Animals Can Feel Emotions Like Us


The idea that pets can experience feelings comparable to people has amassed considerable interest in the last few years. While some might reject this concept as anthropomorphism, placing proof from clinical research studies and unscientific monitoring is recommended. This informative essay aims to shed light on the topic by exploring the history of the belief, presenting scientific evidence, and examining instances where animal emotions are evident in their actions within the community. By appealing to pathos, logos, and ethos, this essay seeks to establish the credibility of the belief that animals can feel emotions like us.

History and Background

Throughout history, humans have recognized the behavioral expressions of animals as potential indicators of emotions. Ancient civilizations revered and worshipped certain animals, attributing them with human-like qualities. In even more current times, the introduction job of famous researchers such as Charles Darwin and Jane Goodall has enhanced our understanding of pet feelings. Darwin’s monitoring of psychological expressions in pets tested the dominating sight that people are the single holders of intricate feelings (Lawrence 783). Goodall’s groundbreaking research on chimpanzees unveiled their ability to exhibit a range of emotions, including joy, sadness, fear, and anger.

Scientific Evidence

Scientific study has progressively sustained the idea that pets can experience feelings comparable to human beings. Neuroscientific research has disclosed striking resemblances in the mind frameworks and chemical procedures connected with feelings in human beings and pets. For example, a study has revealed that pets, like people, have limbic systems in charge of psychological handling. Research using practical magnetic vibration imaging (fMRI) has shown the activation of comparable mind areas to psychological stimulations in human beings and pets. Additionally, ethological research studies which observe pet actions in their all-natural environments supply engaging proof of psychological experiences (Lezama-García, Karina, et al. 1-12). The grief displayed by elephants mourning the loss of a family member or the joy exhibited by dogs when reunited with their owners are poignant examples of emotional depth in animals. Observations of primates engaging in nurturing behaviors, such as comforting distressed individuals, further highlight their capacity for empathy.

Actions Within the Community

Beyond scientific evidence, numerous instances in which animals display emotions can be witnessed within our communities. Companion animals like dogs and cats form deep emotional bonds with their human caregivers. They exhibit joy when their owners return home, express distress when separated, and show empathy by comforting individuals in times of sadness. Therapy animals, specifically trained to provide emotional support, demonstrate their ability to sense and respond to human emotions, providing comfort to those in need (Gu, Simeng, et al. 781). In the wild, social animals, including elephants, dolphins, and wolves, exhibit complex emotional behaviors within their communities. They engage in cooperative hunting, demonstrate altruism towards group members, and display mourning rituals for deceased members. Such actions indicate the presence of emotional connections and a shared sense of community among these animals.


The belief that animals can feel emotions like humans is supported by a rich history, scientific evidence, and real-life observations. From ancient civilizations to modern scientific research, the recognition of animal emotions has evolved. Neuroscientific studies have revealed striking similarities in the brain structures associated with emotions, while ethological observations demonstrate animals’ capacity for empathy and emotional depth. Within our communities, companion animals and various social species display behaviors indicative of emotional experiences. As we continue to deepen our understanding of animal emotions, it becomes imperative to respect and acknowledge the emotional lives of animals, promoting their welfare and coexistence with humans. By appealing to pathos through relatable examples of animal emotions, logos by presenting scientific evidence, and ethos by referencing respected researchers and studies, this essay aims to inform and persuade readers of the belief that animals can indeed feel emotions like us. As society embraces this understanding, we can foster a more compassionate and empathetic approach toward all living beings.


Gu, Simeng, et al. “A model for basic emotions using observations of behavior in Drosophila.” Frontiers in Psychology 10 (2019): 781.

Lawrence, Alistair B., Belinda Vigors, and Peter Sandøe. “What is so positive about positive animal welfare?—a critical review of the literature.” Animals 9.10 (2019): 783.

Lezama-García, Karina, et al. “Facial expressions and emotions in domestic animals.” CABI Reviews 2019 (2019): 1-12.

