Annotated Bibliography: Benefits Of MMORPG On Language Learning Free Sample

Bytheway, J. A. (2011). Vocabulary learning strategies in massively multiplayer online role playing games.

Julie Ann Bytheway indicates that the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games MMORPG offers equitable strategies to learn language vocabulary. MMORPG is also acknowledged as the informal second language in a learning context. The vocabularies provided by MMORPG are determined by play which is a key aspect in the motivation and learning process. MMORPG offers a culture that contributes to students’ interaction with the games, independent learning approaches, and curiosity about learning languages. The range of languages learned depends on MMORPG as it indicates the use of language and attitudes embraced by students. The MMORPG approach is also recognized by Gu’s vocabulary learning strategies model (Bytheway, 2011). AS a result, the second learning strategy enables gamers to select, develop and use the appropriate words when learning new languages.

Connolly, T. M., Stansfield, M., & Hainey, T. (2011). An alternate reality game for language learning: ARGuing for multilingual motivation. Computers & Education57(1), 1389-1415.

According to the article, the learning of language through MMORPG is facilitated by Alternate Reality Games ARG, which comprise multimedia and gaming components. ARG is designed, developed, and evaluated to increase students’ motivation in the secondary level in Europe to engage in learning modern foreign languages. Through ARG, more language programs were introduced u secondary schools, where 95 language teachers were incorporated from 17 European territories to foster the learning (Connolly, Stansfield & Hainey, 2011). Importantly, through ARG, a potentially useful vehicle is provided that develops collaborative practices in the educational context. The key educational value of ARG includes supporting teaching the modern languages, especially the European languages. ARG also contributes to activities introduced around the Web and gaming, which promote cooperation and learning in the learning institutions. According to reports given by students, ARG delivers the expected motivational experience. Most students would be willing to play games as a major part of a foreign language course over a long period.

Garris, R., Ahlers, R., & Driskell, J. E. (2002). Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model. Simulation & Gaming33(4), 441-467.

As indicated by the authors, games are a great motivation to learn. One of the useful games includes MMORPG, which enables students to learn more through open-world exploration. The article argues that the games create an environment where students are engaged through the instructions provided. In most educational games, instructional games are encouraged to incorporate essential characteristics (Garris, Ahlers & Driskell, 2002). The research literature provided by the authors also indicates that pairing the instructional content with relevant game features helps strengthen the power of the games, leading to successful student engagement. As a result, the desired language instructional goals are achieved. Importantly, the authors state that only the key features of games with the desired interest need to be incorporated in the instructional context. Therefore, online games help improve students’ behavior, judgment, and feedback in the learning environment.

Lee, H. G. (2012). ESL learners’ motivation and task engagement in technology-enhanced language learning contexts. Washington State University.

The author Lee shows how motivation and task engagement in technology such as MMORPG helps enhance the learning of languages. Considering students taking English as Second Language ESL, the games are an easier strategy to help the students research more regarding the interesting languages in a motivating approach. The tasks provided by the games enable students to engage in both online and physical classroom environments actively. Importantly, the author argues that making learning more fun is another motivational factor that enables students to pay attention and focus on understanding the language (Lee, 2012). Educational games emphasize encouraging students to also learn outside the class language, which would help them engage in equitable conversation with other people in society. Additionally, the article shows that games make students focus well; hence they learn better and faster. MMORPG creates an opportunity for students to participate in health learning competitions and teamwork, ensuring they are constantly motivated to continue learning.

Noraddin, E. M., & Kian, N. T. (2014). Academics’ Attitudes toward Using Digital Games for Learning & Teaching in Malaysia. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology2(4), 1-21.

The authors state that digital games have evolved to be extremely attractive to gamers, especially students. They spend much of their time playing games for entertainment and pleasure. Despite some teachers rising concerns regarding digital games in classrooms, the introduction of MMORPG has continued across the world. Digital games can offer more knowledge to the students since they fully concentrate on what is provided. According to a study conducted in Malaysian universities, most teachers acknowledged digital games’ purpose. Teachers have had an easy time teaching students since the games offer instructions and appropriate worlds which enable them to conceptualize languages (Noraddin & Kian, 2014). Since playing digital games is seen as a lifestyle, MMORPG equips students with positive attitudes towards language learning in a digital context.

