Annotated Bibliography: Student Support Programs Free Writing Sample

Coker, J. S., Heiser, E., & Taylor, L. (2018). Student outcomes associated with short-term and semester study abroad programs. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 30(2), 92-105.

This study compares student outcomes across no study abroad, semester, short-term, two short-terms, and semester plus short-term programs to identify the impact of study abroad programs on learners’ results. According to the authors, short-term and semester programs correlate positively with students’ educational experiences and willingness to re-enroll in the same institution. However, learners who undertook semester programs had positive outcomes in several categories. The authors also indicate that short-term programs have higher value while semester programs have better outcomes overall. The study derives its strength from its reliable report on the results of a program evaluation using data from the National Survey of Student Engagement. Additionally, the authors are professional researchers in student support in the higher education field. The findings of this study can guide higher education leaders to execute effective programs by emphasizing the additional benefits that students get when they take semester programs after short-term programs. However, the study finds less compelling proof of better outcomes when students take extra programs to semester programs.

Daugherty, L., Gomez, C. J., Carew, D. G., Mendoza-Graf, A., & Miller, T. (2018). Designing and implementing corequisite models of developmental education. Rand Corporation, 12.

According to Daugherty et al. (2018), most students entering community colleges are considered not college-ready due to inadequate preparation regarding reading, writing, and mathematics. This aspect necessitates colleges to enroll students lacking college readiness in one or more subjects into developmental education. The program comprises a series of subject-based courses that learners complete before joining college-level classes. Regarding strength, the study utilizes data from Community College Research Center to confirm high enrolment rates in at least one developmental education course. However, the authors discovered that traditional approaches to the program are not yielding positive results for most participating students. The study examines five common types of corequisite models to identify unique features like the use of single instructors or mixed-ability peer groups as necessary for enhancing effectiveness. These features face challenges with scheduling, advising, and institutional buy-in. Therefore, the study findings guide states and higher education institutions to rethink the appropriate strategies for addressing college readiness and enacting policies to facilitate experimentation and continuous improvement.

Ganga, E. C., Mazzariello, A. N., & Edgecombe, N. D. (2018). Developmental education: An introduction for policymakers.

Ganga, Mazzariello, and Edgecombe (2018) explore developmental education to identify its importance and challenges surrounding the program. For instance, the report compares student progression through developmental reading and math sequences and suggests strategies policymakers can employ to overcome the challenge of low outcomes. The article derives its strength from Community College Research Center’s data to identify remediation as the best traditional approach that enhances outcomes for students entering college with weak academic skills. The authors also analyze different strategies that various states have adopted to make developmental education a success. Therefore, the resource gives insight to higher education leaders to advocate for policies that balance goals and expectations and allow room for institutions to adopt policies to local contexts and innovate for local solutions. This report also identifies legislation as the most effective strategy to set a reliable policy alleviating the challenge. However, legislation may leave education experts to implement recommendations when continually evolving innovations might develop ineffective solutions due to limited faculty training and support.

Goodlad, K., Cheng, S., Sears, J., Diaz, M., Satyanarayana, A., & Freniske, P. (2019). “Our Stories”: First-year Learning Communities Students Reflections on the Transition to College.

This study analyzes diverse reflective narratives from first-year and first-generation learning communities students. According to the authors, this student population faces hurdles transitioning into college. The project examines how the program structure and an open digital structure help community building. Moreover, the authors analyze the potential of learning community factors to create positive influence as learners identify and make sense of the social, emotional, and bureaucratic problems of transitioning into college. The project also discusses the roles of peer mentors, faculty, and administrators in developing learning communities. Regarding strengths, the study utilizes raw data to identify the need for consistent advocacy and funding for building learning communities for students entering college. Therefore, the study gives higher education leaders the insight to develop better networking opportunities for new students. The results also guide higher education leaders to evaluate how students and peer mentors engage within learning communities to ensure a smooth transition into college. Creating deliberate and targeted opportunities to enhance student experiences can ensure effective college transitioning.

Harkins, D. A., Kozak, K., & Ray, S. (2018). Service-Learning: A Case Study of Student Outcomes. Journal of Service-Learning in Higher Education, 8.

