Ancient Philosophers Overview Free Sample


Thales of Miletus is remembered for their influences on science and philosophy. Though there are no writings on Thales, his achievements are difficult to evaluate and are based on the legendary Seven Wise Men. As a practical statesman, Thales advocated the unification of Ionian cities in the Aegean region. Thales applied his knowledge of geometry to calculate the distance of ships from the shore and measure the Egyptian pyramids.

Modern-day scholars suggest that Thales’ knowledge was critical in estimating the localities of characters within an eclipse. The estimation of a nearly total eclipse earned him the reputation of an astronomer. Thales discovered the five geometric theorems that apply to modern-day mathematics (Shaukat & Ahmad, 2020). The first theorem was that a circle is divided into two by its diameter. Secondly, he discovered that the opposite angles in a triangle with equal two sides are equal. Also, the opposite angles of two lines that intersect are equal. Some philosophers claimed that Thales founded European philosophy and was the first to suggest the universe had a single material substratum. Mathematicians later developed the application of geometry to estimate the location of bodies in space.


Socrates influenced the works of many philosophers of the classical period. Although most of his work was never written, his philosophical work depends on the narration from his prodigies such as Plato and later Aristotle. Socrates was an enigmatic individual who forever influenced how philosophy is described. Socrates’ death at the hands of Athens forms the basis of philosophy as an academic discipline. Socrates’ work is adored and emulated, which is strange for someone who was not a religious leader. Aristotle, a student of Plato, a student of Socrates, provided the most trusted analogies of Socrates in his written dialogues with Plato. According to Aristotle, Socrates’ influences may have been eroded due to the Athenian war that dominated during his time.

Socrates studied human life and how life could be improved for the mutual peace of the entire society. The values of friendship and love are described as being critical in Socrates’ work. Socrates’ criticism of Athenian democracy politics landed him in clashes with the lawmakers frequently (Stavru & Moore, 2017). However, modern political activists such as Martin Luther King Jnr described Socrates’ disobedience of the Athenian hypocritical philosophy as critical for fighting for equality in the current world. Socrates influenced popular culture as it is now and inspired a variety of associations. The intellectual advancement of the present universe is a result of the work of Socrates and other philosophers. Socrates influenced various aspects of human life, such as concepts of reality. The ability of human knowledge to create happiness for them and emotional purity are essential for the growth of the human mind and will. Socrates’ philosophy also enables man to explain and comprehend human nature.


Plato influenced significant areas of life that affected the human’s ability to think and invent and molded remarkable recoveries that shaped the world as it is presently. Born and living in the classical period between 428-347 B.C, Plato created an academy to transfer his philosophical work to his prodigy, Aristotle. The Platonist school of thought was among the first institution of higher learning in Ancient Greece. Plato discovered dialogue and the forms of dialectic communication. The most considerable influence Plato was in the field of politics and trade. Plato considered that since non-Athenic merchants dominated the markets, the political arena of Greece should therefore be controlled by the Greeks. Plato influenced the immortality of the soul and considers that reason is an important quality that separates humans from other divinations. He proposes that reason is located in the head and determines the significant functions of the human body.

Platonic philosophies focused on man, their uniqueness, divine morality, and the ultimate reality that defines man’s space and intellect. Plato also described the concept of love, friendship, and relationship and how a man can use them to his benefit. Human nature is described in the notions of intelligence and rationality based on the philosophical work of Plato (Shaukat & Ahmad, 2020). These notions relate directly to the human’s current social and political life shown in how man leads themselves in complex political democracies. Plato’s work in classical mathematics is described in the four classical elements: air, fire, water, and earth, and how these elements influence the universe and heaven. The value of Plato’s work in politics and mathematics is evident in the success and participation of all citizens in the representative states’ decision-making.


Aristotle was a disciple of Plato and one of the most influential philosophers today. His philosophy was based on daily interactions with people. This differed from earlier philosophers who argued that philosophy was beyond the access of physical senses. He is credited for categorizing generalized knowledge into the distinct subjects that apply today.

Aristotle’s philosophy of syllogism logic is still used today. The logic of deduction is based on this principle and showed how conclusions must be based on presiding propositions. Aristotle initiated the classification of organisms that were essential in the development of biology. Today classification has been advanced to include micro-organisms that are essential for the treatment of viruses. His influences also complement his contribution to life sciences in physics on the topic of motion. Aristotle’s definition informed the modern-day accepted definition of motion. The contributions of Aristotle in ethics constitute the various behavioral and social virtues that make the ideal man. Aristotle introduced ethics as the ability to resist the temptation to enjoy a pleasure based on the exploitation of the welfare of others.


