Animal Rights: Humans And Other Living Creatures Free Essay

In his article “All Animals are Equal”, Singer (1989) argues in support of animal rights. He claims that the tendency to view animals as creatures that do not deserve the same rights as humans is just as wrong as denying people’s rights based on their skin color on gender. He calls this notion ‘speciesism’, the term for people’s willingness to allow “the interests of [they’re] own species to override the greater interests of members of other species” (Singer, 1989, p. 152). Singer proposes that to stop speciesism, people have to stop looking for similarities and to give equal rights and treatment to all species regardless of the actual differences between them and us (Singer, 1989, p. 149).

The author starts with a brief history of the struggle against racism and sexism, only to introduce the point that these are not the last remaining forms of discrimination (Singer, 1989, p. 148). He emphasizes the idea that in contemporary philosophy, equality is the basic moral principle, regardless of the past practices that undermined the rights of certain groups. Singer acknowledges the fact that the idea of giving equal rights to animals seems far-fetched, especially since it was first introduced to ridicule the women’s struggle for equal rights (Singer, 1989, p. 148). The author states that it would be impossible to use the example of female rights to promote animal rights: “Women have a right to vote, for instance, because they are just as capable of making rational decisions as men are; dogs, on the other hand, are incapable of understanding the significance of voting, so they cannot have the right to vote” (Singer, 1989, p. 148).

However, he argues, the fact that there are significant differences between humans and animals should not be an obstacle to expanding animal rights; these differences only impact the type of rights the animals would receive and not the people’s attitude towards them (Singer, 1989, p. 149). Singer aims to point out the faults in the equal rights movement; he believes that the problem lies in the argument that all people are equal when, in fact, they are not: “if the demand for equality were based on the actual equality of all human beings, we would have to stop demanding equality. It would be an unjustifiable demand” (Singer, 1989, p. 149). Instead, he argues, equality should be seen not as a factor that allows giving equal rights to different people and creatures, but rather as a moral ideal achieved by giving these rights (Singer, 1989, p. 150).

In his article, Singer (1989) makes simple points that nonetheless have the potential to promote equality among all species in today’s society. Indeed, the movements against racism and sexism are based on the principle that people are equal, which makes their arguments weak when the scientific proofs of the differences between races and sexes are considered. Singer’s ideas, on the other hand, can help us to get a new view of equality and a new way of achieving it. His argument cannot be disregarded as it is based on the principles of ethics and morality rather than on scientific facts. Overall, I believe that Singer’s (1989) ideas are particularly relevant to contemporary society since we have not achieved complete equality yet. His views allow for a more logical and valid argument for equality, thus promoting equal rights for all sexes and races, as well as for all species.


Singer, P. (1989) All animals are equal. In T. Regan & P. Singer (Eds.), Animal rights and human obligations (148-162). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Medical Terms, Abbreviations, And Spelling Errors


The use of medical terms and abbreviations is an integral part of the process of healthcare. On the one hand, the application of terminology is inevitable, and abbreviations can save time, which is essential for healthcare facilities. On the other hand, misspelling of terms and the lack of unification in abbreviations can lead to bias and become a cause of medical errors. This paper aims to stress the importance of correct spelling of medical terms, analyze the impact of spelling and abbreviation errors, and suggest ways to avoid those mistakes.

Importance of Correct Spelling of Medical Terms and Use of Accepted Abbreviations

Proper spelling of medical terms and correct use of abbreviations is crucial to healthcare. The data from the national medication error-reporting program show that in the period from 2004 to 2006 there were 4.7% of medical errors due to abbreviation use among the reported 643,151 (Rodwin, 2013). For example, abbreviations that are often misinterpreted include “MS,” which can be interpreted as morphine sulfate or magnesium sulfate, or “U” and “IU,” which mean unit and international unit correspondently (Rodwin, 2013). It is essential to check the proper spelling of terms and use of accepted abbreviations by a healthcare professional to avoid bias and the following medical errors because they can cause adverse patient outcomes.

Effects of Spelling and Abbreviation Errors

The prevalence of terminology and abbreviation use is high among doctors and nurses. The research reveals that their motivation to do so includes saving time, convenience, and avoidance of writing full sentences (Koh et al., 2015). However, while doctors have no difficulties in interpreting abbreviations, nurses frequently have to guess their meaning, which is likely to lead to misinterpretation and wrong actions. The same effect can be provided by errors in the spelling of medical terms. Such terms as anuresis and enuresis, cord and chord, ileum and ilium, perfusion and profusion, pleural and plural, etc. are frequently misspelled and misinterpreted due to similar pronunciation. Misspelling of terms can result in a wrong diagnosis or improper treatment, especially when multi-specialist teams are involved in the treatment process. Consequently, the excessive use of abbreviations and medical terminology, their misinterpretation, or errors can have an impact on both the healthcare provider and the patient. Thus, the patient can get the wrong treatment in case a nurse misinterprets a doctor’s prescriptions. Also, the patient can have problems with understanding the doctor’s written recommendations after discharge. As for a healthcare facility, it can observe an increased level of medication errors and a decrease in patient safety rates, which is not favorable for its reputation.

Ways to Avoid Mistakes in Spelling or Abbreviating Medical Terms

There are some ways to avoid mistakes in spelling and abbreviating medical terms. First of all, it is advisable to reduce their use. Secondly, a careful check of spelling and abbreviating is necessary. It will allow minimizing accidental mistakes. Thirdly, only accepted abbreviations should be used. Also, it is important to avoid the abbreviations included into “Do Not Use” list (Rodwin, 2013). Finally, continuous education for doctors and nurses can positively contribute to the correct use of terminology and, as a result, to the improved patient outcomes.