This study explores service-learning practice by analyzing learners’ perceived outcomes within a medium urban university in England. According to the authors, using origins as a critical pedagogy identifies the potential of service-learning to facilitate students’ development as active citizens. The study findings indicate that service learning hours, instructors, and primary service settings correlate with academic and civic outcomes. This study derives its strength from using raw data to show that using service learning as pedagogy has significant potential for learners and communities as students demonstrate perceived advantages of traditional service learning. However, the efficacy of this strategy remains unclear. The study findings have vital implications for the development and maintenance of service-learning programs as the data reveal student enjoyment due to a myriad of benefits. Moreover, the results guide higher education leaders to explore variables like service-learning program duration, course instructors, and primary service sites to adequately understand and inspire transformative civic learning while inspiring students to become active citizens.

Kropp, J., Arrington, N. M., & Shankar, V. (2015). Developing a service-learning student facilitator program: Lessons learned. Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship, 8(1), 6.

According to Kropp, Arrington, and Shankar (2015), the service-learning student facilitator program was an idea of an author who undertook the program and aimed to develop a sustainable project that institutions could reproduce every year. The program sought to train and certify learners toward helping faculty members implement service-learning experiences in diverse college courses. This article provides an overview of service learning to demonstrate the advantages that students and communities get when institutions implement the program. Additionally, the authors explore the history of using student leaders in higher education and examine the effectiveness of training them to co-serve as facilitators with faculty mentors during projects. The study derives its strength from the experts’ authorship and publication by an authoritative source in higher education. Moreover, the project utilized raw data to establish a service-learning program that students implemented in their courses. Therefore, the study findings can guide higher education leaders to develop strategies for expanding awareness and understanding of service-learning while encouraging implementation in every institution.

Lee, J. A., & Barnes, A. R. (2015). Predominately White institutions: Transition programs to address academic underpreparedness and experiences of discrimination. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 1(4), 401.

Despite a steady increase in the enrollment and retention of black students in predominantly white institutions, they continue having high attrition than white students. Lee and Barnes (2015) explore high-school-to-college transition programs that mostly white institutions have employed to respond to the attrition. According to the study, students increase their likelihood of achieving academic success during their first-year studies and completing their undergraduate education successfully if they participate in transition programs. The study’s strength lies in investigating the perceptions toward predominantly white institutions and suggesting recommendations for integrating culturally sensitive program aspects into the transition program curriculum. Additionally, the authors recommend strategies for enhancing black student retention and promoting inclusivity within predominantly white institutions. Therefore, the study findings inform higher education leaders to identify approaches for increasing critical awareness of undesirable beliefs and practices that hinder effective student transition. This aspect can help predominantly shite institutions to recognize the impact of systematic discrimination on student outcomes and implement supportive programs for underrepresented student experiences.

Mitchell, C., & Sickney, L. (2019). Sustainable improvement: Building learning communities that endure. Brill.

This book advocates for wholeness in school improvement by emphasizing the need for sustainability in all societal aspects. According to the authors, the conventional implementation in managed systems has tarnished the promise of learning communities. However, learning communities have evolved from genuine caring interactions within curiosity-driven communities. The study derives its strength from the deep ecology framework and living systems to encourage reciprocity, mutuality, interconnectivity, and relationships. Moreover, the authors conceive schools as living systems rather than emphasizing the historical mechanistic worldview. The authors also recommend that educators need to engage more deeply in transforming teaching and learning within institutions. Using the principles of deep ecology advocates for more meaningful connections through collective responsibility and health considerations that learning communities create. Therefore, the study gives higher education leaders the insight to document learning journeys and build bridges toward enacting sustainable learning communities that students require to prosper. The study findings also encourage higher education leaders to share the renewed promise of learning communities and increase implementation in every institution.

Montgomery, K. A. (2019). Supporting Chinese undergraduate students in transition at US colleges and universities. J. Int. Stud, 7, 963-989.

Montgomery (2019) conducts a phenomenological study of the Chinese undergraduate student population in the United States (US) to understand their experiences during their first year in college. The author identifies academic, social, and linguistic transition types while examining student preparations, institutional support, and coping strategies during the transition to achieve this objective. According to the study findings, opportunities to engage in transition programs and activities supporting culturally relevant knowledge create a cultural familiarity that improves Chinese student outcomes during first-year education. Moreover, transition programs create humanizing education environments and the holistic support necessary for developing meaningful relationships. The study derives its strength from a conceptual framework that includes Schlossberg’s Transition Model to explore diverse transition types and their impact on student outcomes. The study is also published by an authoritative source in the higher education field. Therefore, higher education leaders can use the findings to implement multi-faceted and mandatory orientation programs while improving residential life opportunities and experiences necessary for enhancing learning outcomes among international students.