Case Study For Group Presentation – Aboriginal

Bio-psycho-social-spiritual Assessment

This bio-psycho-social-spiritual evaluation approach examines a 17-year-old Metis man Jordan. Jordan’s information includes age, gender, and Metis ethnicity. Psychologically, Jordan feels frustrated, furious, unwanted, and traumatized owing to family abuse. Jordan’s family is described socially. His mother works and cares for his younger siblings, while his father has drinking troubles. Jordan’s street mates are his primary support, but his solicitation and arrest suggest he exploits a friend’s father. Jordan’s Metis Aboriginal background is spiritual. His cultural connection looks tenuous. He dislikes his grandparents since they went to residential schools, and he does not address his spirituality or culture. This evaluation framework highlights Jordan’s familial dynamics, abuse, trauma, substance use, legal involvement, and strained relationship with his Aboriginal heritage.

Jordan has various strengths that can help him. He may communicate his rage and displeasure with his family and trauma. Self-awareness and communication skills can help him heal and flourish. Jordan’s willingness to seek aid from the youth shelter is another strength, as he wants assistance and wants to change. Jordan may be trusted and collaborated with by acknowledging and promoting this proactive step. Jordan survives on the streets by soliciting and being resourceful. Jordan feels heard and understood when he openly shares his feelings and worries in a safe, non-judgmental place. He gains autonomy and self-determination by participating in decision-making, including setting goals and action plans. Building Jordan’s resilience requires recognizing his ability to cope with complex events. Highlighting his resourcefulness can help him choose healthier, more sustainable survival activities. These strengths can help Jordan achieve stability, healing, and well-being.

Jordan needs informal and formal support to meet his diverse demands. First, trauma-informed counseling and therapy would help him cope with the violence and familial turmoil. Therefore, through specialized counseling, Jordan can overcome trauma, learn coping skills, and understand his feelings and experiences. Also, Jordan needs drug and alcohol rehab to conquer his issues. Detoxification, counseling, and support groups can help him break the pattern of substance misuse and restore his life. Jordan needs legal help to navigate the system. A lawyer would protect his rights and secure fair treatment in court. This advocate could advise him and explain his legal rights and duties. These services would help him recover from trauma, combat addiction, and navigate the judicial system, paving the way for a better future.

I would represent Jordan in court to preserve his rights and ensure fairness. I would first acquire all necessary case material and work with him to understand his legal rights and choices. This would help me keep Jordan’s counsel informed of any relevant information. I would also support Jordan emotionally and empower him to speak up in court by helping him understand and support legal measures that account for Jordan’s trauma and torture. This may mean demanding alternative sentencing choices that prioritize rehabilitation and address the underlying conditions causing his solicitation.

Structural difficulties significantly impact Jordan’s experience. Despite his age and documented family violence and neglect, Jordan lacks suitable alternative living alternatives. This shows that the child protection system needs to be strengthened to protect vulnerable youngsters. Jordan’s exploitation by his friend’s father illustrates the necessity for comprehensive prevention and support services for at-risk adolescents. Jordan’s Aboriginal grandparents’ unfavorable perception owing to residential school enrollment highlights Indigenous communities’ intergenerational trauma and systemic injustices. These structural concerns underline the necessity of systemic barriers, cultural healing, and culturally appropriate care for Indigenous youth like Jordan.

Jordan’s issues relate to his Aboriginal heritage. He blames his grandparents for his father’s alcoholism due to intergenerational trauma from residential schools. This shows how historical trauma affects Indigenous families and causes complex difficulties like substance abuse (IDFA, 2012). Jordan’s alienation from his culture and spirituality may worsen his identity crisis. Therefore, recognizing and treating Jordan’s Aboriginal lineage is vital for holistic treatment that addresses his cultural history, identity, and Indigenous youth’s particular issues. Jordan can gain strength, resilience, and a sense of belonging by embracing his ancestry and using culturally sensitive support and healing methods.


