Annotated Bibliography: Ethics In Sports Management Writing Sample

Dhillon, S., Aggarwal, A., & Dhillon, M. S. (2020). Ethics in Sports Medicine. Ethics54(4).

This article has discussed in detail the current situation in sports medicine ethics. Where doctors are still under constant pressure to embrace medical intervention for sportspersons. Medical professionals are faced with serious concerns related to conflict of interest. Where they are expected to act to the best of their knowledge, and in the patient’s interest, this ethical consideration requires the doctor to perform to the best of their capability but not to act due to incentives or rewards. Sports physicians, according to this article, are faced with an ethical concern of privacy and confidentiality of a sportsperson.

Patient confidentiality is the ethical principle that requires health care providers to keep patient information private. This principle is vital in order to maintain trust between patients and their physicians. Privacy is the right of individuals to keep their personal information confidential. The concern for patient confidentiality and privacy is especially important in sports medicine. This is because athletes are often very public figures, and their health information could be used to gain an advantage over them or their team. In addition, sports physicians often work with young athletes who may not be able to make fully informed decisions about who to trust with their health information. This cannot be easy, as many people (including the media) are interested in the health of high-profile athletes. Sports physicians must be careful only to release necessary and relevant information and to do so in a way that does not violate the privacy of their patients.

However, for these issues, athletes are the people to be blamed. When it comes to mismanagement of the information regarding a player’s health, some players won’t want to give away their sports in the team due to the incentives they receive. This makes the doctors compromise the reports by concealing some facts and sometimes carrying pain management pills that may expose them.

Other ethical challenges in sports and medicine are the uncontrollable desire to win and own the honor and glory that have pushed for breaking many ethics codes in sports. These include ergogenic aids, dietary supplements, and illegal substances. The use of technology to circumvent anti-doping detection technologies is another ongoing development that violates regulations and ethics severely. To ensure law and strict adherence to the code of ethics, the professionals or the physicians should stand firm and secure to protect the principles no matter the cost. The doctor should take all necessary measures to lessen this violation and the damage to the athlete’s body.

Thornton, P., Champion, W. T., Ruddell, L., & Ruddell, L. (2011). Sports ethics for sports management professionals. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

There are a few ethical concerns that this article has addressed when discussing moral knowing in the sports realm. First, some may question whether it is morally right to know about or participate in sports. After all, sports can be seen as a waste of time and resources, and some argue that they promote violence. Furthermore, some people may feel that it is unfair to those who do not have access to the same resources (e.g., money, time, etc.) to be able to participate in sports. Additionally, there is a concern about cheating in sports. Some athletes may use performance-enhancing drugs or other methods to gain an unfair advantage, which can be seen as unethical. Finally, there is the issue of safety in sports. Some athletes may be injured while participating in sports, and some argue that this is an inevitable and acceptable risk. Others, however, may feel that the risks are too high and that athletes should not be allowed to participate in sports unless they are willing to accept the risks.

These are just a few ethical concerns that could be raised regarding moral knowing in the sports realm. Ultimately, it is up to each individual to decide what they believe is right or wrong.

The article has given an example of students in the field playing sports. One friend is cheering the other while he notices she is cheating. The moral thing to do in this situation is to report the matter to the professor since she is her friend and feels it’s not right to sell out her friend. She decides to keep quiet and let it slide. The article refers to this as the right or wrong ethical concern. Moral knowing of doing the right thing.

Another ethical concern discussed in this article is moral valuing. The ethical concern of moral valuing in sports is that some people may feel that it is morally wrong to place a value on someone’s performance in a sport. They may think this valuing creates a hierarchy between athletes and devalues those who do not excel in sports. Additionally, some may feel that this valuing leads to a competitive environment where athletes constantly strive to be the best and may be willing to sacrifice their health and wellbeing to win. There are a few different ways to look at this ethical concern.

On the one hand, some may argue that it is crucial to value athletes’ performances to incentivize them to do their best. Otherwise, there would be no reason to push themselves to improve. On the other hand, others may argue that this value creates an unhealthy environment where athletes are constantly under pressure to perform and may be more likely to suffer from injuries or other health problems.

These ethical concerns require a good leader. A good leader who inspires and empathizes with the players. Putting the interest of the player before those of the performance need. It enables the players to be stable and effective in performing. Thus their health and their wellbeing are taken care of by the management.

Campbell, M. H., & McNamee, M. J. (2021). Ethics, genetic technologies, and equine sports: the prospect of regulating a modified therapeutic use exemption policy. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy15(2), 227-250.

