It is safe to say that Ancient Greece and Western Civilization are inseparable concepts. In many ways, this civilization became a kind of cultural cornerstone for many western countries and nations. Nowadays, historians have a systematic knowledge of those times, but still many mysteries are still unsolved. The professional task of future historians is to investigate the remaining little-studied topics of Ancient Greece and provide detailed explanations. Studying the significant historical periods of Ancient Hellas is a good start for future research.
Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic Periods
Modern scholars of the discipline of history distinguish several major time stages of ancient Greece. The best-studied are the Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic ones. It is essential to note that there was the Greek Dark Age before the Archaic era. However, there is very little reliable and scientifically proven information about it. Natural disasters, depopulation, and overall civilizational decline that occurred at that time are the reasons (Turner-Boyle, 2016). The Archaic period can be described as the foundation of Ancient Greece as a cultural and historical phenomenon. One can characterize the Classical period as a time of key conflicts. Historians see the Hellenistic period as the era of the expansion of Greek influence on neighboring civilizations and its ultimate cultural peak.
Archaic Ancient Greece
As noted above, the Archaic period is when the cultural and civilizational features characteristic of the ancient Greeks began to form. Social structure, laws, science, military craft, and art, especially sculpture, poetry, and visual arts, emerged in the Archaic era. Researchers note that “during this epoch Greek population recovered and organized politically in city-states (Polis) comprised of citizens, foreign residents, and slaves” (“History of Greece: Archaic,” n.d., para. 1).
Moreover, the ancient Greeks started to colonize the Mediterranean and contact other civilizations. It was also the only time when the ancient Greeks were intensively learning from other nations. According to Lavelle (2019), “Archaic Greeks in Egypt and Phoenicia encountered sophisticated metal and stone working, written law codes, and superior ship-building, among other technologies” (p. 17). After the Archaic period, the time of challenge started for the Ancient Greek civilization.
Classical Ancient Greece
The Classical era was a period of self-identification for the Ancient Greeks; major internal conflicts and external invasions happened. It was the time when the Ancient Greeks united against the Persian invasion. The Peloponnesian War also happened, during which Athens and Sparta fought for influence over the rest of the Greek lands and resources. It was also a confrontation between the army and the navy from a military perspective, in which the former one eventually won. Ancient Greek sculpture and visual arts became more realistic and naturalistic (“History of Greece: Classical Greece,” n.d.). Such disciplines as philosophy, science, politics, and literature also developed significantly.
Hellenistic Ancient Greece
The endpoint of the Classic period is the conquest and death of Alexander the Great. During his military campaigns to Persia, Egypt, Central Asia, and India, the Ancient Greeks conquered the outside world and became acquainted with it. Such a large-scale interaction of cultures has given rise to many philosophers and thinkers (“History of Greece: Hellenistic,” n.d.). Science and art, especially architecture and geometry, received an incredible developmental boost (“History of Greece: Hellenistic,” n.d.). The ancient Greeks established several large kingdoms in the territories of the conquered civilizations and significantly changed the way of life of many nations during the Hellenistic era. These socio-cultural processes are what makes this period different from others.
History of Greece: Archaic. (n.d.). Ancient-Greece. Web.
History of Greece: Classical Greece. (n.d.). Ancient-Greece. Web.
History of Greece: Hellenistic. (n.d.). Ancient-Greece. Web.
Lavelle, B. M. (2019). Archaic Greece: The age of new reckonings. John Wiley & Sons.
Turner-Boyle, A. (2016). Exploration of Greece in the early Iron Age and the supposed Dark Age of Greek history. Hoplon, 11, 11-23. Web.
The Animal Cruelty Issue And Its Causes
Animal cruelty has always been a critical issue, not only in science, where animals are experimented on but also in everyday life. Many people do not even think about the torture inflicted on animals and how painful it may be. This can be for different purposes, such as scientific, as mentioned earlier, or simply for entertainment, although it is difficult to find anything funny about animal abuse. Therefore this topic needs to be investigated and specific arguments made as to why living beings should not be used for malicious purposes, but rather the opposite. They should be treated with kindness and understanding. To this end, this paper has been written and will outline the leading causes of cruelty to animals, their consequences, how to deal with the problem, and how important it is to look after pets.
