The humanity field selected in the previous assignment was “Visual Art,” practiced in many cultures worldwide. As described in the previous assignment, visual art incorporated products like; paints, films, drawings, videos, architecture, sculptures and ceramics that people significantly appreciated through sight. In this case, different examples of visual art were selected from three different cultures; Latin American Culture (Mexico), Western Culture (United States), and Pacific Islander Culture (Native Hawaiian). The selected aspects of visual arts in the selected countries were; Mexican Baroque, made in Mexico; Woman II, Made in the United States; and Fragile Paradise, made in Native Hawaii. I selected visual art in these cultures because they significantly influenced the cultures in different ways. In this context, the three selected examples of visual art in the three cultures share common themes as well as differing in some aspects, as described in the paper.
The first example was the Mexican Baroque, created by Cristobal de Villalpando in Mexico. Mexican Baroque emerged from the conquest of the New World during the subjugation and negotiation that unfolded when the Spaniards established a rule in 1521. Cristobal de Villalpando created Mexican Baroque during his time in the 1680s. Several events followed the establishment of the Mexican Baroque. One of the most significant events was the Renaissance, which started in Rome from 1584 to 1685. The ideas for formulating the Mexican Baroque were derived from the Spanish Baroque. During this time, the artists applied realistic creative approaches making visual art popular. The second visual art analyzed in the assignment was Woman II, created by Willem de Kooning in 1952 in the Museum of Modern Art in New York City (Heathcote 107). The art was created in the 1950s in New York when painters like Fraz Kline and Jackson Pollock were creating their art. During this time, Kooning created Woman II with attractive paintings and colors. Woman II was abstract expressionist oil on canvas painting. It was taken to the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. The third example of visual art was Fragile Paradise, created by Arman Manookian from 1924 to 1925. It was created in Native Hawaii in the Pacific Islander culture (Blackford 23). Fragile Paradise was created to portray the protection of the environment.
Figure 2: Woman II by Willem De Kooning
Figure 3: The Mexican Baroque by Cristibol de Villalpando
One thing in common that the three examples of visual art selected is that the creator applied the same color in painting their artworks. Some colors applied in all three examples are a mixture of yellow, Umber, Ocher and vermillion. Moreover, the three designers applied copper resin and organic carbon black deposits on the background. On the other hand, the three examples have used different colors in painting in different sections. The significant difference is that they do not depict the same theme. Each visual art may tell a different story. The interpretive terms applied in analyzing visual art are the degree of light and dark and the form of the art (Liu 1). The degree of light and darkness will define the appearance of the three examples of visual art. On the other hand, the form describes the visual art’s shape and dimensions. In this case, Fragile Paradise was designed with a clear light. The value of a degree in Woman II is dark, and that of a degree in Mexican Baroque is dark (Malloy 23). The form in the three examples of visual art is two dimensions with width and length.
In conclusion, the Mexican Baroque, Fragile Paradise and Woman II were designed in Mexico by Cristibol de Villalpando, Native Hawaii by Arman Manookian and the United States by Willem Manookian, respectively. Woman II was created in Western Culture, Fragile Paradise was created in Pacific Islander Culture, and Mexican Baroque was created in Latin American Culture. The three examples applied the same form, two dimensions and similar colors in different sections. The three examples differ because they do not depict similar themes.
Blackford, M. G. (2001). Fragile paradise: the impact of tourism on Maui, 1959-2000. Development of Western Resource.
Heathcote, Christopher. “Willem de Kooning and the meaning of his ugly woman.” Quadrant 64.7/8 (2020): 104-113.
Libretexts (2020) 9.5: Mexican baroque (1640 – the mid-1700s), Humanities LibreTexts. Available at: https://human.libretexts.org/Courses/Solano_Community_College/ART_002:_Art_History/09:_The_Beginning_of_Colonization_(1550_CE__1750_CE)/9.05:_Mexican_Baroque_(1640__mid_1700s) (Accessed: 29 June 2023).
Liu, Wenli. “Research on the application of multimedia elements in visual communication art under the Internet background.” Mobile Information Systems 2021 (2021): 1-10.
Malloy, Kaoiṁe E. The art of theatrical design: elements of visual composition, methods, and practice. Taylor & Francis, 2022.
The Legitimacy Of The Decision To Respect Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) Order On A Patient With A DNR Tattoo In The State Of Michigan.
A Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) Order is one of the contentious issues in ethical and legal provisions within healthcare settings of palliative care. Federal and state laws guide the application of such DNR statutes but also conflict with the ethical values and principles of healthcare professionals and society in general. Indeed, there are many cases where patients have been given the cases of DNR orders, and such orders execution has raised mixed reactions creating conflict between law and ethical values. An exemplary scenario involves the case of a 70-year-old patient with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, diabetes mellitus, and atrial fibrillation with a tattoo of DNR on his chest. The physicians interpreted the tattoo and followed it, failing to provide medical care of resuscitation to that patient. It is a decision that is wrong. Had I been on that hospital’s ethics committee, I would have advised that they ought not to have honored the tattoo, and their advisement was morally unsound even when I think of their stated reasons reasonably.
A DNR order refers to a medical direction showing a person’s decision not to receive medical care of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or any other life-sustaining medical care in palliative care. However, the value of life and its sanctity remains standing in the midst of every difficult situation of DNR decision-making from the perspective of healthcare professionals and patients’ families. The decision made by the medical facility to uphold the patient’s DNR order given in the form of a tattoo on his chest raises mainly questions regarding the ethical implications and the reasonable status of the law in such a context (Aziz et al., 2015). In the case scenario, while the medical professionals first tried to restore the patient’s health stability, there was a dilemma on whether the tattoo on his chest about the DNR order was to be followed. But after consultation with the ethics committee and the social work support team, they decided to uphold the law in such a context regarding patient autonomy (Aziz et al., 2015). On the reasoning of the ethics committee, the patient’s tattoo DNR order might be an authentic preference, and it might be seen as a caution or as standing on ceremony and that the law does not nimble enough to support such a decision not to follow DNR,
The laws of Michigan state provide clear legal provisions and circumstances under which a DNR order should be given and followed. From the legal provisions, there are two legally allowed forms or ways through which a patient may provide a DNR order; One is through a physician ‘s order for scope treatment (POST). The state of Michigan acknowledges that patients willing to undertake an end of life care can take a DNR by filling in a POST form. The form allows them to provide information on what should be done in regard to their end-of-life sustaining measures or resuscitation. The second legal provision of the state of Michigan is that a person can provide a DNR order by filling in a DNR conform Care Form. The form is legally supposed to be filled by the patient, parent, guardian, or any other healthcare representative (Michigan’s Do-Not-Resuscitate Procedure Act, 2023).
The decision of the ethics team does not, first of all, infer or align with the legal requirements. Under the two legal circumstances of DNR order approval, there is sufficient proof that they followed the law. The ethics team’s decision was out of line with the law. They decided based on the tattoo statement on the patient’s chest with no closer link to how the law, even though they inferred to law. The first legal circumstance under which a DNR order can be given is through a POST form. In the case scenario of the 70-year-old patient, there was no evidence of such a form being filled. The patient was admitted in an unconscious state and unable to speak and give instructions on what end-of-life care resuscitation or life sustenance measure to be taken by the healthcare professional. The DNR Act of Michigan states that the form can be completed if a person has discussed the issue with his or her physician, but in this case, there was no discussion since the patient arrived in an unconscious state (Michigan’s Do-Not-Resuscitate Procedure Act, 2023). Analysis of the same case under the DNR Comfort Care Form showed no guardian, patient, parent, or healthcare professional. It allows patients to express their decisions and consent on why they want a DNR. But in this context, there was no discussion between the patient and the healthcare professionals to express their consent (Walkey et al., 2016).
Nevertheless, from an ethical perspective, the ethics team violated the ethical values which hold life as a sacred institution. It is unethically wrong to first of all execute a DNR order since it acts as s form of murder even though the law does recognize such a provision. However, under society’s religious values, a DNR order is not allowed in Christianity, for instance (Walkey et al., 2016). Instead, death is allowed to take its natural state or process.
Besides, the ethical committee’s decision undermined the autonomy or consent of the patient personally. They should have acted on a DNR order given by the patient based on his autonomy and the patient’s rights being exercised. However, their decision violated the informed consent or autonomy of patients. In addition, as healthcare professionals, their roles are to provide care to the best level with the intention of not harming the patient but ensuring the medical care provided, whether physical or by instructions verbally and psychologically, is intended to better the health of a patient (Curtis et al., 2020). Considering that there was no verbal confirmation from the client on a DNR order, the ethic’s team decision is considered unethical and contributed to a life being taken away (Curtis et al., 2020). Likewise, their decision could probably lead to psychological trauma or pressure on the patient’s family if they discovered that they did such an act of ordering a DNR order to be executed based on such a tattoo on his chest with confirmation from him verbally there in the medical facility or presence of any other close relative family (Curtis et al., 2020).