Pythagoras is popular because of his ideas in mathematics than in philosophy. Pythagoras was focused on creating a balance between life and philosophy. His contributions to geometry were rewarded through a theory that was named after him. Pythagoras’ theorem was focused on identifying ways to lead a harmonious life.

Pythagoras’ application of mathematics in spiritualism tried to objectively measure the qualitative aspects of life (Stavru & Moore, 2017). The concern of arithmetic laid the foundation for the current mathematics. Pythagoras introduced the scientific approach to public policy as a new way of life. In cosmology, Pythagoras was the first to suggest that the earth was spherical. During the period, the earth was still considered the center of the universe, and the rest of the universe revolved around it. Pythagoras laid the foundation for challenges of preconceived ideas about the structure of the universe that has been advanced philosophers. Pythagoras also contributed to the cycle of human life on matters of the soul.


Zeno of Elea focused on solving the puzzles of motion and plurality when many philosophers focused on the use of knowledge to interpret nature. Before the development of logic, Zeno attempted to explain the present contradictions in the physical world. He contributed to space and time relative to distance and was the first to discover the issue of infinity.

Zeno introduced mathematical and logical rigor to solve everyday issues. Zeno introduced the unit’s premises as having a magnitude, which could be divided infinitely and is indivisible. The application of logic is used in modern-day challenges. For example, he argued that subtraction could only be done from something (Shaukat & Ahmad, 2020). Zeno also simplified mathematical theorems so that they could be applied to day-to-day challenges. Zeno’s paradoxes have been applied today in standard analysis by defining length as a measure of motion. The solution to the paradoxes concluded that space was not linear because it consisted of three dimensions.


Anaximander succeeded Thales and was the first writer of philosophy. He contributed significantly to the early stages of Geography and Biology. Contrary to the held image of a closed universe, he was the first to draw an open image universe. He argued that the source of everything was the unlimited substance that was the point of differentiation for the polar temperatures. He could be credited with the evolutionary view of living organisms. He suggested that things originated from the evaporation of an element, and man must have originated from some other kind of animal. Darwin later developed this as the foundation of modern-day biology. His idea of evolution led to the current classification of living organisms. In other words, the applications of his arguments are the foundation for modern-day medicine.


Shaukat, M. A., & Ahmad, H. (2020). A Historical Survey of Evolution in the Concept and Status of “Man” Greek to Modern Times. Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, 10(1), 235-254. Web.

Stavru, A., & Moore, C. (Eds.). (2017). Socrates and the Socratic dialogue. Brill. Web.

Importance Of Artwork Visual Aspects

The visual aspects of the artwork are intertwined between each other, creating a foundation of any art piece. Line, shape, tone, color, pattern, texture, and form must be evaluated when examining a drawing, painting, or sculpture to discover how they interact to produce the overall impact of the piece of art (Brown). The majority of pictures begin as line drawings, through which the forms are created later. Shapes can be filled in with color and tone, or they can be repeated to make a pattern. To provide texture, the form might be displayed with a rough surface. Each of the parts can also be employed alone in a piece of art to emphasize their distinct personalities. Movement and rhythm, space and depth, development and structure, harmony and contrast, disturbance and tranquillity, and a wide spectrum of emotions are all aspects that may be expressed through many components in excellent art.

The line is the foundation of all drawings, and it may be used to convey different aspects, from pattern and depth to rhythm, movement, and emotional range. In the composition of a piece of art, shapes can be employed to affect sentiments. The brightness or darkness of a color is defined by its hue. A piece of art’s tonal values can be changed to modify its expressive nature (Brown). It may be utilized to give a feeling of depth and distance, as well as a dramatic atmosphere. Color is the visual element with the greatest emotional influence. Color is used in artwork to establish the mood or ambiance of the piece. Color can be employed as light, tone, pattern, form, or symbol.

The roughness or smoothness of the material is reflected in the texture of a work of art’s surface. Brushstrokes, for example, have an expressive texture that expresses both physical and emotional intensity. To express a feeling of balance, harmony, contrast, rhythm, or movement, a pattern is generated by repeating or repeating aspects of an artwork. It is frequently based on the artist’s inspiration derived from watching natural patterns in nature.