Motivation for Animal Cruelty
A principal reason for animal cruelty is the owner’s cruelty towards others. Studies have shown that people who are cruel to their friends, family, or strangers are more likely to project their behavior onto an animal (Johnson 405). Very often, the cause is self-assertion at the expense of others, a demonstration of power and authority. Unfortunately, these cases are not isolated, and many of those who enjoy demonstrating their qualities through violence are criminals. There have also been cases where animal abuse has been used as an excuse to take revenge on a partner or as a means of manipulation in a relationship. There is no excuse for this method either, and hiding behind the back of a pet for your benefit is simply disgusting. Unfortunately, today’s children have completely forgotten how to live without smart gadgets. For them everything around them seems unreal, as if they are in a virtual world even in real life, where there are no consequences from wrong decisions made. However, it should still be understood that this is not a game, but life. In such cases, parents prefer to do nothing, because the child’s feelings are stronger and they should not be prevented from playing with animals, even if they might cripple them (Johnson 404). For the child, all this is no more than a toy, because he or she doesn’t understand what the problem is, but parents should have an understanding of reality, after all. Unfortunately, what should be is not what it is. This point will also be related to children, as they are the ones who pose the greatest threat to animals, as they are the most irresponsible people. It is no secret that children adopt their parents’ behavior and repeat it. There are situations where a domestic dispute between family members escalates into physical harm. In the eyes of the child, this looks like a regular thing, and they want to repeat it on someone weaker, most often an animal (Harman 34). We need to be able to shield the child from the negative example and try to focus more on positive thinking.
A very controversial topic is the corporal punishment of a child for being cruel to animals. It would seem to make sense because the child can feel the pain the pet has suffered at his hands. However, this approach is entirely wrong, not only does it make no sense to physically punish children, but the child will also want to take revenge on the animal for what was done to them. This will only result in more mutilation, and the educational process will be of no use at all. One should realize that children are just copying the behavior of their parents or learning from other people. We need to find the root of the problem and eliminate it rather than deal with the consequences every time.
The best way to protect animals from humans should be their uniqueness. It is meant that everyone can now afford to get a pet, but they must feel responsible for what they do. It seems that the ideal solution would be the need for proof that a person can take a pet with them. The life of any creature is essential and priceless, so we need to appreciate what we get and be able to teach others responsibility for their actions. This would be a convenient step towards eliminating the problem of animal cruelty and improving the quality of animals’ lives.
To summarise the above problem, it can be said that solving it requires a rather drastic approach. As has been said, many people do not appreciate animals and treat them in a way that is not appropriate. Of course, it isn’t easy to judge children and their attitudes, as they are not yet formed as individuals and adopt everything from the outside world. It must also be understood that animals are subjected to tests of various medications that can be detrimental to their health or even their lives. Unfortunately, pets are valued far less than human life, even though they are both living beings. I am sure that in the future when there are fewer animals, people will value them more, but it is better to start respecting the life of any living creature now.
Harman, Alice. Animal Cruelty. Franklin Watts, 2020.
Johnson, Scott A. “Animal Cruelty, Pet Abuse & Violence: The Missed Dangerous Connection.” Foresic Research & Criminology International Journal, vol. 6, no. 5, 2018, Web.
Consequences And Remedies Of Information Asymmetry
Access to information is a crucial factor that influences market operations. In an open market, buyers and sellers may have different access levels to information regarding the products, implying that asymmetric information is common in many market situations. According to Pavlov et al. (2022), asymmetric information denotes imperfect, skewed, and inequitable access to information between sellers and buyers. Lopsided knowledge may contribute to market imbalances, necessitating the development of efficient remedies. In regard to product and financial markets, asymmetric information leads to market failure, adverse selection, and knowledge monopolies that can be overcome by developing agency relationships, government incentives, and product regulation.
Imperfect market information is a significant cause of market failure, resulting from inappropriate pricing and the abuse of monopolistic power. According to Billett et al. (2017), transaction pricing based on skewed market knowledge does not contribute to the seller’s marginal cost or the buyer’s marginal gain. Market failure makes it more difficult to attain productive viability by distorting price processes and disrupting the normal distribution of commodities and services, resulting in welfare loss. Jackson and Jabbie (2019) assert that market failures are deeply ingrained in the socioeconomic foundation of most developing economies. They result from a lack of well-functioning economic systems and structures that are intended to allow for resilience in the market economy in the face of economic vulnerabilities. In essence, the competitive market is unable to produce an output at the same price as the marginal cost. In some extreme instances, if no mechanism exists to address the issue of information asymmetry, the market will completely collapse.
Adverse Selection and Inequality in the Financial Services Sector
The adverse selection emphasizes the idea that those who engage in high-risk activities are more likely to take out high-interest loans or purchase insurance. Azevedo and Gottlieb (2017) note that information asymmetry leads to imperfect competition and inequalities through adverse selection. Since it is impossible for lenders or insurance providers to know how risky their clients’ behavior is, they must rely on various procedures to evaluate potential borrowers. As these procedures are inherently imprecise, some potentially good consumers are discarded. Moral hazards come into play whereby individuals may conceal information about themselves, hoping to be covered by insurance companies (Azevedo & Gottlieb, 2017). They prefer to finance those who can quickly provide them with information. This usually entails lending to well-known individuals or those with whom they have personal ties.