Peterson, M. (2010). Computerized games and simulations in computer-assisted language learning: A meta-analysis of research. Simulation & Gaming41(1), 72-93.

Mark Peterson, the author of the article, argues that computerized games help in simulating language learning in the appropriate educational environments. Through MMORPG, a social-cultural and psycholinguistic approach is developed whereby the simulations incorporated in the method of computer-assisted language learning bring positive impacts to the students. According to influential studies, games and simulations have become valuable opportunities that provide detailed language learning (Peterson, 2010). Additionally, the games are an aspect that helps learners acquire skills to understand other languages that would be beneficial in the future. In a most informal setting, gamers are exposed to English as they engage in the games. Therefore, it is a great opportunity provided by MMORPG to promote language learning inform of enjoyment.

Purushotma, R. (2005). Commentary: You’re not studying; you’re.Language Learning & Technology9(1), 80-96.

The author supports the importance of MMORPG by indicating the challenge encountered by language teachers when they teach uninterested students. Most students lack focus in their language learning studies due to the dullness encountered as they conduct their homework primarily on education. Embracing digital games in learning exercises also attracts young students to participate since they begin playing games at a young age. As a result, young children can communicate effectively in the desired language, which is also an easier task for parents to teach their children. Once children learn languages at an early age, it makes it easier to understand other core subjects in the classroom. Importantly games such as “The Sims” are intelligently combined with game data acquired from the English edition containing other languages (Purushotma, 2005). The combination creates a conducive gaming environment that is both educative and entertaining, and less effort is used to facilitate learning.

Rankin, Y. A. (2008). Design and evaluation of Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games that facilitate second language acquisition (Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University).

According to the author, MMORPG are serious games that have been developed and promote the acquisition of skills and knowledge which enable students to understand languages effectively. Once meaningful games are designed, it becomes easy for teachers to guide students on using the games to their advantage. However, MMORPG has an interactive design paradigm that helps in integrating the learning gals with game tasks. The games offer prior and posterior knowledge to students, which enable them to identify important modifications for the learning process. Notably, video games as learning tools are important since they create an opportunity where students can learn from their mistakes (Rankin, 2008). Learning language requires students to practice regularly, an activity encouraged by the games. Playing the games enables students to grasp important words that are essential in new languages. Importantly, the game social interactions facilitated the emergence of collaborative behaviors between the native speakers and students learning the new language.

Shaffer, D. W., Squire, K. R., Halverson, R., & Gee, J. P. (2005). Video games and the future of learning. Phi delta Kappan87(2), 105-111.

Despite most educators being dismissive of video games in earning, the military, government, and corporations have recognized the importance and the educative power of MMORPG. As a result, most schools have adopted digital games to administer learning, as argued by the authors. The games have been embraced since they have changed how students interact and interpret new content. The video games have an idea into how teachers can create more powerful and new approaches for students to learn in schools and communities. Therefore, better methods to convey information to students have been developed, which is not tiresome or boring. Video games create new cultural worlds which enable students to learn more by integrating social interaction, technology, and thinking (Shaffer et al., 2005). Consequently, MMORPG has become a social, experiential, and epistemological approach that has designed a more comprehensive way of learning based on the power of technology.

Suh, S., Kim, S. W., & Kim, N. J. (2010). Effectiveness of MMORPG‐based instruction in elementary English education in Korea. Journal of computer-assisted learning26(5), 370-378.

According to the article, elementary English education is a major learning sector that has benefited from MMORPG. The authors compared the effectiveness of MMORPG with face-to-face instruction offered by teachers and the independent variable to determine its accuracy in a learning context. Notably, the results indicated that students in English classes who used digital games had higher scores than students in physical classes. Therefore, MMORPG significantly helps improve students’ scores in various areas such as reading, writing, and listening. Once students play more digital games, their hearing ability improves are can articulately write down keywords (Suh, Kim & Kim, 2010). Additionally, video games provide network speed for learners and learning motivation, especially lazy students. The report thus indicates that MMORPG plays a significant role in improving English communication skills since most of the games are played in language skills.