“Olympia” by Édouard Manet displays a naked white lady sleeping on a bed gazing in the center in a realistic artistic direction, while “Portrait of Mnonja” by Mickalene Thomas depicts a woman in colorful clothing sitting on a sofa looking to the left in a flatter creative direction. The viewer in Manet’s “Olympia,” on the contrary, is met with two ladies, one white and one black. The woman is lying and resting her head on pillows. The painting’s hues also depict the white woman’s chilly and callous nature, while Mickalene highlights flashy bright images. The deeper background colors draw attention to the foreground, emphasizing Olympia’s and her bedding’s softer whites. Manet used a lot of color in his paintings, notably in the foreground and the backdrop, which is entirely blacked out. There is practically no feeling of depth in the piece as a result of this. Manet painted with loose brushstrokes, and if we examine closely, we can observe how his paint application appears unsystematic and rushed at first view.

Mickalene Thomas’ art delves with issues of beauty, sexuality, and black female identity. The use of rhinestones and bright textile patterns in Thomas’ paintings adds even more drama and sensuality. Unlike Manet, who preferred to avoid depth and bright colors, Thomas built her work on them. Moreover, she is one of the modern artists who are working with unusual materials, particularly sequins and sequins. Rhinestones in work are evocative of folk art and Haitian voodoo art. They also convey a metaphor for women’s makeup, which may either highlight or conceal a woman’s individuality.

Works Cited

Brown, Gillian. Visual Elements and Visual Paradigms: Re-thinking Scientific Conceptual Figures Through Graphic Design. University of the Arts London, 2019.

Child Kidnapping In The 21st Century


Child kidnapping is a global issue that affects countries all over the world. It can be defined as a terrifying crime involving the illegal or unauthorized removal of a child from their parents or guardians (Hilson 91). From a legal perspective, child kidnapping is a criminal act of unjustly detaining and concealing a child. It occurs for various reasons and has serious consequences for both the child and the parents. In the U.S., statistics show that the number of child abductions is declining due to the involvement of relevant stakeholders in finding a solution (Hilson 97). However, technology is promoting child abduction because it is used to achieve the objectives of kidnappers. For example, child abductors use social media platforms to communicate with the victims. Although child kidnapping still exists in society, the number has been declining because of the stringent measures conducted by the government and other related agencies.

The Rate of Child Abduction by Strangers

There has been a decline in child abduction cases in the U.S. over the past ten years. According to Hilson, about 115 children are abducted by strangers every year in the U.S. (95). However, there has been a decline in the number of children being kidnapped by strangers. FBI claims that less than 350 children abducted by strangers have been reported annually since 2010 (Hilson 97). The disappearance of children in the U.S. is not unheard of, and it is an issue that police and other related authorities are working hard to solve. The authorities are working to conceal all the gaps previously used by kidnappers to stop any instance of kidnapping.

The Reasons for The Decline in Child Abduction by Strangers

The U.S. government has intensified awareness programs to educate parents and guardians on preventing child abduction by strangers. Child abductors usually look like everyday people in society. The abductors take advantage of their difficulty being noticed to carry out their plan. Duggan says, “the woman in the bus depot, the perpetrator, was amiable and chatty, Eleanor Williams tearfully told the police.” The perpetrator who took away Eleanor Williams presented herself as friendly. Based on this, parents are often advised to tell their children not to talk to people they do not know. Anytime they are approached by a stranger, a child should immediately check with a parent or trusted friend. Therefore, parents and guardians are being advised to prevent child abduction by telling their children to refrain from talking to strangers.

The educators have also played a role in the eradication of child kidnapping. Over the past few decades, various organizations have developed initiatives to inform educators that they are an important asset in eliminating the abduction of children (Stark 57). Educators are trained to inform students on prevention measures and promote children’s safety, especially in school. For instance, schools were identified as a target for the mass abduction of children. As a result, educators have been informed to increase the safety of children when in school. One of the measures adopted to improve the safety of children in school is supervision (Stark 57). When in school, there is always someone watching over the children. Thus, educators have joined hands in the fight against children abduction.

The office of Children’s Issues has continued to offer services to help in preventing child abduction cases by partnering with parents and other stakeholders. They work with parents, private firms, and government agencies in the U.S. to prevent and resolve abduction (Collins 30). The office has responded to thousands of inquiries around child abduction, abduction prevention techniques, and many more. Parents learn that individuals who prey on children would wait for an opportunity alone through the inquiries. Children should not be left alone outside their homes (Collins 26). Therefore, the office has played an integral role in the decline in child abduction cases by creating awareness of prevention strategies.