In conclusion, end-of-life care comes with ethical and legal dilemmas that physicians and the entire healthcare professional team involved in patient care must face. A DNR order is one of them, which presents itself differently. In the context of the case scenario of a 70-year-old unconscious patient with a DNR order statement tattoo on his chest, the ethics team or committee and social work support decision is unethical. It does not also abide by the state of Michigan laws on DNR. The reason is due to the ethical values of healthcare such as patient autonomy, informed consent, value of life, responsibility of healthcare professionals such as non-maleficence and beneficence, and Michigan DNR statutes violation.
Aziz, H., Branco, B. C., Braun, J., Hughes, J. D., Goshima, K. R., Trinidad-Hernandez, M., … & Mills Sr, J. L. (2015). The influence of do-not-resuscitate status on the outcomes of patients undergoing emergency vascular operations. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 61(6), 1538-1542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2014.11.087
Curtis, J. R., Kross, E. K., & Stapleton, R. D. (2020). Addressing advance care planning and decisions about do-not-resuscitate orders during novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is important. Jama, 323(18), 1771-1772. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4894
Michigan’s Do-Not-Resuscitate Procedure Act. (2023). Www.michigan.gov. https://www.michigan.gov/mdhhs/adult-child-serv/adults-and-seniors/sevicesseniors/endoflife/circle/michigans-do-not-resuscitate-procedure-act
Walkey, A. J., Weinberg, J., Wiener, R. S., Cooke, C. R., & Lindenauer, P. K. (2016). Association of do-not-resuscitate orders and hospital mortality rate among patients with pneumonia. JAMA internal medicine, 176(1), 97-104. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.6324
How The Concept Of Festivalisation Is Applied In The Staging Of C2
Richard St-Pierre, the CEO of C2, once coined, “Festivalization is just a new fad for the event world to become more relevant…So, why? Because we wanted to reinvent what a moment in time was. So, if we simply tweak what an event should be, well, you don’t get this” (Sheivachman). To everyone, the word conference resonates with halls filled with people seated to listen to some experts, coffee time conversations before heading to the keynote or rushing to catch up with a certain group meeting. However, C2 has reinvented and reinvigorated the term to an environment of business matchmaking, play,brain-dating, sense-shifting, interactive art installations, and empathy workshops. C2 has reinvented the conference experience. The idea was hatched due to brainstorming among 25 people in Old Montreal (C2 MTL.). The idea’s main goal was to maximize the attendees’ creativity and aspiration in a festive atmosphere. Unlike everyday conferences, C2 infuses the physical conference environment with interactive content (Whatsup in Montreal). It is designed to shift attendees from content consumption to production. C2 is the new phase of the interactive conference.
C2’s festivalisation concept is the same reason I looked forward to attending the event. My main goal for attending the conference was to board. My goal was to broaden my connections. My objective includes having life experience with excellence managers across the globe, attending a session where I can discuss my views with others, and enjoying the festival within the conference duration. I will say that I met my main goals; however, not all the objectives were met.
I can affirm the power of ideas experience was high. One engages with numerous activations in myriad ways, each bringing the magical aspect of conference design. It mixed keynotes and personally tuned engagement with the guest speakers and other celebrities. Sometimes you enter innate activation that pushes people to their limit while engaging strangers and having authentic self-reflection sessions. Workshops have been designed to promote creativity in ideas generation and problem-solving (Becerra 36). Some workshops were designed to build personalities, such as leadership skills through confidence and free thinking. C-labs introduced me to group problem-solving in a unique environment, sometimes pitch-dark rooms, which promoted complete knowledge consumption. Each lab exposed participants to various skills, including creativity, communication, and engagement during work (Sheivachman). I learned that it is necessary to design conferences in a manner that creates a lasting impact among the attendees. It is also essential to provide a personalized touch to the training by targeting individuals or smaller groups. C2 is an environment for positive education and branding.
C2 exposed me to the power of entertainment and theatricality. From music, trumpeting, acrobatics, and circus, C2 made a learning environment more enjoyable than the traditional electrified conference halls. The high steel beam buildings also add to the elegance of the space, which creates the ambiance of a real festivity (Sheivachman): the dances and DJ. Effectively guide the stage and amicably move the furniture when necessary without making the environment seem electric with work. I learned that theatrics and entertainment create the best learning atmosphere. While moving from point A to B, it is an entertainment uncharacterized by the traditional hallways of many workshops. There is never a downtime in C2 labs; it is full of activity, whether you stay at one point is moving to the next. I recommend a conference style from this lesson that immerses the audience and minimizes downtime to boost the learning experience.