This article has touched on the recent ethical concern in the sports realm. The modification of genes enhances better performance. There are a few key points regarding the ethical considerations of genetic modification in sports. First, some argue that genetic modification gives athletes an unfair advantage over those who do not have access to such technology. Second, there is the potential for misuse of genetic modification, such as for creating “designer babies” who are born with predetermined physical or mental traits. Finally, there are concerns about the long-term health effects of genetic modification, both for the individuals who undergo the procedure and for future generations.

The article has used the horse as the study subject, and the study aims to establish ethical complications of genetic modification in the sport. Giving the horses enhanced genes to perform better in the field. However, a different perspective has been presented where humans or animals are modified to rise beyond their inabilities. The choice for a human to become a better version of themselves through enhanced genes present an ethical dilemma. The debate must focus on the benefits of such modifications rather than their weaknesses which will be scientifically improved over time. The article further differentiates between genetic testing and gene editing, making it a controversial subject for discussion regarding ethical matters. While genetic editing prevents hereditary diseases, genetic testing is done to clone humans or animals. The robust debate depends on these two aspects, as the article presents.


Campbell, M. H., & McNamee, M. J. (2021). Ethics, genetic technologies, and equine sports: the prospect of regulating a modified therapeutic use exemption policy. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy15(2), 227-250.

Dhillon, S., Aggarwal, A., & Dhillon, M. S. (2020). Ethics in Sports Medicine. Ethics54(4).

Thornton, P., Champion, W. T., Ruddell, L., & Ruddell, L. (2011). Sports ethics for sports management professionals. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Ethics Nursing Paper University Essay Example

Chapter Summary

The nursing profession is crucial for any population. These professionals work tirelessly, ensuring that they address health disparities in society also promoting health equity. Nursing schools must continue equipping learners with knowledge, skills, and information, enabling them to handle health challenges projected in this decade (2020-2030). Nurses should address crucial aspects of improving population health and promoting health equity. Technological advancement has been observed in the healthcare ministry, and nurses must familiarize themselves with these technologies to deliver services efficiently. Collaboration with professionals from other sectors is fostered by technology; hence nursing schools should ensure that students acquire essential competencies for a successful nursing career.

Health equity is an essential factor that ought to be considered in the nursing sector. Historically, racism has been recorded to alter the equitable delivery of services in America’s healthcare system. In this decade, such aspects need to be highlighted, sensitizing equity when delivering services in the healthcare sector (Wakefield et al., 2021). Students need to understand that it is the role of a nurse to offer services void of biases. These students must understand nursing ethics and uphold them in their profession.

As the healthcare sector in the United States continues to handle the diverse needs of its population, nurses need to continue offering person-centered care. A nursing professional should be able to interact with various patients, communities, and families with a focus on providing quality care and support. The SDOH (social determinants of health) relates to a patient’s mental health, community health services, and issues such as housing and a conducive environment (Wakefield et al., 2021). With the US population likely to increase significantly between 2020 and 2030, the nursing sector should continually focus on person-centered care. That means recruiting more nurses and educating them on the efficient delivery of this care.

A Review of the IOM Recommendations

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) provides various recommendations for healthcare professionals. First, the IOM insists that nurses and other healthcare professionals should understand the link between healthy populations and medical care. That means that nurses should be keen to uphold health equity, social justice culturally competent services (Wakefield et al., 2021). When the various social determinant of health is addressed, the population is likely to live in good health, with nursing professionals having an easier time managing the population’s needs.

Additionally, the IOM recommends that the different social determinants for health equity and health be integrated into nursing education. These SDOHs have not been excellently integrated into graduate and undergraduate nursing education; thus, the need for quality services in the healthcare sector has been observed (Hassmiller, 2021). Therefore, accrediting bodies should include the above aspects as essential areas of consideration so that every nursing school in the US adheres to enhancing health equity by nursing professionals.

Finally, the IOM recommends an increase in BSN-prepared nurses. These are nurses holding a baccalaureate degree, where the IOM sees the need to increase these degree holders to about 80%. It is important to note that these nurses are skilled in research work, collaboration, and teamwork (Maughan & Bergren, 2021). They also exhibit competencies such as leadership, system thinking, and policy hence would help the healthcare sector achieve and surpass its goals and objectives.

Personal Interpretation

From the above recommendations, the nursing profession is likely to be positively impacted. With previous cases of racism being recorded in the healthcare unit, such cases would significantly reduce understanding of the need to provide care void of biases (Baker, 2021). Social justice would be achieved, and no patient would go unattended because of racial preferences in healthcare services. With increased BSN-prepared nurses, service delivery in the nursing sector would be efficient, thus helping nurses deliver timely care to patients and the community.