Paras, A., Carignan, M., Brenner, A., Hardy, J., Malmgren, J., & Rathburn, M. (2019). Understanding How Program Factors Influence Intercultural Learning in Study Abroad: The Benefits of Mixed-Method Analysis. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 31(1), 22-45.

According to the authors, the proliferation of short-term study abroad programs in higher education necessitates a critical assessment of impacts on intercultural learning. The study compares intercultural learning experiences among students undertaking short-term study abroad programs in Canada and the US. According to the study findings from intercultural development inventory scores and students’ writing, enrolling in programs with a service-learning component creates meaningful intercultural growth for students. This study derives its strength from quantitative and qualitative approaches that combine intercultural development survey scores with student writing analysis to understand the impact of study-abroad program features on intercultural learning. This strategy also enhances the understanding of how students make sense of their experiences in foreign countries. Therefore, the study findings can guide higher education leaders in identifying processes and program factors that determine the success of transformational learning in study abroad. The authors recommend mixed-methods analysis as the most effective strategy to establish the contribution of diverse study-abroad program factors to intercultural growth among students.

Annotated Bibliography: Contemporary Issues In Management Essay Example


Bullshitting is distinct from lying, and as a result, it is distinct from greenwashing and whitewashing. A liar is aware of the facts but actively strives to evade them, whereas a bullshitter is unconcerned with the truth and does not care about it. The first two articles addressed in this study evaluate bullshitting and its relevance in organizational management. Other than bullshit, there are various issues in organizational management that may affect its functionality. For example, the failure of employees to embrace change in an organization affects the effectiveness of an organization.

Human beings are different and therefore have different ideas and ways of doing things, which results in conflicts within organizations. These conflicts, if not resolved, affect the management of the organization. As a result, the annotated bibliography has also addressed studies on conflicts, strategic ambiguity and strategic clarity, and the reasons for the failure of change in organizations. The analyses of these studies give hope for future management in various organizations in that they give solutions to the problems discussed. The writers highlight the contemporary issues in the studies and find a way to resolve them.

Initial Provocation

Christensen, L. T., Kärreman, D., & Rasche, A. (2019). Bullshit and Organization Studies. Organization Studies, 40(10), 1587-1600.

Bullshit is a communication practice is found in almost every aspect of organizational life and is used by everyone. The essay had a purpose of outlining various interpretations of bullshit and to discuss their significance in the context of organizational studies. It has also discussed the various social purposes of bullshit and how they relate to each other. The writers examine bullshit in the context of organizations, taking into account the messages, senders, and receivers who are involved. They had a particular emphasis on the relationships that exist between these dimensions in the setting of organizations. In the third section of the essay, they have discussed why bullshit, although widely acknowledged by organizational members, is rarely called out and openly rejected informal settings.

One may dismiss bullshit as being detrimental to rational organizational behaviour. It is due to the ambiguity of the importance of its organization and performance as it does not consider the truth. Bullshit has numerous negative effects on the functionality of an organization. They include disintegrating communications from actions, formulating assumptions other than dealing with facts and the tendency to separate voices and perspectives. It may be claimed that one of the most significant sources of organizational bullshit is the increasing proclivity for subjective stances and self-presentations to play a more significant role in contemporary organizations. This is something that has the potential to destroy the trust and credibility of arguments based on logic.

A critical edge distinguishes bullshit, directing attention to fraudulent and manipulative practices in society. However, it is suggested that it is vital to examine its organizational importance and performative nature in greater depth. Bullshit and organizational studies may be applied in the future in two sorts of managerial activities in which they are likely to play a big role. They include commanding and planning. The writers believe that bullshit has a particular significance in contemporary organizations, where greater complexity, various interests, and opposing agendas tend to encourage particular outcomes in particular situations. Our understanding of how and what bullshit does allows for a better understanding of the conflicts and challenges that shape much communication in an organizational setting. Future management should not only contextualize the role of bullshit in organizations, but should also provide considerable insight into the many different facets of organizational communication, which are currently underdeveloped. Bullshit will enable future management to investigate the imprecise, obscure, deceptive, or nonsensical features of corporate and management discourse and the various social and managerial roles that they serve.