Sykes, J. (2009). Learner requests in Spanish: Examining the potential of multiuser virtual environments for L2 pragmatic acquisition. The second generation: Online collaboration and social networking in CALL, 199-234.

The article author Julie Sykes portrays the relevance of multiplayer online role-playing games in acquiring L2 pragmatics. The games consist of user-driven features that have enabled learners to enhance their language learning experience. Playing digital games has largely contributed to second language learning since it allows students to engage in cognitive, affective, behavioral, and perceptual studies. Acquisition of L2 pragmatics requires a student to be highly motivated and be interested in exploring a new language that is not their first language (Sykes, 2009). Digital games also encourage students p foster language socialization and develop a will to communicate with others using the language. Therefore, digital games have become one of the easiest approaches to introduce and foster the teaching of languages in the educational context.

Thomas, M., Reinders, H., & Warschauer, M. (2013). Contemporary computer-assisted language learning: The role of digital media and incremental change. Contemporary computer-assisted language learning, 30-47.

The article has more benefits to the language learning classrooms as it enables students to retail more grammar and vocabulary. The contemporary computer-assisted learning CALL aligns with MMORPG, whereby trident are allowed to watch educational videos and play computer games. As a result, students’ visual learning is enhanced as they see examples on the digital games well illustrated as discussed in the classrooms (Thomas, Reinders & Warschauer, 2013). Secondly, the approach helps promote listening practice which is essential while learning any language. Students can play games with music; hence they listen to the language interested in learning. In some cases, students can emulate the speakers, which help in pronunciation exercises. As a result, they can speak, tread and write languages efficiently.

Thorne, S. L. (2008). Transcultural communication in open Internet environments and massively. Mediating discourse online3, 305.

The report by Steven Thorne shows that open internet environments and online gaming have tremendous benefits to the informal setting, which fosters the development and use of a second language. Through online games, effective communication technologies are introduced in learning which caters to a wider historical, demographic and sociological approach. Digital playing games have also contributed to increasing recreational, professional, and interpersonal environments for students to learn and grow and explore a language (Thorne, 2008). Importantly, intercultural communication fostered through the internet introduces a unique and relevant approach to L2 learning. Additionally, the communicative activities offer a meaningful opportunity for students to explore the new language aggressively.

Thorne, S. L., & Reinhardt, J. (2008). “Bridging activities,” new media literacies, and advanced foreign language proficiency. Calico Journal25(3), 558-572.

The article shows that MMORPG creates an opportunity whereby educational institutions develop pedagogical models which bridge educational activities. The model focuses on addressing and fostering the advanced proficiency of foreign languages in the emerging information and internet tools. Through digital media, students have understood the need for acquiring language knowledge and other related activities that facilitate social practices. Importantly, digital games offer language awareness principles that help students understand the concept of multiliteracies (Thorne & Reinhardt, 2008). Teachers have also adopted a new way of applying the model, which includes iterative implementation of the observed and collected words. The games have also been active in fostering language learning functions by offering a wide range of communicative exercises in learning conventions.

Thorne, S. L., Black, R. W., & Sykes, J. M. (2009). Second language use, socialization, and learning in Internet interest communities and online gaming. The modern language journal93, 802-821.

Language learning has been made convenient through pedagogical experimentation, which facilitates digital media and games to acquire language knowledge. As a result, MMOPRG has been useful in describing and examining the in-class efficacy through the advanced and latest technology to share information with the students. Students can easily learn foreign languages through the games since a platform is created where meaningful interactions with native speakers occur. According to research conducted by the authors, MMORPG enables socialization fostered by sophisticated communicative practices (Thorne, Black & Sykes, 2009). Consequently, students are encouraged to creatively express themselves and utilize all language tools available to learn.

Zheng, D., Young, M. F., Wagner, M. M., & Brewer, R. A. (2009). Negotiation for action: English language learning in game‐based virtual worlds. The Modern Language Journal93(4), 489-511.