C2 is engineered to provide maximum experience. Every space offers a unique experience, whether seated walking or just watching the artists. The open space ensures full flourishing and flow of ideas; it is like an industrial park. It further demonstrates the interconnection between commerce and creativity in one place. The labs have their participants put through various stages, meeting points, rooms, and activation spaces, with effective control to minimize possible congestion at any point (C2 MTL). The engineers have utilized Lego bricks, plastic walls, fabric seats, and shipping containers to demarcate spaces. The spaces further show a high level of variety, whimsy, and creativity. The lesson learned from this creativity is the importance of space and the creativity behind developing spaces. Instead of relying on traditional halls for conferences, spaces can be developed with readily available materials or objects to reduce the monotony of traditional settings.
I was unhappy with the service of the Concierge Extraordinaire. The hype put around this concept was not matched with the reality. I believed that robots guided the registration pages, and since I was late with the registration, the response was mainly, ‘Sorry, you are late.” At the venue, I was not given a clear map or guidance on the schedules. I found myself attending some workshops or lab minutes late. The guidance on the floor was brief, and I had no hyped experience with the team. In the future, C2 should train their Concierge Extraordinaire to provide the attendees with an experience that matches the entire lab experience.
Conferences are designed with a strong mind for imparting knowledge. In most cases, the attendees are given their badges and toe bag, wander around, take their coffee, and then move to the section of the hall to listen to the keynote speaker. The attendees might share over the plugs and often have enough time to converse and check their social media pages (C2 MTL). During breaks, people mingle and even exchange contact cards. The less aggressive ones even go home with no cards, except for the sketched notes they will peruse. C2 has been engineered to remove this monotony and improve connection and impact. It is developed through a braindate concept, allowing people to connect while sharing experiences.
In the contemporary world, the sole reason for attending conferences is for people to network. Therefore, the level of conference attendance is high among those better designed to promote interaction. C2 attracts attendees across the world with a vast number of speakers from different skill domains. They have brain dates, a structured approach to connecting the best brains with the attendees. Therefore, C2 villages can be considered as numerous peer-peer learning hubs. The thousands of attendees have a chance to have one-on-one learning meetings. The engineers utilize both brain date apps and Brain Dating Lounge to matchmake. To have the most festive, matchmaking is done long before the event. However, for those who fail to schedule themselves, they seek guidance from the Concierge Extraordinaire. The job of the Concierge goes beyond guiding the attendees within the camp to helping them move around Montreal with ease. At the festive, the guides take them through different hubs, including the forum, plaza, and hangar. A well-structured reconnaissance is missing in many conferences, and often, the attendees have to wade their way into the right hub or sometimes find themselves seated in the wrong hubs.
C2 has developed a unique learning inspiration for its members. It has blended emotional, mental, and physical motivators to enhance the attendees’ experience. Forums are characterized by themed entertainment; the music sets the learning mood and gets the attendees introspective. In the hub, the attendees can meet their carefully selected speakers and decide when to attend their hubs. The forum has-a schedule-like entertainment; it utilizes music and art to guide the attendees over the themes. The live experiences are unmatched in any traditional conference setting. The attendees can experience the event in the forum through experimentation in the hangar, a uniquely designed brainstorming environment. The hangar has everything an attendee may want in a conference: brainstorming sessions, workshops, and a unique one-on-one interaction atmosphere. The hangar is designed to promote active participation, promote ideas cross-pollination, and allow learners actively participate in the learning process.
The participants can emotionally, physically, and mentally submerge themselves in learning. It is magically designed both in experience and feeling. Sometimes, the attendees are exposed to brainstorming in darkrooms or through blindfolds (Johnson). The atmosphere allows a free flow of ideas, and the participants freely speak with each other. Physical vulnerability is enhanced by the suspended chairs, which makes one feel vulnerable in the space. C2 also has intimate spaces, nests, or labs. The participants enter guided discussions in a physically enclosed space in the labs. C2 labs are designed for experimentation, and strangers can confidently reason whether they are right or wrong. This kind of fearless expression is what contributes to idea development. In the hangar, risks, vulnerabilities, and failure are all celebrated. The confidence created is then used to revolutionize ideas.
C2 workshops are unmatched by traditional conferences. C2 has an array of talents from many industries and is presided over by top talents worldwide. It brings a mix of young talents, entrepreneurs, and excelling executives worldwide. The participants can interact, share, and build connections in the most dynamic setting. C2 also has master classes where participants try new things or build untested ideas. The workshops are engineered uniquely to fit the attendee’s desires to explore the new realm. Apart from the electric learning sessions, attendees can connect at freer spaces in the Plaza. The space can be loosely considered Montreal cultural experience. The unwinding atmosphere is designed to enhance connection at a more personal level, which can be stretched further outside the festive. The plaza is a typical celebration floor full of music, food, and other forms of entertainment. If you are lucky, you can catch up with people you looked forward to meeting here. However, engineering and design are strictly developed to enhance the learning experience. One cannot forget the artistic aspect of preparing the C2; the art is central to the conference. They have been used at every stage to enhance the experience, promote themes, and create an atmosphere for learning and interaction.