On the whole, the system of healthcare cannot exclude terminology and abbreviations. However, their excessive use should be limited to reduce the incidence of misspelling and misinterpretation, which can lead to medical errors. Thus, careful use of terms and abbreviation is an important component of patient safety.


Koh, K. C., Lau, K. M., Yusof, S. A., Mohamad, A. I., Shahabuddin, F. S. A., Ahmat, N. H., & Teh, P. C. (2015). A study on the use of abbreviations among doctors and nurses in the medical department of a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Medical Journal of Malaysia, 70(6), 334-340.

Rodwin, B. (2013). Why you should think twice about using medical abbreviations. Web.

Human Trafficking: National And International Challenges

Social workers must respond to any humanitarian crisis domestically and abroad. The international issue of human trafficking and its impact requires the attention of social workers. Many are antagonized by the scope of the issue and feel helpless. However, small actions within a social work organization and community can begin to solve the problem of human trafficking. The goal is to prevent the problem through education and to cope with the trauma by offering counseling within communities.

Human trafficking is a modern version of slavery. Its victims experience fraud, coercion, and abuse for forced labor or commercial sex trafficking. People are exploited and coerced into debt bondage or peonage, and repayment in forms of labor is demanded.

Men are commonly subjected to forced labor while women and children are exploited for illegal sexual purposes. Over 21 million people worldwide are affected by this crime against humanity, making it a prioritizing issue for international social work professionals. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 is a federal law enacted to address the issue. It focuses on the prevention and prosecution of human trafficking in the United States and internationally. Aid and benefits are provided towards victim assistance to help them rebuild their lives. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012).

The necessity for human services to focus on this issue is founded on the ethical standards of the profession. The human need is exhibited here as people’s lives are exploited for various trafficking purposes. There is a fundamental responsibility to the public and society, existing in standard 14 (awareness of social issues) and 16 (advocating for social justice and eliminating oppression). Maintaining these values is at the very core of the human services profession (National Organization for Human Services, n.d.).

Society is aware of the human trafficking issue. However, many have false beliefs that it happens in distant 3rd world countries and is organized by criminal groups with which they cannot possibly associate. While that is partially true, the issue is prominent in the US, and many people are coerced and exploited by someone they know in the community. There are a clear knowledge and education gap, in different spheres, including in social work training.

An interagency government exists to address the issue, but there is no specific roadmap on impacting change within small communities and cities. Human services should focus on identifying victims and engaging them with a careful and therapeutic approach. Human service professionals need to understand the scope of human trafficking and potential identifying signs that a victim may exhibit, particularly sexually exploited women and youth who are the most prominent target of trafficking in the United States. There is a complex approach to help victims escape from trafficking and gradually restore their psychological wellness. Human service workers gaining the skills and knowledge to work with victims can make a meaningful change within their communities (Hodge, 2014).

The main challenge in addressing human trafficking is organizing a comprehensive change effort. While the argument for the position is undeniable, the critical support to impose change is missing. Leaders may find themselves needing to restructure the organizational development completely. In this case, it means reforming the education approach to social work. The focus on the issue at hand will be a driving force for concrete actions. Cooperation and coalitions between organizations, agencies, and social agents invested in making a change are an effective way to address the issue from several perspectives and resources (Homan, 2016).

Making these improvements to the human services field and working to find resolutions to the problem will improve the lives of many people, including rehabilitating victims that are struggling to rebuild their lives. Overall, the effort will raise awareness, protect people, and promote community cohesiveness.

Colleague Responses

Beverly takes a unique approach to immigration by emphasizing the impact of personal relationships on residence status. She describes how the social worker can help a woman through the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA). The legislation exists to protect women, but the human services professional is acting reactively by trying to aid with filing the VAWA self-petition. Theories of social change have to be developed to prevent such situations.

Homan (2016) emphasizes cooperation among organizations and agencies to find solutions to ongoing issues using a wide variety of resources. Collaboration between human services and government agencies can help develop proactive solutions by analyzing the intricacies and trends of similar situations. That way, new policies can form, such as a legal guarantee for a woman before she enters the country in such abusive circumstances. Opposing viewpoints may state this issue happens rarely and is not relevant. To them, the main problem is the manipulation of immigration laws for people to enter the country this way and then claim protection under U.S. law.

Parrish chose to analyze a controversial socio-economic issue that is deeply rooted in public opinion and politics. Taking on such a major social issue exemplifies ethical standards that a human service professional should practice. Specifically, the responsibility to society in Standard 12 is evident, which calls for advocating for legislative change when it violates ethical guidelines and clients’ rights. Also, Standard 16 emphasizes the knowledge of socio-political issues that affect diverse client backgrounds (National Organization for Human Services, n.d.). Parrish recognizes the difficulty of making a social change related to this matter. However, advocating for proper evaluation of legislation seems to be the best way forward. An opposing viewpoint will argue that the law is fair and balanced by setting limits for criminals. They would say that inherent racism does not cause the social divide, but rather the socio-cultural approach to education and jobs.


Hodge, D. (2014). Assisting victims of human trafficking: Strategies to facilitate identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of wellness. Social Work, 59(2), 111-118. Web.

Homan, M. S. (2016). Promoting community change: Making it happen in the real world (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage. Web.

National Organization for Human Services. (n.d.). Ethical standards for human service professionals.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Fact sheet: Human trafficking.

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