The authors indicate the importance of chat logs as part of digital games mainly used in the virtual world. Negotiation for action has been active to stimulate interaction and collaboration of native speakers and ESL to help them conceptualize the keywords. Digital media also provides comprehensive resources that make English language acquisition effective. The approach ensures an iterative multilayered framework is utilized to make learning more interesting (Zheng et al., 2009). Importantly, intercultural collaboration has also been introduced to solve any challenges concerning the learning content provided by the games. As a result, students successfully achieve their learning goals since the instructions are simple to understand and follow.

References

Bytheway, J. A. (2011). Vocabulary learning strategies in massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

Connolly, T. M., Stansfield, M., & Hainey, T. (2011). An alternate reality game for language learning: ARGuing for multilingual motivation. Computers & Education57(1), 1389-1415.

Garris, R., Ahlers, R., & Driskell, J. E. (2002). Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model. Simulation & gaming33(4), 441-467.

Lee, H. G. (2012). ESL learners’ motivation and task engagement in technology enhanced language learning contexts. Washington State University.

Noraddin, E. M., & Kian, N. T. (2014). Academics’ Attitudes toward Using Digital Games for Learning & Teaching in Malaysia. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology2(4), 1-21.

Peterson, M. (2010). Computerized games and simulations in computer-assisted language learning: A meta-analysis of research. Simulation & gaming41(1), 72-93.

Purushotma, R. (2005). Commentary: You’re not studying, you’re just… Language Learning & Technology9(1), 80-96.

Rankin, Y. A. (2008). Design and evaluation of Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games that facilitate second language acquisition (Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University).

Shaffer, D. W., Squire, K. R., Halverson, R., & Gee, J. P. (2005). Video games and the future of learning. Phi delta kappan87(2), 105-111.

Suh, S., Kim, S. W., & Kim, N. J. (2010). Effectiveness of MMORPG‐based instruction in elementary English education in Korea. Journal of computer assisted learning26(5), 370-378.

Sykes, J. (2009). Learner requests in Spanish: Examining the potential of multiuser virtual environments for L2 pragmatic acquisition. The second generation: Online collaboration and social networking in CALL, 199-234.

Thomas, M., Reinders, H., & Warschauer, M. (2013). Contemporary computer-assisted language learning: The role of digital media and incremental change. Contemporary computer-assisted language learning, 30-47.

Thorne, S. L. (2008). Transcultural communication in open Internet environments and massively. Mediating discourse online3, 305.

Thorne, S. L., & Reinhardt, J. (2008). “Bridging activities,” new media literacies, and advanced foreign language proficiency. Calico Journal25(3), 558-572.

Thorne, S. L., Black, R. W., & Sykes, J. M. (2009). Second language use, socialization, and learning in Internet interest communities and online gaming. The modern language journal93, 802-821.

Zheng, D., Young, M. F., Wagner, M. M., & Brewer, R. A. (2009). Negotiation for action: English language learning in game‐based virtual worlds. The Modern Language Journal93(4), 489-511.

Bootstrap Marketing Essay Writing Sample

Bootstrap marketing is the most convenient form of marketing for most startups and small businesses. Bootstrap marketing involves the use of little or no budget and creativity to reach a business’s target audience and make them possible clients for the business. This paper will analyze the importance of market research for bootstraps, how a business can create a competitive edge using bootstraps, and how a business can pinpoint a target market (Stine).

The Role of Market Research in Building A Bootstrap Marketing

For an effective bootstrap marketing plan, market research is vital. This is because the research involves collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data relating to a company’s market’, rivals and customers. The critical role of market research is to identify the satisfaction levels of pre-existing customers and possible ways to gain new customers. Low-cost and timely market research can quickly identify significant demographic and market trends. The market research process involves various steps such as; defining the objective of the research, whereby the researcher sets up the goal for their research. Secondly, the marketer collects data from customers through means such as surveys, social media conversations, focus groups, test markets, business directories articles, among others. The third step involves analyzing and interpreting the obtained data .lastly; market research involves drawing conclusions and acting on them (Nyukorong).

