a mosque. There exists the reason for the beautiful and splendid construction of mosques worldwide. The integration of the varied virtues contributes to the operation requirement of the Islamic philosophy followers.

The architecture of Happiness is a theoretical and contemplation infuriating volume on the structural design. De Botton starts by inquiring about the beautiful concept of the reader and then describing his views on the beauty and excellence of the architectural traits. According to him, beauty is something that is embedded between the extreme points of order and complexity. He explains the necessity of self-assurance and compassion often seeming to be tedious. “We delight in complexity to which genius has lent an appearance of simplicity.” (Rice).

He explains that always simple work requires major hardships. So is the case of the mosques’ architecture. The aim of the state in ‘Architecture of Happiness’ is that an architect will never opt for beauty alone, but tries to merge the hunt of an enthusiastic and demonstrative architecture. De Botton talks about contemporary structural design and its foolishness, the thought of a universal manifestation against a confined appearance to construction, mysticism, design and spirituality, structures encompass the authority to progress us ethically and religiously. That implies the actual architectural requirement of mosques. The mosques’ virtues expected at the philosophical as well as ornamental level can be achieved easily from the theories of De Botton as demonstrated in his work ‘Architecture of Happiness’. The reading voyage through the words of De Botton impresses a person about a simplified appearance with perfection and beauty is possible with keeping up the entire beliefs and faith of the group requirement. Real happiness through architecture is possible as explained in the work i.e. contentment is the goal of an architect. The mosques’ architecture as well wishes for contentment because their entire culture and customs are depicted in those sculptures which are the houses of divinity and eternity.


It is indeed remarkable that Islamic architecture has stood up to the ravages of time and many wars that have ravaged these countries. It has retained its pristine glory and aesthetic appeal despite many challenges and threats and has only improved over time and changing worldwide technology. The beautiful monuments erected by devout and aesthetically inclined Muslims all over the world are ample testimony of the enormous cultural values and traditions that this religion could truly boast of.

The architecture and the concepts of architecture were identified. The beauty and religion of Islam are linked through the philosophy of the religion itself, resulting in the recognition of necessity beauty traits with the simplicity of architecture in the case of mosques. The ‘Architecture of Happiness’ describes the art of sculptures as a mode to achieve happiness and so the significance of the work in the Islamic architectural requirements for mosques is substantiated. The confidence of perfection to divinity can be achieved with the architectural guidance from De Botton’s Architecture of Happiness.

Works Cited

Aesthetics in Islamic Philosophy. n.d.

An Introduction to Architecture. Web.

Badr, Kamal. The Concept of Beauty in Islam. Reading Islam, 2005. Web.

Black, Deborah L. Aesthetics in Islamic Philosophy. Routledge, 1998.

Botton, Alain de. The Architecture of Happiness. New York: Vintage Books, Random House, 2006. Print.

Encyclopedia: Islamic Architecture: Contemporary Architecture: Interpretation. Nation, 2005. Web.

Huda. Minbar. Islam, 2009.

Introduction. Salaam, 2008. Web.

Kjeilen, Tore. Mosque. LookLex Ltd, 2009.

Minbar: Definition. Microsoft, 2009. Web.

Rice, Terri J. Customer Review: Beautiful Review.,2007. Web.

The Architecture of Happiness. Alain De Botton. London: Pedalo Limited, Web.

Tristam, Pierrie. Masjid al-Haram, or the Grand Mosque in Mecca. Middle East Issues, 2009. Web. >

What is a Minaret?, 2009. Web.

Business And Multinational Companies Internationalization


Analyzing international business in general, it can be stated that at the advent of the 21st century it became such a universal and pervasive phenomenon of modern civilization that it is practically impossible to provide an unambiguous definition of what it stands for. Attempting to reach a constructive definition, international business can be understood through its characteristics. The profit factor is general to the business sphere, and thus, the peculiarity of international business comes from the fact that international business is founded upon the opportunity of making a profit from the advantages of inter-country relations, i.e. from the fact that selling the product, providing the service, or establishing production in another country, provides a profit for the parties involved more than in the case the business was led only in their respective countries. A typical example of international business relations can be seen through direct investments in foreign countries, in which assets are actively managed as integral parts of the company. The latter is an example of multinational corporations, the role of which, in the context of international trade, has grown and reached substantial proportions, and thus, their activities in the international arena currently represent a significant meaning. Analyzing international business in general and multinational corporations in particular, this paper provides an analysis on the rationale of starting a multinational corporation in the current context, and accordingly, the formation process.

