Analysis Of Theories In Communication Sample College Essay

Introduction

Stanley Deetz developed the critical theory of communication to explore ways of ensuring the health of organizations while increasing diverse human interests’ representation. This was achieved first by indicating that corporations have become not only economic but also political institutions. The theory points out various ways through which decision-making can be distorted by a corporation’s communication practices and outlines how communication reforms can make workplaces more democratic and productive (Mayfield et al., 2020). Deetz utilizes strategy, involvement, participation, and consent to present the theory. This paper evaluates how these concepts have been incorporated in the film ROGER AND ME.

Main body

The corporate colonization concept reflects that when corporations or organizations in our societies become the central power source, individuals are likely to derive both their values as well as identity from the corporations. The concept evaluates various factors in terms of communication practices and systems of an organization. It entails theories and practices including organizational resistance, disciplinary power, concretive control, organizational identity, and hegemony. The concept also describes the cooperation of these theories and how the cooperation creates organizations that become dominating institutions for value systems and the identity of individuals. Organizational identity is a crucial aspect of corporate colonization since it is meant for the corporate system’s organizational control as well as obedience (Malengo 2016).

This is why mechanisms of organizational identity are legitimate processes that are evidence of domination than agreement and free choice. This concept is indicated throughout the film since the chairman of the company derives all the power from the position held in the company. For instance, one needs an appointment to access the floor of the chairman’s office. Secondly, not even the secretary can call straight to the chairman’s office, illustrating the principle of corporate colonization.

The theory reflects that communication is information transfer that perpetuates everyday life’s managerialism as well as corporate colonization. Managerialism refers to a systematic logic, ideology, and routine practices that make managers have control as the only thing in their minds. However, while some employees may choose to conform to their bosses’ ways, some may reform against their bosses’ ways. It is also important to notice that the employees who know about this reality choose to continue with the order of things because most of them lack a choice (Mayfield et al., 2020).

In the film ROGER AND ME, managerialism has been depicted when the chairman of General Motors decides that the company would close some of its branches across the United States. This action would result in the laying off of several workers without any clear path of compensating the workers for them to go on with their lives.

Consent is a model’s aspect of managerial control whereby unaware, a person participates in their exploitation. This is experienced whenever workers fail to get what they deserve even after giving their loyalty. Consent is engineered by systematically distorted communication because of its restrictions on free expression or discussion (Malengo 2016). It emerges when managers decide that things appear what they are not, further strengthening power relationships. Consent can best be illustrated when there is a prohibition for workers to have discussions of any nature regarding issues like pay difference controversies and gender-based job classification, among others.

Therefore, in the communication model, workers consent to the managerial control mentality unconsciously, and this may become severe if it is overlooked. This concept has been illustrated in the film when humans are used as status in a party graced by the company’s top officials. Further, it is illustrated when there is a view by one of the fired employees that most union officials are friends with the company management, and when the attendant at Detroit Athletic Club refuses to provide information about the chairman because it is a private building.

The concept of discursive closure, as developed by Deetz, involves various unobtrusive strategies that a proponent of a given discourse may employ in surpassing a potential conflict to prevent the free expression of alternative views. According to Deetz, these strategies can hardly be noticed and include topical avoidance, disqualification, neutralization, experience subjectification, pacification, naturalization, legitimation, among others.

The ability to identify these strategies provides a crucial step in the management of an imposed communication challenge (Mayfield et al., 2020). This is illustrated in the movie when the company’s spokesperson chooses to avoid any conflict with the chairman. The spokesman feels that what the chairman is doing is wrong but to avoid the emergence of a conflict between them, still refers to the chairman as a warm man, which amounts to discursive closure. The governor’s refusal to the opinion of a sit-down strike also amounts to discursive closure. Another instance of discursive closure is illustrated when Miss Michigan refuses to blame the company for the lay-off because of the upcoming Miss America competitions, which she eventually wins.

Conclusion

Organization communication provides that organizations are dominating locations with both power and control based on unequal power distribution. The critical theory of communication developed by Stanley Deetz has presented various concepts that have formed the basis of this paper’s discussion, as the concept of discursive closure. The paper has also highlighted examples of these concepts from the film ROGER AND ME.