Plotting a Bootstrap Marketing Strategy: How to Build a Competitive Edge

A company can create a competitive edge when the customers perceive that the company’s goods or services are superior to those from other companies (competitors). The minor nature of the business creates a unique advantage over large competitors when adequately used by business owners. There are numerous ways in which the bootstrap marketing technique builds a business brand when the customer is the target. An entrepreneur creates a competitive edge through bootstraps by finding a niche and entirely focusing on it. This allows the company to take advantage of small areas that the large businesses ignore and then create dominance. Secondly, a company can make use of publicity. This can be done b sponsoring popular local events, media interviews, and sponsoring community projects (Stine).

Thirdly, a business can gain a competitive edge by being unique in its customer approach and standing out from the competitors. Another meaningful way a company can gain a competitive advantage is by linking with customers emotionally, whereby a customer gets an emotional boost anytime they make a purchase. This may either be through offering customized products for customers. The fifth most crucial way of gaining a competitive edge is by dedicating itself to customer satisfaction. This is by encouraging customer feedback and making up a follow-up for any concerns from customers (Nyukorong).

How A Small Business Can Pinpoint Their Target Market

The target market refers to the specific group of potential customers a business intends to sell its products or services. Pinpointing these target markets is crucial for marketing effectiveness, unlike the traditional mass marketing practices that are costly and risky as their efficiency is not guaranteed. The marketing strategy ensures that the message reaches out to those highly likely to purchase a product and its predominant customers. To identify a target market, the company should conduct thorough marketing research to understand well and segment potential customers based on their needs. The segmentation can be based on race, age group, gender, income, educational level, demographic features, among many more considerations (Nyukorong).

In conclusion, Bootstrap marketing plan comes with a range of benefits in creating awareness of a product to customers. Employing unique and creative bootstrap marketing as described above ensures that businesses are in the spotlight and create a special connection with their customers.

Works Cited

Nyukorong, Remy. “Conducting Market Research: An Aid to.” (2017).

Stine, Robert. “Sociological Methods & Research.” An Introduction to Bootstrap Methods: Examples and Ideas (2018). <https://doi.org/10.11770049124189018002003>.

Brand Business Principles And Fundamentals Sample Paper

Individual branding refers to a marketing technique where the parent brand provides a new identity by giving it an exclusive brand name that allows it to be marketed independently. For instance, the Nando company founded in Johannesburg deals with Portuguese food, although they have an individual branding of Peri-Peri chicken, a unique brand name. On the other hand, family branding refers to when company managers various products evenly under one brand (Wijaya, 2014). For instance, the first national bank in South Africa is a bank that offers various banking services such as loans, savings, and other services. Although branding is a family type of branding, the branding of the entire bank relies on one brand First National Bank as a way to market all the other products that the banks offer without the use of their brands. Company names branding is a type of branding that involves using the company’s product to generate the brand name. For instance, in South Africa, there is the Jourg jewelry that is a company name that refers to the brand of the product the company offers; this company deals with jewelry products that help them to use their name for marketing of their products A private brand refers to products manufactures ad sold under a certain retailer competing with brand name products. They also offer their products at a lower price. An example of a private brand is the Pick ‘n Pays dealer under Spar’s label brand. It gives customers low prices for their products because they are of great quality and packaged as a brand. Generic brand refers to the type of branding where consumer product on the market is not well recognized because it has no defined name and logo due to lack of advertisement. For instance, most store brands are under generic branding in South Africa since they do not brand their products.

A brand name is an important factor in business through various advantages to the company and organization. A brand name help to signify what the brand stands for in the market. For instance, Pick n Pay ASAP enjoyed its brand name even after the fall of beer bottles. The company enjoyed sales as it transformed to be selling groceries due to its brand name that assured its clients that the products would be offered within minutes. Also, the company was able to use its business ethics through its brand. The Pick n Pay ASAP had already grown its business name in the sale of alcohol. Even after changing their products from alcohol to groceries, the companies continued to enjoy a large market since their business ethics were already established, and people trusted the company’s products. Moreover, through an established brand name, the company can convey its values about its products and the company at large (Walley et al., 2007). For instance, the Pick n Pay ASAP company assured their customers about the values they have for the customer through the easy purchase of products and confirmed to their clients that their products are of the right quality. Also, through branding, the company can convey its business goals by helping the clients with the best quality and cost-effective products. The Pick n Pay ASAPassured the clients that their products would be easily available on their application and offered them the after-sale services where the customers would stand a chance to win points after making purchases of the grocery products. This helps the clients understand how the company feels about them to provide them after-sale services.