Two social work theories that may apply to Jordan are Attachment Theory and Strength-Based Theory. Each paradigm gives social workers a different perspective on working with Jordan. Attachment Theory helps us understand the importance of early interactions and their impact on development and well-being (Stokes, 2019). In Jordan’s example, an Attachment Theory social worker would prioritize building a secure and trusting relationship (Ives et al., 2020). Therefore, the social worker would create a secure space where Jordan feels understood, supported, and valued to lay the groundwork for therapeutic interventions to address his familial dynamics and trauma (Harms & Connolly, 2019). One challenge with this theory is that the social worker must overcome Jordan’s distrust of adults and fear of vulnerability to implement the Attachment Theory (Ives et al., 2020). Jordan may have lost trust in caretakers and authority figures due to his family’s mistreatment and exploitation (Harms & Connolly, 2019). Therefore, the social worker must show consistency, reliability, and empathy to create a stable bond with Jordan. The strength of attachment theory is that its emphasis on stable attachment can help Jordan heal (Stokes, 2019). A secure attachment relationship can help Jordan process his prior trauma and current challenges. Reflective listening, empathy, and validation can help Jordan establish a more secure internal working model and improve his ability to form healthy connections. By adopting the Attachment Theory, the social worker would understand the importance of early interactions on Jordan’s well-being and seek to create a stable attachment that facilitates healing and growth (Canadian Association of Social Workers, 2008). Also, the Canadian Association of Social Workers’ ethical guidelines and professional standards emphasize building trust and improving client well-being (Canadian Association of Social Workers, 2005).

The strength-Based theory emphasizes people’s strengths, resilience, and resources as the foundation for growth and change (Harms & Connolly, 2019). A social worker using this philosophy would focus on Jordan’s strengths. Jordan’s talents are his capacity to express his feelings, seek support, and persevere (Stokes, 2019). The social worker would use the Strength-Based Theory to highlight and reinforce Jordan’s strengths, encouraging him to grow and change (Harms & Connolly, 2019). The social worker would help Jordan set goals and create action plans based on his talents and resources. This strategy fosters self-efficacy, self-determination, and positivity, boosting Jordan’s agency and motivation to change (Stokes, 2019). Jordan’s case may be challenging to apply Strength-Based Theory if he struggles to recognize his strengths or feels overwhelmed by his circumstances (Ives et al., 2020). Abuse, family difficulties, and exploitative settings may cloud Jordan’s view of his strengths. Therefore, the social worker must provide a supportive and non-judgmental environment to allow Jordan to discover his abilities independently. Despite these limitations, Strength-Based Theory can promote resilience, optimism, and empowerment (Harms & Connolly, 2019). The social worker can help Jordan create a positive self-concept and better coping skills by building on his talents. Jordan’s well-being and resilience may improve with this method. Strength-Based theory also follows the ethical criteria of the Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW, 2005). Also, the CASW Code of Ethics stresses recognizing and respecting people’s skills and capacities while helping them achieve their goals (CASW, 2005).

Given Jordan’s willingness to seek help and capacity to express himself, the Strength-Based Theory is a good fit (Ives et al., 2020). Using this strategy, the social worker can empower and inspire Jordan to grow and be resilient. Strength-Based theory emphasizes capitalizing on people’s strengths, resources, and talents to achieve positive change (Harms & Connolly, 2019). Jordan’s social worker can help him recognize and use his strengths, such as articulate communication, seeking help, and resilience (Ives et al., 2020). Jordan’s self-confidence and belief in his ability to overcome obstacles can be boosted by the social worker identifying and supporting these abilities. He grows and becomes resilient through this process. The strengths-based approach respects and values Jordan’s autonomy and unique experiences (Stokes, 2019). Instead of focusing on Jordan’s difficulties, the social worker identifies and praises his talents, making him participate in his growth and improvement. Jordan’s motivation to make positive life changes is increased by this collaborative approach, which fosters ownership, participation, and self-determination. Also, by harnessing his talents, the social worker can help Jordan develop resilience and agency, empowering him to overcome his problems (Stokes, 2019).

Ethical dilemma

Working with a client like Jordan may present ethical dilemmas about confidentiality and reporting. Jordan admitted to unlawful solicitation, which puts him at risk. Therefore, a social worker must resolve this ethical issue while protecting Jordan’s well-being. This ethical problem needs reflexive decision-making (Ives et al., 2020). First, the social worker should consider confidentiality and the ethical obligation to preserve customers’ privacy and trust. The CASW Code of Ethics states that this concept must be balanced with other ethical requirements, such as protecting individuals from harm (CASW, 2005). The social worker should also consider relevant research, ideas, laws, and the Code of Ethics (Ives et al., 2020). The social worker should then consider possibilities and their pros and cons. Still, Jordan’s safety and well-being must be prioritized due to his criminal activities. The social worker should consult colleagues, supervisors, and legal consultants (Ives et al., 2020). Confidentiality may conflict with protecting Jordan in this situation. In client or third-party harm cases, the obligation to protect trumps confidentiality (CASW, 2005). The social worker should report the matter to child protective agencies to protect Jordan.