Motivation and Rationale

Although the growth of multinational corporations is specifically evident in the globalization era, it is hardly a new phenomenon. The latter can be seen through analyses of literature, which specifically trace the development of international business in general. An example can be seen through Dunning’s examination of US multinational investment in Britain, published in 1958, and which “traced the evolution of those firms back to the nineteenth century” (Jones and Khanna, 2004). Additionally, an examination of UK-based trading companies from the nineteenth century until the present day showed the expansion of multinational companies was largely initiated as an “intermediation between Britain and host economies in (mostly) developing markets” (Jones and Khanna, 2004). In that regard, being a historical phenomenon, it can be assumed that the motives for international expansion and starting a multinational corporation had largely changed through history.

The traditional motives driving business internationalization can be described through several triggers, such as the following:

  • Securing key suppliers – such force is mainly related t the scarcity of raw materials, to ensure the supply of which manufacturers opened new facilities in foreign countries, e.g. Standards Oil, Alcoa, Goodyear, Anaconda Copper, and International Nickel (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 2000b).
  • Market seeking behavior – this force is based on the rationale of seeking for new markets, where an intrinsic competitive advantage could not be sufficiently exploited in the domestic market, through the inability to support volume-intensive manufacturing processes, and thus, economies of scale and scope were able to provide such advantage to companies, e.g. Nestle, Bayer and Ford.
  • The access to low – cost factors of production – the disadvantage of local manufacturers against imports, specifically for companies to which labor constituted major costs, acted as a motive to establish offshore sourcing locations with low-cost capital.

Although some of the factors remained unchanged over time, it can be assumed that several new factors occurred, specifically with the further development of multinational corporations. In addition to a quantitative growth, which can be apparent through the frequency of foreign participation at the top management level in companies, e.g. “[f]ourteen of the Fortune 100 companies are now run by foreign-born CEOs” (Daft, 2009), there are also other structural factors. In the past multinational corporations had relatively easy tasks, mostly related to production and distribution, while in the latest decades it can be seen that the tasks became more complex and global. The latter is specifically evident through the changing nature of multinational corporations, where the early multinational corporations were large manufacturers, while many of the newer corporations are service companies forming multinational service networks, e.g. commercial banks, investment bankers, advertisement agencies, hotel companies, etc. Accordingly, it can be stated that that the affiliation to a specific country was gradually eliminated, and although many companies are still identified by their country of origin, e.g. Intel is American, Sony is Japanese, the effectiveness of business gradually replaced patriotism.

Accordingly, it can be stated that with the emergence of new trends in international business and multinational corporations, new motivations emerged for turning the corporation multinational. Specific factors can be seen in the wave of multinational corporations coming from developing countries. In such a case, the cost factor cannot be singled out, where the motivations were largely driven by a search for markets and technological innovations (Mathews, 2006). The newcomers, specifically for the Asian region, utilized rapid internationalization, acquiring their reach in a relatively small fraction of time. Accordingly, seeking for new markets and innovations another factor for going multination is tapping on resources that “would otherwise not be available to a firm competing solely at home and seeking to sustain an international presence through exports” (Mathews, 2006).

The labor cost also plays an important role as an emergent motivation for multinational corporations’ internationalization. Although this factor can be related to the traditional motivations, it nevertheless, changed its form from the cheap unskilled workforce into global outsourcing of talents, an example of which can be seen in the example of India as an offshore site for IT services (Gereffi, 2005). The latter is an example of the shift from manufacturing to the service sector (Daft, 2009).