References

Malengo, C. R. (2016). Examining How Supervisor/Employee Communication Affects Employee Intentions to Leave an Organization (Doctoral dissertation, Gonzaga University).

Mayfield, M., Mayfield, J., & Walker, R. (2020). Reasons and Representations. In Fundamental Theories of Business Communication (pp. 171-186). Palgrave Macmillan.

Moore M. (Director). (1989). Roger & Me [Film]. A dog e­­­­at dog Productions.

Racial Discrimination In The USA

Introduction

The formation and development of a civil nation is a complex and contradictory process. Ethnic and confessional differences have always played an ambiguous role in the history of America and other countries with a multinational population. In the past, such differences have repeatedly acted as factors of social tension and conflict. This is still evident in American society today. At the same time, the coexistence of different ethnic groups, carriers of many cultures and languages ​​within one country is a source of constant beneficial mutual influence, a condition for the successful development of society. In the United States, one of the most important tasks of the state is the development and effective implementation of the right national policy.

Main body

More than 50 years ago, the United States finally ended racial segregation, the symbol of which was exclusively the rights of white people. Since then, the United States has come a long way towards electing its first black president and even claiming compensation from slaves by politicians (Bailey et al., 2017). However, in recent years, the United States has seen an increase in racially motivated crimes and further aggression of the society.

The death of African American George Floyd after being detained by the police provoked protests and riots not only across America, but also beyond its borders. Actions against racism are taking place all around the world. Accusations leveled at all four police officers involved in Floyd’s arrest did not help calm the situation (Weine et al., 2020). The protesters for many years demanded an end to racism, which still remains one of the main problems of American society (Bailey et al., 2017). It affects the lives of citizens, visitors, and destroys a free and calm society.

Despite tremendous progress, many of the problems of the black population in the United States still remain relevant, and the number of racial incidents, both in relation to blacks and other segments of the population, is growing. In parallel with the blacks, problems began to arise regarding the white population. When trying to gather movements for the importance of the life of white people, they were also not supported by blacks, and they were also unable to gather enough people for various reasons (Smith, 2021a). This once again created social confrontation and negative attitudes in society.

Adopting inclusiveness and social acceptance is a long and complex process. For example, in Orange County, there was a lengthy discussion among parents of schoolchildren on the topic of teaching critical race theory. Questions arose about correct wording, approach to teaching, and different interpretations of historical events (Smith, 2021b). Additionally, there was an important view that teaching historical events about discrimination in American society can influence the perpetuation of the victim state. In this regard, already white children may be discriminated against in order to balance the situation.

At the same time, the solution to the problem of racism is precisely the correct position of society. It can be achieved through education, training, and coverage of important topics of discrimination in all sectors of society through various channels, including the media. It is important to emphasize inclusiveness and tolerance in society, rather than focusing on the existing complexities of ethical and cultural perception. Examples from the past can be given, but only in the format of illustrative cases worked out by psychotherapists so that they reflect reality and at the same time cause rejection of such behavior. Such examples should not cause new waves of negativity and opposition in society.

Society in the modern world affects not only its personal life, but also the future life of its descendants. Therefore, the decisions made have a lot of weight and significance. For the further development of tolerance in society, a well-developed strategy for the introduction of information and training for American citizens is necessary, which will be of great importance for the development of the country.

For school-age children, teaching about tolerance and inclusiveness should definitely be present in the school curriculum, however, the developed strategy should be built jointly by teachers and psychotherapists, who will determine that the chosen direction and approach only has a positive impact on the perception of children. The inspiration of people for their personal and others’ rights and abilities is the main goal (Chicano Federation, 2021). Such training should not create bias or controversy, should not allow free interpretation, and should be aimed at the equal rights of the person of any race.

For adults with an already formed opinion and understanding, it is important to build a separate strategy for conducting global information, training and discussions, for working out perception and coming to mutual understanding for different cultures and ethnic groups. There may be some objections from adults, however, parents greatly influence the point of view of children, so it will not be effective to promote certain ideas only among children in schools. Therefore, it is precisely an integrated approach to adapting society to the modern realities of a diversified population that is needed.