Pricing is an important aspect of the marketing of the products. First, pricing is important in establishing the company’s brand among the customers and clients. For instance, in this case of Woolworth’s company, they took the initiative of lowering the price of their products as a way of helping to build their brand name. Due to the negative impact of the covid-19 pandemic, most people had lost their jobs, and others their income had decreased drastically and thus the move for Woolworths to lower their product helped them build a brand through caring for their customers. Also, by reducing the prices, the company can counter competition from other existing companies offering the same products (Barrot et al., 2013). Through the lowering of their product there, the Woolworths company was able to counter competition from other existing companies where most of the customers are seen to prefer purchasing products at a lower price from a well-trusted company to boost their sales. Also, the lowering of prices helps the company helps to create the first impression of their products. Woolworths provides opportunities by creating the first impression to its clients by helping the product be accessible to the customers. Lowering the price is important is also significant for right level pricing, which allows the company to make the best decision of the products through ensuring that effective and ensure they fix prices at the level which is sufficient to the market without leading to the fall of the company. Woolworths pricing is significant as it caters to the company’s welfare and the customer’s welfare through strategic intervention with the suppliers to counter the negative impact of covid-19 in the economy. Finally, pricing helps regulate the demand for products by setting different price tags. Woolworth’s company lowered the price of their products to increase the demand for their products among their clients.

When starting a business, the companies need cannot reach everyone through a product message; therefore, identifying a target market is important. It allows the marketers to focus on the population likely to purchase the products. Through identifying the people, the companies would limit their budgets to cover marketing and only channel their budgets to the customers with the highest profit potential. For instance, in South Africa, the Ask Africa Company relies on the youths on their brand and uses most of their budgets on youth between 15-34. targeting the youths, Ask Africa has reached out to many youths and has won various awards through their marketing. Before a company positions itself in the market, identifying and knowing the competitors is important by identifying the products they are offering and how they can help the company make its products and marketing unique (Pradiptarini, 2011). Also, by identifying the competitors, it would help the company set their prices and support to react to the competitive marketing. For instance, the competition between Anglo American, Naspers, Zeder, and Woolworths where the Anglo American has studied their competitors’ products enabled them to win the top prize as the best-managed company. Identifying similarities between brands among competitors would help the company understand what they need to do differently to improve the quality of their products. Finally, identifying the differences between products is significant for a company about their competitors’ products as it helps increase sales and build and strengthen customer loyalty. The Anglo-American company used their competitors’ products to counter them by identifying their similarities and differences, winning the best sales awards in South Africa.

A brand leader should possess various skills and qualities for ensuring the brand thrive. Brand leaders need to be focused; brand leaders need to be focused on their company’s goal and brand goal. The brand leaders need to be focused by ensuring that their messages are unwavering on content. Brand leaders need to stick to their message and assure the users that their products will be delivered on time and as represented. Thus, a brand leader needs to be consistent and help build the clients’ brand. Also, brand leaders need to be innovative. The brand leaders need to be creative either through pricing methods, packaging attractiveness, or campaigns (Park & John, 2010). For instance, Fast Company in South Africa has been named the most innovative company due to strategies in marketing they had adopted.

Moreover, the brand leaders must be consistent for their brands to be consistent. Consistency ensures that companies maintain their content about their products. The brand name is why customers are loyal to their brand. The favorable products must ensure that the product and services deliver on their expectations and ensure that their brand never fails. For instance, when buying a product, they should ensure that the products are of the right quality as stipulated in their brand. Furthermore, the brand leaders must be passionate about their products and companies. The brand leaders must ensure that they are passionate about their work and not focused on market share. Most passionate leader led to great products and ensured brand success.

Moreover, brand leaders should be adaptable by ensuring that they change where necessary through the willingness to change according to the times and the market needs. Also, they need to be adaptable in terms of tastes and preferences about their products. Finally, the brand leader should be distinctive through ensuring they do things differently from others. This ensures that the brand is unique and makes them stand out from the stiff competition from other brands.