Over the past few years, the U.S. has increased police deployment in their cities to prevent crime. According to Statista, the number of full-time law enforcement officers in the U.S. was 626,942 and 696,644 in 2013 and 2020, respectively. The main intention for adding more law enforcement officers was to increase surveillance and quick response to a crime. As a result, it was determined that crime decreased significantly on high-alert days. This means that the criminals like those conducting child abduction fear the presence of police in a given area. With the high presence of police in an area, the kidnappers find it hard to conduct their operations. Therefore, based on the high number of police on patrols, crimes such as child kidnapping have been reduced significantly.

Child kidnapping has declined because of the attention given to it by law enforcers. It is a serious crime that carries severe penalties such as hefty fines and lengthy jail terms for convicted individuals. Kidnapping is classified as a felony offense in all states in the U.S. (Collins 32). However, each state has varying degrees of felonies with varied sentences associated with them. More severe punishments are often imposed when the victim is a kid or has been harmed, sexually abused, or in danger. The attention attached to kidnapping has played a role in reducing the crime because they fear being arrested and convicted. Thus, anyone who thinks of kidnapping must be prepared for severe penalties.

An individual convicted of kidnapping can be imprisoned, fined, or placed on probation. First, abduction verdicts could lead to lengthy jail terms or even life sentences in some circumstances and regions. Punishment of 20 years or more is given for first-degree and a minimum of five years or more for second-degree abduction (Phenix 89). Second, in addition to prison sentences, abduction convictions incur large fines. Convictions for severe kidnapping could lead to $50,000 or more fines, whereas prosecutions for simple kidnapping could lead to $10,000 or more (Phenix 94). Third, a person convicted of abduction may also be sentenced to probation. The three stringent penalties may be responsible for a decline in child kidnapping.

The case of Gloria Williams is crucial when talking about the adverse effect of engaging in the kidnapping. According to Sanchez, “Gloria Williams, who nearly two decades ago took a baby girl from a Florida hospital and raised the child as her own, was sentenced Friday to 18 years in prison for kidnapping.” The sentence includes a five-year concurrent sentence for custodial interference added pain to the convict. In summation, Gloria William must serve about 23 years in prison. The conviction sends a strong message to kidnappers in the U.S. and across the globe that the venture has serious penalties. Individual thinking to continue or start the crime understands the repercussions involved when convicted. Therefore, the conviction might have scared some individuals from undertaking the crime.

The coordination of law enforcers and commitment has helped reduce the cases of abductions. When a local law enforcement emergency communications center receives a report about a kidnapped child, the operator who answers the call should implement the agency’s missing children policy and protocols and gather information as feasible (Phenix 90). In all circumstances, an officer or deputy should be dispatched promptly to take the report in person from the parent who has been left behind. In some cases, such as when a child kidnapping is underway, an investigator will begin taking action while the initial responding officer is on their way to the complaint (Phenix 89). The procedure and integration of operations by responsible agencies have assisted in dealing with abduction cases.

Technology Has Increased the Risk of Child Abduction

Social media is being used as a platform of operation for child abductors. When compared to alternative approaches, such as a physical meeting, possible child abductors use Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and other social media platforms to get access to and lure youngsters. In some cases, a child is lured digitally to interact with an abductor in vivo, resulting in their abduction contrary to their will (Willemo 29). In addition, because the Internet is available to individuals of all ages, possible abductors may mislead children by impersonating someone their age and building a false trust bond. Although most social media and social networking websites and applications have a stated minimum age of 13, young minors can and regularly have options to gain access.

The case of a Tennessee man charged with kidnapping a girl after social media exchange is a good example of using social media by kidnappers to accomplish their goals. As shown in the case, the man conversed with the girl through social media (Rogers). Social media provides the best platform for kidnappers and other criminals to lay traps for their victims. It seems the man portrayed himself as friendly to the girl through social media to build trust. This explains why he effectively convinced the girl to leave with him. According to the authorities, the girl has communicated with the man for a long (Rogers). Therefore, with social media, children are not safe from kidnappers and other criminal elements.

Kidnappers have resulted in the use of drones to track and kidnap children. One of the key uses of drone technology is tracking. Criminals have been trapped into this to facilitate their kidnapping operations. For example, there is a case of Mennonite imposters who used drones to track children in attempted kidnappings (Rohrlich). In this case, it is stated that the imposters tracked the movement of five children for a kidnapping coup. With the use of drone technology, a criminal can effectively monitor the movement of their victims and strike when there is an opportunity. Drone technology gives them the ability to operate without being watched. As a result, children are no longer safe because they can be watched and kidnapped.