Conclusion

In conclusion, in the modern world, people of different nationalities, cultures, and other characteristics live in almost any country and state. In this regard, the issue of acceptance of each other by such different groups becomes relevant. In order to form one holistic, productive, and mutually accepting society, it is important to introduce a system of correct information and education regarding the importance of inclusiveness and tolerance from childhood.

References

Chicano Federation [@chicanofederation]. (2021). A beautiful reminder from @shinanova [Photograph]. Instagram. Web.

Smith, H. (2021a). ‘White Lives Matter’ rallies fizzled. Hate groups still see chance to ‘fire up the base’. Los Angeles Times, Web.

Smith, H. (2021b). Wrenching struggle to define critical race theory divides an Orange County school district. Los Angeles Times, Web.

Bailey, Z. D., Krieger, N., Agenor, M., Graves, J., Linos, N., & Bassett, M. T. (2017). Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: Evidence and interventions. The Lancet, 389(10077), 1453-1463. Web.

Weine, S., Kohrt, B. A., Collins, P. Y., Cooper, J., Lewis-Fernandez, R., Okpaku, S., & Wainberg, M. L. (2020). Justice for George Floyd and a reckoning for global mental health. Global Mental Health, 7. Web.

Artificial Intelligence Implementation In Accounting Processes

The article by Bakarich and O’Brien (2021) refers to the problem of the implementation of AI technologies in the field of accounting. The most popular technologies in this sphere are machine learning (ML) and robotic process automation (RPA) (Bakarich & O’Brien, 2021). The research aims to determine to which extent these artificial intelligence technologies are applied now and are expected to be applied in five years. Artificial intelligence seems to be a prospective technology, and its implementation in accounting processes is inevitable.

The article includes some quantitative and qualitative research based on the secondary data concerning the issue of AI in the field of accounting. The analysis provided in the article is based on the answers of 90 participants from different positions and service lines. According to the research, the accountants estimate the application of the AI in the audit, tax, and advisory fields. Two options are considered: robotic process automation and machine learning. Robotic process automation allows replacing and labor-intensive tasks of integrating the IT-systems (Bakarich & O’Brien, 2021). Besides, robotic systems are able to calculate tax books, evaluate discrete code or transactions, and to complete tax return workbooks. Machine learning technologies allow pulling essential data from lease contracts, analyzing large amounts of information, extracting the information from legal documents. These tasks can be implemented due to pattern recognition, and it simplifies data processing. Thus, artificial intelligence can successfully perform a range of tax, advisory, or audit functions.

The progress in the field of AI development can disrupt the advisory or consulting service lines. The employees have to be shifted to the positions demanding more complex and value-added analysis for the clients (Bakarich & O’Brien, 2021). Thus, the professionals should be ready for acquiring some new skills in order to adapt to the changing environment. Despite the fact that many operations are going to be automated, human operators will remain an important part of the business processes.

The article also provides a quantitative analysis of the extent to which the AI is implemented in the companies. The respondents of the survey had to estimate it by answering a range of questions. For example, they had to estimate their level of expertise with some artificial intelligence technologies. The number of trainings on the AI provided by the company was considered as well as the ability of clients to work with AI. The frequency of utilizing the AI during performing accounted tasks was also among the important factors for the analysis. The results of the research revealed that the most important factor that determines the level of AI implementation is the firm size. Such factors as expertise, perception, training, client usage, adoption seem to have no significant difference. The position of the respondent also influenced the level of self-estimated level of expertise in the field of AI.

All in all, the qualitative responses confirm the quantitative analysis. More than half of the respondents answered that the AI technologies are surely going to become the essential part of accounting processes in the coming years. The views of the respondents are mostly optimistic, although several respondents have indicated such negative points as employee pushback, increased costs, and lack of focus strategies on AI implementation. One of the key conclusions is that despite the respondents believe that the AI technologies are going to develop greatly within five years, nowadays the AI is not extensively used by accountants. Practitioners should consider the strategies that would encourage the adoption of AI in companies.

Reference

Bakarich, K. M., & O’Brien, P. E. (2021). The Robots are Coming… But Aren’t Here Yet: The Use of Artificial Intelligence Technologies in the Public Accounting Profession. Journal of Emerging Technologies in Accounting, 18(1), 27–43. Web.

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