Social workers should focus on their values, prejudices, and conflicts of interest during decision-making (Ives et al., 2020). The social worker can make ethical and client-centered decisions by acknowledging and addressing these issues. Cultural prejudice may affect social workers. Since Jordan is Aboriginal Metis, the social worker must address preconceived notions, stereotypes, or assumptions about Indigenous populations. Cultural humility and culturally neutral decisions and interventions are necessary. Values influence decision-making too. Therefore, if the social professional strongly opposes unlawful activity, they may report Jordan’s solicitation over confidentially. Knowing these principles allows social workers to assess how they may affect their decisions critically. The social worker may have a conflict of interest if they know Jordan’s case participants, and their objectivity may be affected if they know Jordan’s family or the child protection agency. Therefore, recognizing and addressing these conflicts of interest ensures that social workers function ethically and in the client’s best interests (CASW, 2005).

Reflexive decision-making helps social workers balance ethical ideals. The social worker can make an informed and ethical decision that prioritizes Jordan’s safety while respecting the Code of Ethics by acquiring information, examining possibilities, and weighing the pros and drawbacks.

Discussion Question

How can social workers mitigate prejudices and conflicts of interest while making decisions for clients from varied cultural backgrounds, like Jordan’s Indigenous heritage?

How can social workers use Chapter 3’s reflexive decision-making process to resolve ethical challenges, especially those involving vulnerable kids like Jordan?

What resources and professional supports should social workers use when encountering complex ethical problems like Jordan’s?

How might consulting coworkers, supervisors, or ethics committees improve ethical decision-making?


Canadian Association of Social Workers (. (2008). Social Work Scope of Practice. Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW).

Canadian Association of Social Workers. (2005). Guidelines for Ethical Practice 2005. Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW) Code of Ethics.

Canadian Association of Social Workers. (2005). CODE OF ETHICS 2005.

Harms, L., & Connolly, M. (2019). Social work: from theory to practice. Cambridge University Press.

IDFA. (2012). We Were Children [Video]. YouTube.

Ives, N., Denov, M., & Sussman, T. (2020). Introduction to Social Work in Canada: Histories, Contexts, and Practices (2nd Ed.). Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.

Stokes, J. (2019). Social Work Practice in Canada: Knowledge, values, and Skills. Google Books.

Comparison Of Aspects Of The Limited Liability Company Form In Albania And Germany


The limited liability company (LLC) is a well-liked and commonly used corporation in European and worldwide corporate law systems. Germany, known for its strong economy and legal system, and Albania, a Southeast European nation, will be compared on three key LLC features in this essay.

Formation and Capital Requirements

The procedure for establishing an LLC in Albania is simple. A single shareholder is necessary to form an LLC, and there is no statutory minimum capital requirement.[1]Ideally, this flexibility allows entrepreneurs to establish a firm with little money. The shareholder(s) can determine the capital contribution amount based on their business goals. Because of this, entrepreneurs can start their businesses faster. Albania LLC formation is also famous because it may be completed in a week.

In comparison, establishing an LLC in Germany is more complicated. German law sets a “minimum financial equivalent” criteria even when no legislative minimum capital requirement exists. Ideally, this guarantees adequate assets are available to maintain business operations for at least a year. The precise amount of capital required may change based on the type of business. Ideally, this need ensures that the business has enough financial resources to meet its responsibilities, acting as a safeguard for creditors and stakeholders.

The German strategy emphasizes capitalization to avoid undercapitalized businesses that can initially experience financial challenges. As a result, business owners seeking to form an LLC in Germany should consider investing enough money to satisfy the “minimum financial equivalent” requirement.[2]. The need might entail a more significant financial outlay than Albania’s flexible approach.