Leadership is a significant position in building a personal brand. One of the most critical decisions is creating a new brand and where the content will live on. In the case of Julia, she used her miss world opportunity to become an ambassador for various products and used her media personality to build her brand. Also, during personal branding, individuals must create a content strategy by ensuring that they make a robust and achievable content strategy for the brand. Also, establishing the objectives for the personal brand and the content creation (Peter & Gomez, 2019). For this case, Julia used the opportunities around her to create a solid and workable content strategy. First, she was a presenter at top billing; they began a business with her lover and started a company where she owned half of the shares, which was achievable content, and later merged with Union Alliance Media, making her a woman director. Additionally, personal branding and individual must develop an outer circle through building much more strong through reaching out to those who need someone in their circle (Vitberg, 2010). Kumalo first reached out to her boxing champion boyfriend, who helped her establish her brand name. Also, Kumalo used the opportunity by Nelson Mandera to study and become a presenter. She used the opportunity and got into a relationship with Stevens, and they began their business together. Also, she uses the Union Alliance Media opportunities in the merge to even become the first woman director. Finally, during personal branding, it is important to share thought leadership by sharing with others within the area of specialization and identifying those you can share with what they know. For instance, Kumalo got into a relationship with Stevens, a producer, while she was a presenter, where they utilized the opportunity and began their business empire. Later, they merged their business with other existing companies in the communication field, seeing the Kumalo becoming a director.

A brand contact inventory is the first layer of brand contact management. It involves a list of all contact points to establish the weak and effective points (Kapferer, 2012). For the case of the Woolworths organization, they have already planned on the website through an application that the customers will be clicking to make their purchases request at the comfort of their houses or cars. The payment process is also planned and will require the customers to use the online platform’s methods for their payment due to the lockdown and minimize physical contact to reduce the spread of covid-19. Brand contact audit is also significant as it enables the audit ranks of contact points according to priority. It is examined through frequency contact, the impact of the contact, and the first and last contact. The Woolworths organization’s first point of contact is the website where the consumers view the groceries available for purchase. The last point of contact is the Woolworths organization’s delivery of the purchased product or at the various stores across the country. The points of impact for the Woolworths company are through their website, where they can collect feedback from their clients. Contact management is also an important layer in contact planning in establishing the contact point that will drive the brand promise to its target audience (Weis & Josten, 2002). The website is the main contact point for the Woolworths company, and other contact points will aim to drive customers to the website. Finally, implementation and contact integration are essential to ensure that the brand promise is met. Thus, it is important to establish contact management vehicles to guide and support contact points. For the case of Woolworths company, the website and the store ensure that the brand promise is met to support contact points.

References

Barrot, C., Becker, J. U., & Meyners, J. (2013). Impact of service pricing on referral behaviour. European Journal of marketing.

Kapferer, J. N. (2012). The new strategic brand management: advanced insights and strategic thinking. Kogan page publishers.

Park, J. K., & John, D. R. (2010). Got to get you into my life: Do brand personalities rub off on consumers?. Journal of consumer research37(4), 655-669.

Peter, A. J., & Gomez, S. J. (2019). Building Your Brand: A Tool for Employability. IUP Journal of Soft Skills13(2).

Pradiptarini, C. (2011). Social media marketing: measuring its effectiveness and identifying the target market. UW-L Journal of Undergraduate Research XIV, 1-11.

Vitberg, A. (2010). Developing your personal brand equity. Journal of accountancy210(1), 42.

Walley, K., Custance, P., Taylor, S., Lindgreen, A., & Hingley, M. (2007). The importance of brand in the industrial purchase decision: a case study of the UK tractor market. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing.

Weis, A., & Josten, A. (2002). Effective Brand Protection in the Pharmaceutical Industry Needs Efficient Supply Chain Management. Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and Packing (PMPS), Autumn.

Wijaya, B. S. (2014). BRAND ACTIVATION AS THE EXTENSION OF MARKETING EVENT. Journal Communication Spectrum: Capturing New Perspectives in Communication4(1), 13-23.