Angus: A Character Sketch Free Sample

Name: Angus, also known as the “Man of a Few Words.” Occupation: Shakespearean figure and Scottish nobleman. Favorite hangout: the royal court and battlefield, especially Birnam Wood. Most famous line: “Now does he (Macbeth) feel/ His secret murders sticking on his hands” (5.2.17-18). Translation: serves the asshole right.

Angus is the walking rationale of tragedy. He is the last person a fallen man (say, a poverty-stricken Donald Trump considering hara-kiri) would want to have around his deathbed (note: physical and psychological deathbed). See, falling the Macbeth way is heart-breaking and suicide-inducing enough. Now, for a fleeting figure named Angus (the guy is so easy to miss; now you see him, more often you don’t) to shove the fact down his throat is another hair-tearing and hand-wringing story. Angus’s sole purpose in the play is to draw a comprehensive and up-to-the-minute account of the tragic hero’s flaws and fall.

Not that Angus creates tragedy. Far from it. As a matter of fact, he seems to be one of the genuinely good guys in the dog-eat-dog world of the insomniac usurpers. Seem” is the big word. That Angus dons no fair mask that belies a foul spirit within, one can only draw, and rather hastily at that, from the fellow’s few lines. Perhaps the audience, thanks or no thanks to their limited gaze, might as well leave it at that. All Angus has is one big heart throbbing for the welfare of dear Scotland. Period.

Or no period? Angus seems like a shadowy figure himself. He is a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma, clad in Scottish armor. Notice that he only speaks in Acts 1 and 5. How symbolic, representing the beginning and the end. It is as if the Bard, burdened with theatrical work, fire and brimstone sermons courtesy of the Puritans, and rowdy fans, has forgotten to give him a few more lines in the acts in between. This could mean to highlight what a man of action he is. When Angus talks, he speaks sense, no matter how painful it may sound. His words regarding the traitors Cawdor and Macbeth are pretty much the same. For state enemy number one, he says: “But treason’s capital, confessed and proved, have overthrown him” (1.3.114-116). Of Macbeth, his words are no less seething: “…Now does he feel his title hang loose about him, like a giant’s robe upon a dwarfish thief” (5.2.21-23).

Thing is, Angus has a knack for re-creating a tragic fall. His matter-of-fact, unsympathetic take on Macbeth’s demise makes him sound “merciless” (almost next door to the bearded hags). That is, he dampens the audience’s insuppressible sympathy (not to mention guilt-inducing – if one pities a bad person’s fall, does that reveal a common thread?) for the evil Macbeth.

Booth (1991) writes about how Shakespeare transformed Macbeth into one of the most despicable monsters conceivable, yet kept him sympathetic enough that the audience would pity rather than detest him when he met his demise (9). In this case, Angus serves as a constant reminder of retributive justice, providing a strong but not omnipresent check on the audience’s feelings. What goes around comes around, Macbeth. Angus offers no excuse or justification, just a plain and commonsensical picture of tragedy.

A modern Angus will be more or less like this: he begins by saying that So-and-so has just ended up behind bars. The listener blurts out a big “Why?” (So-and-so is reputed to be a good man). Angus retorts that it is So-and-so’s fault, that justice has simply taken its natural course, etc. Angus’ character is perhaps his reason for being. He, as with any of the characters, exists in the face of evil. A rational take on tragedy is a means of self-preservation. It is easy to imagine Angus asking himself: now that you have seen them fall, are you following their missteps?


Booth, W. (1991) identified Macbeth as a tragic hero in Harold Bloom’s (Ed.) book, Macbeth (pp. 91-).

101. New York: Chelsea House Publishers.

Shakespeare, W. (1927). The Tragedy of Macbeth. (S.W. Searson, Ed.). London:

University Publishing Company.