Kidnappers use transport technology as a pathway to and from crime. Most of the kidnappings are usually conducted using a vehicle. The existence of armored vehicles has enhanced criminal activities in society (McGuire and Thomas 290). These types of vehicles increase an individual’s morale in committing a crime because of the perception of being immune to any bullet in case of a shoot-out. In addition, kidnappers use highly mechanized vehicles because of their speed and efficiency when escaping after conducting their activities. With these vehicles, the criminals believe they can get away after a crime. Therefore, armored and advanced vehicles can also facilitate criminal activities.

Moreover, using electronic jammers to thwart tracking by criminals makes their operations successful and affects victims’ security. A GPS jammer is a type of signal jammer that works by interfering with the signals sent by GPS devices to satellites. GPS blocking works by broadcasting louder signals on the same frequency as GPS devices (McGuire and Thomas 290). GPS jammers can overcrowd the frequency and overpower GPS signals, preventing GPS systems from detecting the correct signals. Based on this, the police cannot track the vehicle used to commit the crime. This means that a kidnapper can get away after committing their crime (McGuire and Thomas 298). Therefore, children are unsafe because they can be abducted without trace electronic jammers.

Despite the fact that technology has increased criminal activities, there are several examples of how it can help crime prevention. Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is one of the technologies that can increase the security of a given area (McGuire and Thomas 295). It is intended to strengthen formal monitoring by making it easier for police or other organizations to monitor residents’ activities, including potential offenders. In addition, CCTV is intended to dissuade illegal behavior by increasing the danger of detection. Using this technology, police officers and other individuals can identify suspicious individuals prior to committing a crime. Thus, CCTV technology can be used to prevent crime.

Social media can also be used as a tool for protecting children from criminals. Platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and many others can be used to share important information about criminals as well as the tactics they use (Willemo 29). For example, a picture of a criminal can be circulated through social media. The police can also use the platform to educate the public on preventing crimes such as children abduction. Many people are likely to benefit and apply the strategies due to the large number of social media users across the globe. There are a good number of children using Facebook and other platforms to communicate with their friends (Willemo 29). These children are likely to learn the strategies kidnappers use from educative posts and develop a counter mechanism. As a result, criminals would not succeed in carrying out their plans with an informed public.


Child kidnapping by strangers is a traumatizing event because of the panic it causes victims, police, and the general public. As a result, it has attracted the attention of various stakeholders, including parents, educators, government agencies, and many others. In the U.S., the stakeholders working together have contributed to the steady decline of child kidnapping. The U.S. government and other agencies educate the parents and teachers to help prevent child abduction. However, technology has played a major role in enhancing child kidnapping. For example, child abductors use social media to communicate with children to lay their traps. Thus, child abduction has gained the attention of many across the globe because of its adverse impact on victims and the entire society.

Works Cited

Collins, Tara M. “A Child’s Right to Participate: Implications for International Child Protection.” The International Journal of Human Rights, vol. 21, no. 1, 2017, pp. 14-46.

Duggan, Paul. “Almost 35 Years Ago, She Let a Stranger Hold Her Newborn. It Has Haunted Her Ever Since.” Washington Post, 2018, Web.

Hilson, M. (2021). “The Kind of Person Who Would Mess with A Kid: Cultural Fantasies of Stranger-Danger and AM Homes. Looking for Johnny.” The Comparatist, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 90-105.

McGuire, M. R., and Thomas J. Holt, editors. The Routledge Handbook of Technology, Crime, And Justice. Taylor & Francis, 2017.

Phenix, Amy, et al. Static-99R Coding Rules, Revised-2016. In-Press Version, 2017.

Rogers, Steve. “Tennessee Man Charged with Kidnapping Girl after Social Media Exchange.” ABC 36 News, 2021, Web.

Rohrlich, Justin. “Mennonite Imposters Used Drones to Track and Kidnap Children.” Quartz, 2020, Web.

Sanchez, Ray Cnn. “Gloria Williams Sentenced to 18 Years for Kidnapping Baby Girl.” CNN, 2018, Web.

Stark, Barbara. International Family Law: An Introduction. Routledge, 2017. Ashgate E-book, Web.

Statista. “Number of Law Enforcement Officers U.S. 2004–2020.” Statista, 2021, Web.

Willemo, Jacob. “Trends and Developments in the Malicious Use of Social Media.” Edited by Sebastian Bay, Monika Hanley, Rueban Manokara, and Baris Kirdemir, The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 2019.