Festivation is the best approach to conferencing, according to my experience. Festivation is the perfect connection platform. It is ideal for experiencing keynotes, where everyone wants to interact with the only speaker. In C2, there are many shops where you engage different speakers and experts. I made more connections in C2 than at any other conference I have attended; at the same time, it provided more time for engaging with the experts within and outside the workshops. Apart from interacting within the labs and workshops, the entertainment platforms allow attendees to meet their skill matches, interact, and forge future relationships. The hubs are unique idea-generation places through matchmaking and brainstorming. I achieved my main goal of connecting with people and maintaining these contacts. I recommend C2 design for anyone who wants to connect, enhance their skills, and engage with others and experts.
C2 brings the best brains to engage people. There is no conference. One will meet an array of strong leaders in different industries together and with ample time to engage with C2. Every lab, workshop, or hub is parked with renowned transformers who are ready to create an impact on others. In most conferences, keynote speakers are selected from the locality, and they tackle narrow themes. Unlike in traditional conferences, the representatives are drawn from the most booming industries worldwide. Unlike in traditional conferences, where the level of interaction is limited to shooting questions to the speakers, I could easily engage the experts at a personal level in C2. In some areas, it was a one-to-one interaction rather than participating in a large social hall. In some cases, the engagement was that of a small group that quickly allowed members to interact freely. C2 is a platform for matchmaking and idea sharing in a more ample and personalized atmosphere.
C2 is a good meeting point for like-minded groups. I met many people in the labs, interacted with several in the workshops, and even had entertainment together. The unique part of the event is that you meet people from across the world. One can marvel at unique ideas and how they resolve societal problems in different parts of the world. I made friends with whom we continue to engage on various topics worldwide. We had friends at the entertainment spaces where we friendly talked, a one-time chance which is rare to encounter. For those seeking an environment to mix friendship with learning, C2 provides the ideal space for these activities.
The artistic and entertainment atmosphere in C2 makes it almost an ideal festive occasion. I enjoyed the Montreal cultural experience, both inside and outside the C2. I had a chance to tour the cities meet people, and engage in various tourist activities during my conference time. In C2, we met many entertainments and cultural experiences worldwide. The DJ seemed to understand every event theme and would intone whenever necessary. We enjoyed the circus and other entertainment across the days. C2 is an event packed for someone who wants to learn in a relaxed environment.
There are, however, some concerns with the C2 event. I believe the event was considerably thronged with people. While the engineers’ design was to enhance space, the attendance was high to the point most spaces were overutilized. The packed spaces made the festive less appealing, especially at the entertainment lounge. Another concern with the C2 was the poor scheduling or guidance; the Concierge and Extraordinaire did not work in my favor. From booking, till I reached the place, I felt strained because of a lack of proper guidance. I would reach some labs or workshops minutes late because of poor guidance from the team. Despite this, they helped give direction whenever one needed it. I also realized that some people felt they were doing a recommendable job despite my concerns.
In conclusion, C2 brings what is needed in contemporary edutainment. While critics may consider most of the space’s destruction an educational theme, many believe it creates a lasting memory for the participants. C2 brings what is necessary for today’s conference atmosphere, theme-parked spaces full of celebrities and experts. It allows one-on-one interactions, more minor group engagements, and sharing of ideas in larger groups in the workshops. The unique designs, such as the swinging chairs and dark spaces, evoke individuals thinking to achieve the best of their ability. The guided brainstorming sessions are electric yet full of encouragement. The entertainment and artifact an upscale in this event. With the provided recommendations, future conferences should create impactful memories.
Becerra, Zoe M., et al. “Interactive workshops in a pandemic: the real benefits of virtual spaces.” IEEE Pervasive Computing 20.1 (2021): 35-39.
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Paulitsch, Adam. Buzzword Breakdown: The “Festivalization” of Meetings. https://populous.com/buzzword-breakdown-the-festivalization-of-meeting.
Sheivachman, Andrew. “CEO Interview: C2 Montreal Evolves With Global Aspirations.” Skift, 2018.https://skift.com/2018/05/30/ceo-interview-what-makes-c2-montreal-more-than-a- festival/
What’s up in Montreal? “My C2 Montreal experience, ” 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tUaAZxxoeU4