Artificial Nutrition And Hydration

Artificial Nutrition and Hydration (ANH) is given to a person who, for some reason, cannot eat or drink. Artificial nutrition and hydration are a balanced mix of nutrients and fluids provided by placing a tube directly into the stomach, intestine, or vein. It is a medical treatment that allows doctors to overcome whatever may be preventing a person from eating or drinking. During the course of an illness, a patient often loses the ability to receive nutrition or hydration by natural means. When a patient can no longer receive food and fluids normally, artificial nutrition or hydration can benefit the patient by helping them maintain proper nutrition and fluid balance. Since inadequate nutrition and hydration can result in death, artificial nutrition and hydration can also benefit the patient by supporting life.

Short-term artificial nutrition and hydration is often given to patients recovering from surgery, greatly improving the healing process. It may also be given to people with increased nutritional requirements or to someone who cannot swallow because of an obstructing tumor.

A highly sophisticated form of artificial nutrition and hydration called Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) can be given indefinitely. TPN can be administered to patients with serious intestinal disorders that impair their ability to digest food, enabling them to live fairly normal lives. However, long-term artificial nutrition and hydration is also commonly given to people with irreversible neurological disorders.

In this paper, an effort has been made to explain this treatment in some detail, along with different views and its advantages and disadvantages.

Medical and ethical views regarding ANH.

The most common legal view of ANH is that it is a medical treatment, but some people view it differently. For example, the NYS Proxy Law does not automatically grant permission to a relative or caregiver of an incapacitated patient to forgo ANH. However, it does grant permission if the relative or caregiver is reasonably familiar with the patient’s view of ANH. Courts in New Jersey and Massachusetts sometimes allow the withdrawal of ANH from patients in a permanent vegetative state at the request of family members. In Missouri, state courts rejected family testimony as evidence sufficient to prove the wishes of the incapacitated person (O’Rourke, 1990).

If one believes that ANH is medical treatment, then any decision about its use is made by weighing the burdens and benefits of the treatment. This means that it is treated as a part of the medical treatment plan, which is aimed at achieving defined goals of medical care determined from the patient’s perspective. The patient’s values and attitudes dictate legitimate goals of treatment.

On the other hand, if ANH is not considered a medical treatment, then decisions about its use are much simpler. If the patient is not eating and drinking, ANH is mandatory in all cases, irrespective of the patient’s wishes, goals of treatment, likelihood of improvement, or burden of its administration.

Religious point of view.

The religion indicates that all humans are created in the image of God, and they have a God-given duty of life preservation. This duty falls on the shoulders of even the terminally ill patients, and all conceivable means should be employed to preserve and save life, even if it involves the use of artificial nutrition and hydration.


Euthanasia is the practice of ending a person’s life for the sole purpose of relieving the person’s body from excruciating pain and suffering due to an incurable disease. The term euthanasia is often referred to as mercy killing or the ‘good death’ as derived from the Greek. Euthanasia can be classified into four categories. In active euthanasia, a person’s life is terminated by a doctor through a lethal dose of medication. Passive euthanasia implies non-provision of life-sustaining treatment to a patient based on logical reasoning or, in other words, doing nothing to save a person’s life by abstaining from giving life-saving measures like putting a person on an artificial respirator. The simple way of distinguishing active and passive forms of euthanasia is a mere difference of act and omission. The other forms include voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia. In voluntary euthanasia, a patient’s consent is obtained for either active or passive euthanasia. Whereas non-voluntary euthanasia refers to ending a patient’s life without his/her consent (Rachels, 1975).

Euthanasia was initially accepted in history. Greece and Romans permitted it in certain circumstances (Beauchamp, 2005). However, with the arrival of religions like Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, the practice of euthanasia was morally and ethically rejected. Life was regarded as the gift of God and under no circumstances permitted its annihilation. Laws of modern societies also followed the general principles of religions. It was only in the last century that active debates on euthanasia commenced to authenticate its legality and ethical righteousness.

Proponents of the issue started advocating the option of life and death as the sole right of a human being. Alexander Capron, a renowned American lawyer, propagates the concept by stating that I never want to wonder whether the physician coming into my hospital room is wearing the white coat of the healer or the black hood of the executioner.” Opponents, however, strongly reject the idea, highlighting its serious ramifications. The majority of people opposing the issue are overshadowed by religious ethos. In 1995, Pope John Paul II strongly opposed the idea by saying, “Euthanasia is a grave violation of the law of God since it is the deliberate and morally unacceptable killing of a human person.” In 1999, Pope John Paul II again spoke out against death by the hands of doctors (Sabelko, 1999).