Additionally, unlike in Albania, forming an LLC in Germany typically requires more time. Due to multiple administrative processes such as drafting the company’s articles of association, notarization, registration with the commercial register, and tax authorities, it might take a few weeks to a few months in Germany. Ideally, this extended procedure enables a complete examination and confirmation of the company’s adherence to legal obligations.

Governance and Decision-Making

The governance structure of an LLC gives the shareholders a substantial amount of freedom and autonomy in Albania. The operational oversight of the company is entrusted to a group of individuals known as directors, who possess the authority to act as shareholders or external entities. Ideally, this facilitates the inclusion of a wide array of individuals in the organization’s governance. The shareholders possess the prerogative to exercise their agency in appointing and terminating directors per their discernment, thereby endowing them with a considerable level of dominion over the organizational framework of the company. Due to the flexibility of director selections, businesses can better respond quickly to shifting business requirements and shareholder preferences.

The general meeting of shareholders in Albanian LLCs has the authority to make decisions. The company’s operations, strategy, and significant transactions are all decided upon by the shareholders.[3]. While the company’s articles of association can describe specific decision-making processes, the general meeting has the final say. Additionally, minority shareholder protection is addressed by statutory provisions in Albanian law, guaranteeing that their rights and interests are considered during decision-making.

In contrast, the governance structure for LLCs in Germany is more conventional and hierarchical. Managing directors, chosen through a formal process by the shareholders’ meeting, are generally responsible for leading a German LLC. Unlike Albania’s flexibility, this procedure may require a vote or resolution to choose the managing directors, offering a more organized method of appointing directors. In order to promote stability and safeguard the interests of shareholders, German law puts stronger requirements on the selection and removal of directors.

German LLCs’ management board or managing directors have most of the decision-making authority. Regular decision-making processes are often outsourced to the management board or the managing directors, even though shareholders maintain ultimate authority over some key choices, such as amending the company’s articles of incorporation[4]. The management is in charge of the company’s strategic and operational decisions thanks to this structure, which also assures effective day-to-day operations.

Albanian LLCs have a more adaptable governance structure, allowing for better shareholder control and participation in the firm’s operation, according to a comparison between Albania and Germany. Directors are autonomously appointed and removed by the shareholders, allowing flexibility and adaptation. The general meeting of shareholders retains decision-making authority, assuring collaborative decision-making. In contrast, Germany strongly emphasizes enhanced governance practices in LLCs, which provides stockholders with more protection. The formal procedures used to appoint and remove directors foster stability and uniformity. The management board or managing directors are typically given the authority to make decisions, streamlining daily operations.

Liability of Shareholders

The basic principle of limited liability applies, i.e., shareholders are generally exempt from personal culpability for the debts and obligations of the company in both Germany and Albania. However, there are differences in the scope of liability and rare situations when more culpability might materialize.

The limited liability concept is strictly upheld in Albania. Only the amount of their capital contributions makes shareholders of an Albanian LLC accountable. Ideally, this implies that shareholders’ personal assets are safeguarded, thereby confining their liability solely to the extent of their investment in the company’s capital[5]. In the event of the company’s financial liabilities, commitments, or legal contentions, creditors and claimants are exclusively entitled to pursue reparation from the company’s assets, with no recourse to the personal assets of individual shareholders. Because it reduces personal risk, the limited liability principle offers shareholders a considerable advantage and promotes investment and entrepreneurial activity.

In Germany, LLCs are governed by the limited liability concept. It is important to note that stockholders may be liable in certain situations. An exemplification of such circumstances pertains to the state of insolvency. Suppose the capital contributions of the company are deemed inadequate to address the claims of creditors during insolvency proceedings sufficiently. In that case, it is within the realm of possibility for shareholders to be held individually accountable for rectifying the financial shortfall. Ideally, this is referred to as having “inadequate capitalization” or having “deficiency liability” (Unterbilanzhaftung). This clause protects creditors by ensuring that the corporation has enough resources to meet its obligations even during tough financial circumstances.

Extra liability may develop in Germany when a shareholder exerts significant control over the company’s management but does not make the necessary capital contributions. In such circumstances, the shareholder may be held accountable for harm to the business or third parties. Ideally, this liability results from a shareholder’s failure to contribute the agreed-upon capital and may be used to compensate for any damages or losses sustained.