In addition, poor individuals, particularly those in rural areas, may be denied financial services because they need small-scale services, such as deposit accounts or loans. Since every transaction has an operational expense, it is more challenging for those offering the services to earn a profit on such small transactions (Pavlov et al., 2022). The rural poor frequently live in areas with poor transportation and communications infrastructure, making it difficult and expensive for service providers to obtain the information they require about potential clients.
Knowledge Monopoly and Consumer Manipulation
Individuals in higher positions of authority or institutions may take advantage of their powers to withhold market information from other stakeholders, retaining a competitive advantage. For instance, higher-level managers may require junior employees to undertake some crucial tasks by concealing some information regarding the necessity and impacts of assigned tasks. Similarly, the government can use its authority to avail information to top-level security personnel while withholding it from the general public. Such information may pertain to the national economic status or security level that significantly affects business interactions within the country. In some cases, governments have overpriced the products offered in monopolistic institutions managed by the states without revealing the reasons to consumers.
Notably, many consumers get their products from brokers instead of buying directly from producers. In many cases, brokers have the upper hand, using knowledge monopoly to manipulate both consumers and buyers. As a result of information asymmetry, producers have imperfect knowledge about the market, and they may be forced to sell their products below the market to brokers who later hike the costs. Similarly, buyers may be forced to buy commodities at relatively high prices due to insufficient information about the seller’s pricing model. Mitra et al. (2018) unravel the effect of knowledge asymmetry using a case study of Indian potato farmers, revealing how intermediaries used the information gap to exploit buyers and sellers. Evidently, unstable economic models and communication systems are the main drivers for skewed market data in relation to buyer-seller interactions.
There are a few general approaches to solving the problem of adverse selection. Developing good relationships between agents and clients is vital for facilitating equitable access to information in the market. Producers should provide warranties, assurances, and refunds as one obvious option. This is especially true in the used vehicle industry. According to Ma (2020), self-regulation mitigates the effects of information asymmetry while minimizing government interference. If the level of asymmetric knowledge between the general populace and private corporations is greater than the magnitude of the monopolistic skew and externalities from the enterprise to society, self-regulation is preferable to government regulation.
Due to knowledge asymmetry and rising transaction costs, the most efficient distribution of resources may need governmental or other external engagement. Governments are in charge of constructing infrastructure that will lower the operating costs involved in providing services to all members of society. Macedoni (2022) records that the government’s involvement in business activities through licensing and regulation facilitates quality products and service delivery, reducing knowledge asymmetry’s negative effects. Governments can incur risks that commercial lenders may not be willing to take in order to guarantee that everyone who would benefit from financial services has access to them, or they can enact legislation to ensure that the facilities are offered to those who require them.
Product Regulation through Crowdsourcing
Consumers and competitors acting as monitors for one other is another natural and simple response to lopsided market information. Consumer Reports, Underwriters Laboratories, public notaries, and online review sites like Yelp all contribute to filling up the gaps in knowledge. Seller rankings on Amazon and eBay and service ratings provided by Uber driver reviews are all examples of reputation crowdsourcing useful for mitigating the effects of asymmetric information (Courtney et al., 2017). Companies can use online reputation management (ORM) software to monitor what customers are saying about them on review websites, social media, and internet sites.
In conclusion, information asymmetry denotes the market conditions characterized by imperfect market knowledge regarding the products and services offered. Skewed market knowledge contributes to negative consequences such as market failure and consumer manipulation through adverse selection and moral hazards. Self-regulation, government interventions and crowdsourcing are some of the proven techniques that mitigate lopsided information effects in financial and product markets. The type of remedy chosen should be evaluated for efficacy in line with costs and implications.
Azevedo, E., & Gottlieb, D. (2017). Perfect Competition in Markets with Adverse Selection. Econometrica, 85(1), 67-105.
Billett, M., Garfinkel, J., & Yu, M. (2017). The effect of asymmetric information on product market outcomes. Journal of Financial Economics, 123(2), 357-376.
Courtney, C., Dutta, S., & Li, Y. (2017). Resolving information asymmetry: Signaling, endorsement, and crowdfunding success. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 41(2), 265-290.
Jackson, E. A., & Jabbie, M. (2019). Understanding market failure in the developing country context. In F. Walter et al. (Eds), Decent Work and Economic Growth: Encyclopedia of Sustainable Development Goals (pp. 1-10). Springer.
Ma, C. (2020). Self-regulation versus government regulation: an externality view. Journal of Regulatory Economics, 58(2-3), 166-183.
Macedoni, L. (2022). Asymmetric information, quality, and regulations. Review of International Economics.
Mitra, S., Mookherjee, D., Torero, M., & Visaria, S. (2018). Asymmetric Information and Middleman Margins: An Experiment with Indian Potato Farmers. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 100(1), 1-13.
Pavlov, V., Katok, E., & Zhang, W. (2022). Optimal contract under asymmetric information about fairness. Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 24(1), 305-314.