Till today, most countries in the world, including the United States, retain restrictions on some forms of euthanasia. However, the debate continues unabated. The issue is intricate and thought-provoking. If taking a person’s life under unbearable pain is unethical, then keeping the same person alive is inhumane. Both sides have strong arguments. This essay will scrutinize the arguments of both sides while focusing on the negative effects of legalizing active euthanasia. Various aspects related to the issue, encompassing the viewpoints of both sides, are covered in subsequent paragraphs.

Mitigation of suffering through the purposeful destruction of the life of the sufferer is clearly contrary to the religious concept of respect for life. It is said that in the Netherlands, as many as one-sixth of all deaths are attributable to euthanasia. In 1986, the Council of Ethical and Judicial Affairs of the American Medical Association stated that it is not unethical to discontinue all means of life-prolonging medical treatment” for patients in irreversible comas.

A patient in a persistent vegetative state is not in a terminal condition since nutrition and hydration, and ordinary care will allow them to live for years. It is only when that care is taken away that the patient will die. Therefore, it is the removal of nutrition and hydration that brings about death. This is euthanasia by omission rather than by positive lethal action. It is morally wrong to take these extreme cases and make them the norm for all cases of persistent vegetative state patients. Treatment will allow the patient to continue to live without a burden of excessive pain or suffering. In such cases, their removal is equivalent to passive euthanasia, i.e., killing by omission.

Administering ANH.

Artificial nutrition and hydration can be administered in several ways. Usually, it is provided through a flexible tube inserted through the nasal passage into the stomach. This is also called a NasoGastric or NG tube. It can also be administered through the wall of the abdomen into the stomach, which is called gastrostomy, G tube, or PEG. Another way is through a procedure called jejunostomy, where it is inserted into the intestine.

TPN requires the surgical insertion of a special port, usually into a vein below the collarbone. Fluid with limited amounts of nutrients can be supplied directly into a vein in the arm through an intravenous (IV) line.

Nutrition and hydration can be supplied through artificial means temporarily or indefinitely, depending on the patient’s condition. If artificial nutrition is likely to be given for a long time, a surgically implanted tube is considered more comfortable for the patient and has fewer side effects. (Questions and Answers, 2006)

Advantages and disadvantages.

A person with a temporary illness who cannot swallow may be hungry and thirsty. A feeding tube may help. Sometimes, a person may become confused because of dehydration. Giving a patient fluids through a tube helps dehydration and may lessen their confusion and discomfort. Giving fluids and nutrition helps the patient as they are recovering. For a patient with an advanced life-threatening illness who is dying, artificial hydration and nutrition may make the patient live a little longer, but not always. (American Family Physician 2000)

The opposition to the withdrawal of ANH is based on the argument that ANH is necessary to preserve patient dignity. Nutrition and hydration are ordinary humane treatments that should be provided to every patient. The withdrawal of ANH amounts to starving the patient to death. Food and water symbolize basic human care for the dying. If we begin withholding such care from the dying, we are denying their humanity. (Cranston, 2001)

People who have had a great deal of experience caring for the dying have noticed that patients who are not tube-fed seem more comfortable than those who are. Caregivers have also observed that symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, congestion, and shortness of breath decrease when artificial nutrition and hydration are discontinued. For example, patients with pneumonia will not suffer as much from coughing or shortness of breath if they are not receiving fluids. Medical observation has found no indications that patients who have suffered massive brain damage causing permanent unconsciousness experience any pain when artificial nutrition and hydration are stopped. Reports from conscious dying patients indicate that they increasingly experience a lack of appetite and thirst. Dry mouth is the only commonly reported symptom, and this can be managed without resorting to tubes.