Article 2

Herold, D. M., Dietrich, T., & Breitbarth, T. (2020). Banking on bullshit: Indifferences towards truth in corporate social responsibility. International Journal of Bank Marketingahead-of-print(ahead-of-print).

This study aims to find out and analyze bullshit in banks’ corporate social responsibility (C.S.R.) communications to improve the management rhetoric research environment in the banking industry. It has been characterized as a lack of concern for the truth and significance. The research focuses on speech and text in order to identify blatant lies in banks’ corporate social responsibility statements. It gives implementable intelligence on how stakeholders can respond to and avoid bullshit statements from being made in the future, and it does so in a straightforward manner.

Social responsibility in the banking business, as well as the internal and external communication that goes hand in hand with it, according to the argument in the paper, is pure bullshit. Bullshit, as defined in the context of corporate social responsibility, is nonsensical language that is used to deceive others about the performance of a company or the activities linked with it. This essay aims to expose and dismantle nonsense in the field of corporate social responsibility in the banking business, with a particular emphasis on the financial sector. Its purpose is to promote the subject of management rhetoric research by bringing it up to date. There is a classification of bullshit phenomena presented by the authors, along with examples of each sort of phenomenon. Therefore, they explore some thoughts on how bank managers, business spokespersons, and regulators all have the capacity to intercede and prevent the development of bullshit from being prevalent. This is accomplished through the implementation of the C.R.A.P. framework, which is based on a study conducted by McCarthy and colleagues (2020), and which provides direction on how to perceive, recognize, respond to, and prevent C.S.R. bullshit in the workplace and in the community.

However, even though the banking industry has structural distinctions from other industries, it has its own language and its own set of traditions, which are being jeopardized by the growing use of bullshit. It is because every industry has its own culture and structures. Reduced management bullshit will necessitate a collaborative effort that goes beyond simply understanding and acknowledging bullshit as such. For future bank’s management to reduce bullshit, they should develop reflective thinking skills. People who are more sensitive to bullshit tend to be less thoughtful and have lesser cognitive abilities. In order to eliminate bullshit, banks should also make changes to the reward systems that motivate bankers. The C.R.A.P. framework should be used by future bank management to present a process for understanding, recognizing, acting against, and preventing bullshit in banking in order to control it.

Article 3

Salem, P. (2008). The seven communication reasons organizations do not change. Corporate Communications: An International Journal13(3), 333-348.

The purpose of this research is to highlight seven frequent communication patterns that are associated with organizational failures to reform. The research describes six prevalent communication behaviours that occur during failed organizational transformation efforts. In the combination of these behaviours, a seventh pattern may be discerned. Communication during unsuccessful attempts is rarely effective because it lacks sufficient communication possibilities, displays a lack of developing identification, instils suspicion, and lacks productive laughter. In avoiding conflicts and lack of practical communication skills contribute to escalating these difficulties. Members disconnect the system, protecting the entire culture until such time as it is safe for it to reappear later in the process. Some of the reasons are discussed. A great deal of management literature implies that management has an exclusive position within organizations, as if managers were not a member of the organizations they manage. As well as the inclination to equate communication with the production of a message, as though obtaining the proper message is the most difficult part of communicating.

The use of certain terms in the announcement of a change would automatically imply agreement with the changes. The findings reveal the constraints of administration and the impersonality of communication. We acknowledge that the researcher identifies change as a dirty process, and transformative change will not occur until management can endure the uncertainty and confusion that grows in communication between departments. A key challenge with any social reform research, the study acknowledges, is determining how to frame time and how to interpret disparities across time frames. Results also indicate that communication skills are essential in hiring methods, supported by the data. Future management ought to ask themselves why change is difficult to achieve.

First and foremost, organizational transformation inevitably alters the nature of “the work” that needs to be done in the organization. People’s apprehension about not being able to succeed in a new organization is a second primary source of resistance to change. They are concerned that “what got them here will not get them there.” Future management ought to know that hiring people with fundamental communication skills and training them in these qualities not only increases the likelihood of maintaining a thriving organization, but also benefits people in their personal and professional life.