Other factors supporting internationalization are the economies of scale and scope. In the first case, the rationale was guided by finding markets for the increased volume of production in which the lowest possible cost per unit was achieved (Daft, 2009). Accordingly, such economies allow obtaining volumes discounts, which in cases are the distinguishing factor for the survival of the company, e.g. Ford Motors. Economies of scope, on the other hand, can be seen in providing a variety of products and regions that will provide a competitive advantage for the company. The advantages sought in such cases are mainly represented through increased marketing power and synergy, and the development of broad knowledge, allowing the corporation to provide specialized products and services (Daft, 2009).

The Process of Internationalisation

The process of becoming international can e differentiated based on several approaches and theories. The product-cycle theory, developed by Professor Raymond Vernon, divides internationalization into three stages. The starting point for these stages, in that regard, is typically the company’s created innovation. The first stage, accordingly, is building the production facilities in the home country, where customers are located. During this stage, the product becomes standardized and creates a demand in other countries through exports. The second stage implies meeting the demand in foreign countries, and preventing the opportunities for competitors, the company sets up new facilities in foreign countries. In the third stage, when the product is highly standardized, many competitors enter the market, and thus, the company will seek an advantage through moving the production to developed countries and lower the costs. Accordingly, meeting the demand for the product in developed and developing countries, the latter become net exporters of the product (Daft, 2009).

The variation of these stages can be seen in implementing different approaches to enforce the processes which are perceived to occur naturally. For example, during the stages where demand is created abroad, the company might initiate actions as a recognition shock, where the perceptions of the products abroad should introduce from scratch, rather than rely on their recognition in their countries of origin. The latter can be seen through the example of Samsung, which had “had a lot of work to do to change overseas consumers’ expectations” (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 2000a). Another step that can be taken during the second phase of the internationalization process can be seen through investing ahead of demand. The latter although risky can be seen to create a push from homelands toward internationalization.

Other intermediary steps in internalization can be seen through the exploration of market conditions before moving production to foreign countries. A case study of a Japanese-owned electronics firm, presenting its supervisory systems in three of its plants located in different countries, i.e. Japan, Mexico and Britain, presented striking differences in job content and scope of responsibilities. It was shown in the study that “the quantity and quality of labor were central to providing a pool of adequately skilled personnel who were able to fulfill broader supervisory roles” (Lowe et al., 2000). Accordingly, it can be stated that during the stages of internationalization the company, i.e. joint production, increasing the volume or offshoring the business, the export of the business model is not always working. Accordingly, the source of innovation is no longer limited to the center of the company, where emerging markets might contribute to the decentralization of product development.


It can be concluded that the process of internationalization has changed drastically during the last decades, where internationalization turned from being an option to being a strategic imperative. In that regard, although the search for profit remained the main factor, the new emerging motivations imply the necessity for companies to gain global competitive advantages. In that regard, the internationalization of business turned from being merely an expansion of the production into a survival factor. Accordingly, it can be stated that the process of internationalization has changed as well. The stages based on the product-cycle model, although have many common elements, revised to accommodate the current trend s toward rapid internationalization, in which many factors should be considered such as the quality of the labor, the product development cycle, and the changes to the business model. In that regard, emerging markets are no longer just recipients, but also active contributors to the products’ development philosophies of multinational corporations.

Works Cited

BARTLETT, C. A. & GHOSHAL, S. 2000a. Going Global: Lessons from Late Movers. Harvard Business Review, 78, 132.

BARTLETT, C. A. & GHOSHAL, S. 2000b. Transnational management: text, cases, and readings in cross-border management, McGraw Hill.

DAFT, R. L. 2009. Organization theory and design, Cengage Learning EMEA.

GEREFFI, G. 2005. The New offshoring of Jobs and global development. Web. 


JONES, G. & KHANNA, T. 2004. Bringing History into International Business Working Paper. Harvard Business School.


MATHEWS, J. A. 2006. Dragon multinationals: New players in 21st-century globalization. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 23, 5-27.

PRAHALAD, C. K. & LIEBERTHAL, K. 1998. The end of corporate imperialism. (multinational corporations). Harvard Business Review, v76, p68(12).

SCHNEIDER, S. C. & BARSOUX, J.-L. 2003. Managing across cultures, Harlow, Financial Times Prentice Hall.

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