Animal studies indicate that the body responds to lack of food by increasing the production of natural pain relievers. However, if food is supplied, the body stops producing endorphins and the benefit of this natural pain relief is lost. Historically, coma was nature’s way of relieving the suffering of dying. However, the provision of artificial nutrition and hydration may prevent the development of this natural anesthesia in some cases. (Partnership for Caring, 2006)

There is also a risk when someone is fed through a tube, of liquid entering the lungs. This can cause coughing and pneumonia. Feeding tubes may feel uncomfortable and can become plugged up, causing pain, nausea, and vomiting.

Also, the tubes can damage and erode the lining of the nasal passage, esophagus, stomach, or intestine. If tube placement requires surgery, complications such as infection or bleeding may arise. Intravenous lines can become uncomfortable if the insertion site becomes infected. If fluid leaks into the skin, it may cause inflammation or infection.

Many patients receiving artificial nutrition and hydration via NG or G-tube have brain disease and are unable to report feeling full or unwell. As a result, they may experience abdominal bloating, cramps, or diarrhea.

With careful attention by healthcare providers, many side effects can be avoided or managed fairly well. However, confused patients can also become anxious over a tube’s presence and try to pull it out. This often leads to the use of restraints or sedation, which can have a serious effect on patients’ mental state and their ability to interact or perform any small activities they might be capable of, such as changing position in bed.

The normal intake of food and fluids can also provide the patient with many psychological benefits, such as pleasure, satisfaction, comfort, and a sense of dignity and control. However, since artificial nutrition and hydration bypasses the normal method of receiving food and fluids, it does not provide the patient with any of these psychological benefits. In fact, ANH can sometimes threaten the patient’s sense of dignity and control. (Medical Ethics Committee, 2006)


Euthanasia remains a much-debated topic. The passive form of euthanasia has been accepted by societies, but the issue of the legality of active euthanasia remains contradictory. People who favor the proposal generally advocate for the right of self-determination and the principle of mercy as the major driving forces towards deciding on euthanasia. On the other hand, the other school of thought rejects the idea of autonomy. According to them, a person undergoing serious physical and mental stress is not competent enough to decide about their life or death. Moreover, different surveys reveal that less than one-third of the people favoring euthanasia actually reasoned their support as ending the pain or incurable disease. The majority of the reasons were more psychological in nature. Besides religious and ethical rationale, it is perceived that allowing active euthanasia will result in shattering people’s confidence in society and trust amongst each other. It will widen inter and intra-generational gulf. The sanctity of human relationships will disappear. Permitting active euthanasia will eventually open doors to its misuse and abuse on an unimaginable scale.

Some people regard the removal of artificial nutrition and hydration as a means to ease the suffering of the terminally and permanently ill, while others consider it a religious obligation for all humans to preserve and protect life. Additionally, prolonging life with excessive pain and suffering is not only a religious duty but an ethical one as well. Giving ANH is not an option if it can preserve and protect life but increase the suffering of the patient. Miracles have happened in the past when terminally ill patients have recovered by sheer force of will and fate. Therefore, it is better to preserve life in the hope of such unexplainable occurrences as long as it does not become a burden for the suffering individual.


Artificial Hydration and Nutrition (2000) was retrieved on September 15, 2006, from

Beauchamp, Tom L. (2005). Euthanasia.” Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved September 16, 2006 from [insert URL here].

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Cranston, R. E. (2001). Withholding or Withdrawing of Artificial Nutrition and Hydration. Retrieved September 15, 2006, from

O’Rourke, K. (1990). Use of Artificial Hydration and Nutrition: The Clouds are Lifting. Retrieved September 16, 2006, from

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Rachels, James. (1975). Active and Passive Euthanasia.” The New England Journal of Medicine. Retrieved on September 17, 2006, from:

The grammar and readability within the HTML tags are already correct.

Sabelko, Katherine. (1999). Doctors of Life or Death? Newsletter, Children of the Rosary. Retrieved September 17, 2006 from

ANHEDONIA – Definition And Theories

Say for example, your favorite game is soccer and that you would kill just to be able to see – LIVE – the FIFA world cup; you would do anything just so you could grab that ticket to the front row seat and maybe, the happiest moment in your life is the day your favorite team wins… but the scenario would be so much different if we’re talking about a person suffering from ANHEDONIA regardless if he/she is a die-hard fan of the game or of a particular team. What is ANHEDONIA? What is its connection to the above-mentioned situation? What are the manifestations that can be seen from a person suffering from Anhedonia? How can one acquire such illness? How can it be cured? These are only a few of the questions one might ask when he or she hears the “alien” word.