Baker, K. A. (2021). A NEW CONSENSUS STUDY ON THE FUTURE OF NURSING. Gastroenterology Nursing44(4), 224–225.

Hassmiller, S. B. (2021). The future of nursing 2020-2030. AJN The American Journal of Nursing121(5), 7.

Maughan, E. D., & Bergren, M. D. (2021). Future of nursing 2030: The future is bright for school nursing. NASN School Nurse36(5), 248-251.

Wakefield, M., Williams, D. R., & Le Menestrel, S. (2021). The future of nursing 2020-2030: Charting a path to achieve health equity. National Academy of Sciences.

Ethics Of Accounting Essay Example For College

Accounting ethics is crucial for businesses because they facilitate accurate financial reporting and planning, ensuring realistic, sustainable, and legal plans. Companies or businesses thrive under ethical accounting, which provides a good reputation to both clients and businesses. In cases where the accounting team fails to uphold ethical standards, a business can incur substantial financial losses, ruin its image and reputation, and the accounting personnel can face legal charges, leading to imprisonment. In the case of Phar-Mor, the company thrived during its early days and built an excellent public image. However, the executives failed to uphold ethics in running the business finances when they realized the business’ losses. Patrick Finn, Phar-Mor’s chief financial officer, uncovered the business’ losses early but decided to follow Michael Monus’ directive to conceal the losses and cook up accounting figures. Such decisions resulted in a $500 million shortfall and Finn’s sentence to prison. Finn’s actions were unethical, despite knowing the repercussions that the company would face.

Patrick Finn perpetrated a serious accounting fraud by helping Michael Monus to cook up figures in the books of accounts, hoping they would find ways to help the company recover its losses. As a result, he participated in unethical accounting practices by concealing the truth from other senior executives, such as David Shapira, and lying to the investors and suppliers regarding Phar-Mor’s financial position. In addition, Finn continued to support Monus’ decisions to keep cooking up accounting figures even when the losses worsened. Finn also supported Monus’ decision to blackmail the company’s vendors by leveraging them to pay certain amounts for not selling competitors’ products. As the chief financial officer, Finn knew the money could not compensate for the losses but continued to go along. Finn continued to fax falsified finances to David Shapira and the board of directors and even lied to Shapira when a secretary mistakenly faxed real figures to him.

Patrick Finn’s unethical accounting practices caused Phar-Mor to accrue shortfalls of up to $500 million. If I were in Finn’s position, I would have chosen a different path and informed the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), David Shapira, and the board of directors. I would not have cooked figures to satisfy Monus because such losses would eventually come to the public’s attention and result in legal actions. According to Sepasi (2019), the principles of ethical accounting cover integrity, professional competence, objectivity, confidentiality, and professional behavior. On this account, Finn should have acted with integrity by showing honesty and neglecting personal gains or favoring another party at the cost of the company’s reputation. Moreover, the ethical practice requires any financial officer or accountant to put the company’s interests first and fulfill their duty to report accurate financial statements to the public and investors. Failing to report correct figures and notify the appropriate individuals violates the code of ethics since it shows professional incompetency and unprofessional behavior.

Ethical accounting requires a financial officer to remain objective and independent. Finn should have avoided the conflict of interest with Michael Monus and acted independently in his position. Lack of independence and objectivity can limit one’s ability to provide honest opinions regarding a business’s financial position (Vitez, 2019). As a good practice, Finn could advise Monus against falsifying the accounting information but chose a different path despite knowing he was a gambler who could bet on every situation. In addition, he could have unanimously informed the CEO, David Shapira, about the company’s financial position if he feared going against Monus. Even though he approached the authorities, it was already too late for the company, and he acted out of fear that Monus could point the blame on him. If I were in Finn’s position, I would have reported Monus to Shapira and advised him against rapid expansions and unnecessary investments, such as in a basketball competition.

Ensuring ethical practices in accounting by reporting correct financial figures for the benefit of a business, investors, and the public is the primary duty of accountants and financial officers. Patrick Finn failed to uphold his duties and violated accounting ethics by helping Michael Monus to report falsified accounting information and concealing the real figures. He also lied to the CEO regarding the accounting data, making the public and investors believe that Phar-Mor was performing well. As a result of his actions, the company sank into losses that would take years to recover. Such unethical practices eventually destruction of the company’s image and reputation, making it difficult for consumers to regain trust in Phar-Mor. Good financial officers and accountants should always uphold integrity, professional competence, objectivity, confidentiality, and professional behavior when conducting their duties.


Sepasi, S. (2019). Accounting Ethics. International Journal of Ethics and Society1(2), 23-29.

Vitez, O. (2019). Ethics in the Accounting Profession. Small Business – Retrieved 27 September 2022, from