In contrast to Albania, these rare situations in Germany show how limited responsibility can be applied more subtly. In Germany, extra liability restrictions are in place to protect against abuse or misuse of limited liability and ensure that shareholders uphold their duties to the business and its stakeholders[6]. In cases where the company’s capital is insufficient, or shareholders fail to honor their capital contribution agreements, these rules act as safeguards for creditors, preserving their interests.

It is significant to highlight that the rigorous limited liability rule followed in Albania does not apply in Germany, where exceptions to limited liability apply only in specified circumstances and typically call for a greater obligation threshold. Since their liability is limited to their capital contributions, shareholders in Albanian LLCs have a stronger defense against personal culpability. In contrast, Germany’s exceptions impose additional liability in certain situations to protect the interests of creditors and guarantee the fulfillment of capital requirements.


Three elements of the LLC form were compared between Germany and Albania to show the differences and similarities between the two countries. Germany focuses on adequate capitalization and imposes harsher rules, while Albania prioritizes formation and capital requirements that promote a more approachable and flexible strategy. Compared to Germany, where the emphasis is on standardized processes, Albania’s governance and decision-making structures show a stronger involvement of shareholders. Regarding liability, Albania limits capital contributions, whereas Germany incorporates measures that may subject an individual to personal liability in certain circumstances. Businesses that want to operate in both nations must be aware of the variations between these two jurisdictions.


Elenita, Roshi. “Conjoint analysis and online forums on cultural heritage in Albania-analysing TripAdvisor reviews.” European Journal of Economics and management sciences 1 (2018): 3–14.

Hornuf, Lars, and Armin Schwienbacher. “Internet-based entrepreneurial finance: Lessons from Germany.” California Management Review 60, no. 2 (2018): 150-175.

Prašnikar, Janez, Fatmir Memaj, Tjaša Redek, and Damjan Voje. “The role of corporations in economic development: Albania on its way to internationalisation.” Post-communist economies 25, no. 3 (2013): 392-406.

Nuredini, Bashkim, and Ruzhdi Matoshi. “Legal Regulation of the Limited Liability Company in North Macedonia, Albania, and Kosovo.” Balkan Social Science Review 18 (2021): 183-205.

Shoroye, Babajide S. “Lifting the Corporate Veil for Directors and Shareholders’ Liability: Matters Arising.” JL Pol’y & Globalization 120 (2022): 44.

Fernando, Ricco, and Benny Djaja. “Implementation of Limited Liability Company Dissolution Reviewed from Law Number 40 of 2007 (Case Study At PT Sumber Berkat Jaya Hidup Baru-Batam City)”.” Edunity: Social and Educational Studies 2, no. 6 (2023): 683-697.

[1] Elenita, Roshi. “Conjoint analysis and online forums on cultural heritage in Albania-analysing TripAdvisor reviews.” European Journal of Economics and management sciences 1 (2018): 3–14.

[2] Hornuf, Lars, and Armin Schwienbacher. “Internet-based entrepreneurial finance: Lessons from Germany.” California Management Review 60, no. 2 (2018): 150-175.

[3] Prašnikar, Janez, Fatmir Memaj, Tjaša Redek, and Damjan Voje. “The role of corporations in economic development: Albania on its way to internationalisation.” Post-communist economies 25, no. 3 (2013): 392-406.

[4] Nuredini, Bashkim, and Ruzhdi Matoshi. “Legal Regulation of the Limited Liability Company in North Macedonia, Albania, and Kosovo.” Balkan Social Science Review 18 (2021): 183-205.

[5] Shoroye, Babajide S. “Lifting the Corporate Veil for Directors and Shareholders’ Liability: Matters Arising.” JL Pol’y & Globalization 120 (2022): 44.

[6] Fernando, Ricco, and Benny Djaja. “Implementation of Limited Liability Company Dissolution Reviewed from Law Number 40 of 2007 (Case Study At PT Sumber Berkat Jaya Hidup Baru-Batam City)”.” Edunity: Social and Educational Studies 2, no. 6 (2023): 683-697.