Anhedonia – Definition and Theories

Anhedonia is simply the absence of or the inability to experience pleasure from something (an event, a situation, a deed, an object) that would usually or normally be pleasurable. “Anhedoniais derived from the Greek a- (without) hedone (pleasure, delight). Other words derived from hedone include hedonism – a philosophy that emphasizes pleasure as the main aims of life, hedonist – a pleasure-seeker, and hedonophobia – an excessive and persistent fear of pleasure.” (MedicineNet, 1996)

The illness was fist recognized or acknowledged in the 19th century and was first used by Ribot but it wasn’t given the right amount of procedure, studies and was little understood until the 1980s. Even Sigmund Freud, the Father of Psychology, tried to understand the very existence of anhedonia with the use of his own theory, the Psychoanalytic Theory. He made id, ego, and the superego work for this study. According to Freud, “the id is the part of the personality that holds what is inherited, present at birth, and fixed in a person’s psychic constitution. It is the part of the personality that is responsible for the experience of pleasure. It is believed that any deficits in the development of the id could therefore lead to the deficit syndrome of anhedonia.” (Fortinash & Holoday-Worret, 2000). Some don’t believe how Freud traced the roots and explained anhedonia; some theorists say that it is biological in nature; others believe that it is just part of Schizophrenia; a fraction will tell us that it is what we manifest if we fail to adapt to our environment.

Social Learning Theorists have a different point-of-view when it comes to this matter; they say that our behavior today is a result of our “constant” reaction and interaction to our environment and it begins when we were born and it is, in fact, a life-long process. As children, we were guided by our parents or elders to be able to cope with our society and our milieu; part of that process is the Socialization stage wherein we interact with our parents, friends, strangers, and people who are part, and sometimes who are not part of, our social bubble. Through the Socialization process, as children, we learn; we learn how to kick the soccer ball, how to play the piano, how to read, how to fix our bicycle, etc.

If in case a child doesn’t know something, he/she tries to imitate somebody, a friend or his/her parents. Later on, the child will be able to absorb the rules of the game, the do’s and don’ts. Points and friends will be earned if the child obeys the rules; on the other hand, he/she will receive criticisms and other negative reactions if he/she makes a mistake. This idea or situation will be far different for a child or person suffering from Schizophrenia. The ‘abnormal’ state will become his/her limits and it also goes without saying that that state will deprive the child of so many things and that includes the development of pleasure and this results to “anhedonia”.

One study can also tell us that Depression triggers Anhedonia; death of a loved one, physical illness, and any grave situation that can cause someone depression. A brain of a depressed person was observed through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). According to Colin Brennan, It was found out that a depressed person has a different image of his/her brain: “smaller hippocampi (the area that deals with emotion), larger white matter lesions, differences in brain metabolism.” (Brennan, 1998) The Institute of Psychiatry in London made use of fMRI to compare the brains of individuals who were suffering from anhedonia and depression and from those who were at the healthy, normal state and these were their differences: “ventromedial prefrontal cortex – the front part of the brain associated with empathy and regulation of negative emotions, ventral striatum – the area of the brain that signals reward, amygdala – almond shaped area of the brain associated with mood and ‘forgetting’ fears – memory of recent events.” (Brennan, 1998)

There are two types of Anhedonia, the physical anhedonia and social anhedonia. Social anhedonia has been described and explained above by the Social Theorists; Physical Anhedonia, on the other hand, is the one manifested by those who have been inflicted by a serious disease that caused them disabilities and the inability to stimulate pleasure. Physical Anhedonia is being associated with Schizophrenia.

