“Anansi And The Tar-Baby”: The Folklore Story Sample College Essay

Common to many cultures around the world, folklore acts as both entertainment for the children and a way to teach them lessons. “Anansi and the Tar-baby” is one of many Jamaican folklore stories collected by Martha Warren Beckwith (1924). These stories, passed on through generations, were preserved relatively well from their origins in West Africa. All of the stories in the collection include Anansi, the trickster spider-God from West African culture. His character is a recurring one in Caribbean folklore, where he is used to convey the moral of the story. It is obvious from these stories that wisdom and common sense have been passed on from African cultures, both providing entertainment and educative content.

This particular text relates the story of Anansi as a greedy and lazy character. He lives on a farm with his wife and children, who go to tend it every morning while he sits in the house and eats. Instead of helping around the house or on the farm, he becomes fatter from consuming all the fruits of his family’s labor, causing them to become thinner. After a while, his wife decides that she has had enough and comes up with a plan to weed Anansi out of the house. She makes a tar figure of him and leaves it outside in the yard, calling it an intruder that will not leave when speaking to Anansi. He then gets angry and eventually ends up punching the tar baby. However, his hand gets stuck in the tar, causing him to become even angrier. He then continues to punch the tar baby until he is stuck completely and, ashamed, remains in that state until death.

The lesson of this fable is relatively straightforward – it is about laziness and greed. Anansi is punished for being unhelpful and slothful, making the rest of his family work double for him. Furthermore, what is most remarkable about this lesson is that he does not get punished by some mystical powers or even his wife or children. At the end of the day, he digs his own hole by continuously punching the tar baby, not only unaware of its nature but unable to stop even after his first fist gets stuck. This is an important distinction since it teaches conscience rather than being afraid of external punishments. What ultimately kills Anansi is his pride, although it is his laziness that gets him punished in the first place. Therefore, in the short and entertaining fable, parents can teach their kids the moral standards that they would like them to follow.

Folklore stories are often passed on by ear and are only written down when put into collections or for research. Therefore, it is expected that the form in which the fable is written down is quite different from the original form that it was told. However, it should not be seen as a loss of any kind. Instead, these fables become richer as they absorb generations of culture and experience, as they start to reflect the many people that have narrated them. These fables change with the times around them and develop just as the society they are a part of does. The stories become more than just lessons that parents teach their kids, they become sociological devices that allow for a deeper view into the years they have endured.

Reference

Warren Beckwith, M. (1924). Jamaica Anansi Stories. Sacred Texts.

Hypothesis Testing A Conceptual Introduction

Summary

“Hypothesis testing a conceptual introduction” is chapter 9 of the book called “Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice” written by Jacinta Gau. It examines the foundation and purpose of hypothesis testing, provides steps, which should be followed to conduct statistical research. Moreover, this chapter describes expected and observed outcomes, differences between them, Type I and Type II errors, and provides an understanding of the substance of inferential statistics.

Arguments

To begin with, Chapter 9 provides solid insight into the differences between expected and observed outcomes. The distinct features outlined are sampling error, produced with inequity between measurements, and a genuine discrepancy between a sample’s statistic and the population parameter. The use of the mentioned tool is explained by an example of officers’ mean ratio measuring through the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) survey. Further, chapter 9 considers null (H0) and alternative (H1) hypotheses, providing the instance of their implementation of the mentioned abstract situation basis. Then, the explanations of Type I and Type II errors and a trade-off between them are provided. The chapter outlines 4 hypothesis testing procedures and explains the nuances of their implementation. Finally, the logic of hypothesis testing in 5 consistent steps is provided, with a description of its usefulness.

Critics

It is possible to state that information provided in Chapter 9 “Hypothesis testing a conceptual introduction”, is well-structured and supported with instances related to the specialized area. It is possible to obtain an understanding of the complete hypothesis testing process and insight into inferential statistics. On the other hand, the chapter lacks a comprehensive example of hypothesis testing, as only the sequences of steps to follow with a brief explanation of them is provided. It leaves the uncompleted and unsure understanding of the topic, despite the solid theoretical material explained.

Reference

Gau, J. M. (2019). Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice (3rd ed.). Sage Publications.

The Jamestown Massacre Controversy

The massacre that took place in Jamestown, which is often called the uprising, at first seems to make sense to consider in other terms since the event took place in the occupied territory. To a greater extent, the Indian attacks on the English settlers should rather be called a struggle against the colonialists, a battle for their liberation from oppression. However, in this consideration, the motivations of native Americans are forgotten, which go far beyond the establishment of mutual orders with the English settlers. Native American people sought to exterminate the settlers in order to get rid of the occupiers forever. In this context, the shocking cruelty and methodicalness of the Indians take on a different meaning. Their logic was not cruelty per se but an almost religious act of cleansing their sacred land.

The reason for such a fiercely violent reaction against the white colonies was the brutal cruelty of the colonialists themselves. The treatment of Native Americans during the colonial period was inhuman, resulting in a huge number of deaths. However, the indigenous tribes died for the most part from hunger and disease as a result of enslavement (Bennett 5). The reason for this attitude was the belief of the British in their own racial superiority, expressed in technological and cultural excellence. The Jamestown Massacre is captured in a 17th-century poetic pamphlet that is replete with racist remarks and rhetoric (Schneck 170). So it can be said with confidence that proficiency in the language apparatus no less convinces Western culture of its superiority over others.

In fact, if one speaks of a real genocide as the extermination of a population or a race, the tribe that inhabited Jamestown suffered much more. By the 20th century, it was practically assimilated with the white population while completely losing its language, culture, and identity. Thus, the issue of genocide by Native Americans seems undeniable, but its motivations are still a problematic topic for discussion.

References

Bennett, James. “The Forgotten Genocide in Colonial America: Reexamining the 1622 Jamestown Massacre Within the Framework of the UN Genocide Convention”. Journal of the History of International Law, vol. 19, no. 1, 2017, pp. 1-49.

Schneck, Peter. “Savage Properties and Violent Forms: Christopher Brooke’s “Poem on the Late Massacre in Virginia (1622)” and the Discourse on Civility and Possession in Early Modern America”. American Studies, vol. 62, no. 2, 2017, pp. 169-190.