Anhedonia and Schizophrenia

Experts say that those who are suffering from Schizophrenia are, more often than not, also suffering from Anhedonia; in other words, Anhedonia is one of the symptoms of Schizophrenia. “Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder typically marked by passivity, indifference, etc.” (Braham, 1993) Other symptoms of which include the following: “abnormalities in perception – hallucinations, disorganized speech, delusions, disorganized behavior, and blunted and inappropriate affect.” (JAMA, 2001)

Schizophrenic patients wouldn’t be able to respond to a particular stimulus or to stimuli properly and because of this, patients encounter a hard time expressing their emotions. Some say that Anhedonia is the effect of a neurophysiological dysfunction. The failure to experience pleasure or happiness may lead to a failure to respond to “social calls” and to the patient’s environment. In determining whether a person is Schizophrenic, experts were able to devise three methods: “interview-based measure, self-portrait questionnaires, and laboratory-based assessments of emotional experience.” (Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2008)

“In this PET study we compared cerebral blood flow in people with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers when they looked at pictures that evoke unpleasant emotions. The people with schizophrenia were unable to activate the “emotion circuits” in their brains. These areas of decreased flow are shown in blue. Note that the regions are distributed throughout the brain, reflecting a “misconnection syndrome” that involves multiple brain regions.” (Andreasen, nd)

Anhedonia: Other Probable Causes

Drug addiction is one probable cause of Anhedonia. “stimulants like cocaine and amphetamines cause anhedonia and depression by depleting dopamine and other important neurotransmitters.” (Wikipedia, 2007) Long-term drug addicts’ “pleasure pathways” breakdown leading to permanent or semi-permanent anhedonia. Sexual Anhendonia or the failure to take pleasure during sexual intercourse is cause by: “Hyperprolactinaemia – presence of abnormally-high levels of prolactin in the blood, Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), also called inhibited sexual desire, Low levels of the hormone testosterone, Spinal cord injury, or Use (or previous use) of Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or SSRI antidepressants” (Wikipedia, 2007)

“Two false-colored positron emission tomography (PET) scans of human brains. At the top is the brain of a healthy person, and below that is the brain of a depressed person.” (Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders, 2007)

Anhedonia: Treatment

Different therapies and medications have been devised to cure Anhedonia. One of which is the Milieu Therapy wherein patients are being manipulated through his/her physical and social environment; this, later on, builds the trust of the patient to the doctor or therapist. Trust will later on develop to more open and pleasant conversations and of course, participation. Medications and therapies used in curing Schizophrenia are also being used to cure Anhedonia since doctors see these two subjects related.

Anhedonic patients are called to participate in art and music exercises as part of their therapy to build up the pleasure. Encouragement from friends and member of the family is of utmost importance to motivate the patient’s drive to be cured. Pharmacologic drugs are also being used to reduce the manifestations of schizophrenia and anhedonia; the patient should be aware of the treatment so as to further understand the aim of the whole process and so as to reap participation and acceptance (from the patient). Proper and continuous monitoring of the patients is also encouraged so everything in the process and procedure will take effect immediately.

“Prevention is always and way better than cure.” More than the scientific studies, patience, encouragement, and support claim the top spot to improving a depressed person’s way of life. Depression will not get any worse if we show our compassion and we just try to lend our hands or shoulder to those who badly need it. Before the doctors, nurses and therapists, family and friends come first. As part of the patient’s personal bubble, we should not be afraid too but, instead, we should be brave enough to lead our depressed friends and/or relatives to the light. Talk to them; invite them to do a few good activities with you and some other friends. Give them the reason to conquer every reason to feel or be ashamed of themselves or of the situation they are in. Don’t leave them behind and open up and encourage them that this place is the only place they should be in. Nobody can initiate the healing process but the people around the patient.


This paper aims to define, explain, and dig deeper on the subject of ANHEDONIA. A lot of people have not yet been acquainted with the term and subject being discussed but it is actually related to more familiar terms like DEPRESSION, SCHIZOPHRENIA, and ADDICTION. This paper will divulge the relevance and connection of Anhedonia to depressionm schizophrenia, and addiction. This paper will also help us identify the causes and symptoms of this illness. More importantly, this study will help us find the means to treat a person suffering from anhedonia.


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