Article 4

Hoffjann, O. (2021). Between strategic clarity and strategic ambiguity – oscillating strategic communication. Corporate Communications: An International Journal27(2), 284-303.

The research concentrates on the oscillations between strategic ambiguity and strategic clarity, keeping it apparent that the goal is not merely to replace the clarity that has characterized books thus far with new domination of ambiguity, as has been the case in the past. Instead, it is an issue of managing the difference between strategic ambiguity and strategic clarity deliberately. When processes of strategic ambiguity and clarity are systematized, a toolset for the practical implementation of specific ambiguity and clarity can be developed. In recent times, the notion of ambiguity has emerged as a significant concept in strategic communication study. This work aims to fill three significant gaps in the research conducted to date. As a starting point, clarity-focused methods and ambiguity-focused methods are opposed to one another, amplifying the benefits and opportunities offered by the corresponding preferred perspective and a lack of explanation for the opposing perspective at best. Secondly, the study on strategic ambiguity is primarily focused on the perspective of organizations, with little attention paid to social change. The third aspect is that there has been very little research into distinct actions of strategic ambiguity, and these activities have not been encountered before systematically documented or documented.

The responses to the research questions were provided following the “Theory of Social Systems.” The perspective seems to be relevant because the critical ideas of communications and judgment are critical to the T.S.S operation. According to the study’s findings, strategic communication oscillates between clarity and ambiguity to resolve a dilemma or paradoxical situation. The subsequent entry of the difference is a second-order insight, and as a result, it highlights the blind spots of techniques centred on clarity and ambiguity, respectively. As a result, a systematic methodology is devised that incorporates various aspects of strategic clarity and ambiguity, as well as their intersections. However, the writer does not inform us of policies in strategic ambiguity and strategic clarity. Do they integrate to match the solutions to their differences? The writer would have highlighted their significance in an organization to ensure more clarity. For future management, they should embrace the systematic approach in their organizations to avoid confusion between strategic clarity and ambiguity in strategic communication.

Article 5

Contu, A. (2019). Conflict and organization studies. Organization Studies40(10), 1445-1462.

The author draws attention to the relationship between conflict and organizational studies. He begins by examining management students’ information about the corporate conflict. It includes the information that has been communicated to them, the preconceptions that have been made and the political and ethical repercussions of those preconceptions. Bringing back to action Mary Follett’s insight into conflict as “differences in the world,” this paper evaluates expansively the way organization studies, with its diverse theoretical apparatuses, treats conflict, and in so doing contributes to the co-construction of social order, including what it means to work, organize, and live in particular manner of living. By using a primary imagination that regulates, manages, and settles down differences, organizational studies aims to tame conflict and bring it under control. Sense of harmony illusions is explored from the perspectives of the ‘functionalist perspective’ and the ‘behavioural theory of the company.’

For its role in solidifying our current dominant economic governance, particular emphasis is placed on the ‘organizational economic approach,’ with its economist dream. As a result, the author points out that gaps in market governance are becoming more visible, and differences are arising that the specialized apparatus of conflict domestication is having difficulty reconciling. The paper also highlights that many techniques, such as corporate social responsibility, “corporate citizenship,” “enlightened stakeholder theory,” and “shared-value” have been recognized by modern theorists, particularly in leading American journals, as being aimed at addressing several contemporary conflicts and attempting to build “good capitalism” by restricting the more deleterious elements of capitalism. Organizational theorists should reconsider their theoretical frameworks, and they should consider adopting a kind of conceptualizing known as ‘demiurgic theorizing,’ according to him. In contrast to other writers, we acknowledge that the author confronts the basic flaws and paradoxes of hegemonic responsive and dislodges the entrepreneur’s illusion, which is contrary to conventional wisdom.

Management of conflict, according to the author, is simultaneously something that is ‘possible’ and something that should be pursued, because it allows for a positive encounter of differing views, beliefs, wants, ambitions, and choices. However, these are not just included inside precluded parameters, hence restricting the scope of the investigation. Future management in organizations will be able to control disputes in companies more effectively as a result of this. They will be able to manage, control, and stabilize differences that arise inside organizations as a result of the basic delusion.


The five studies discussed are all correlated in the contemporary issues in management. The first has explained the bullshit communication in organizations and their importance despite the many cons associated with it. We acknowledge its significance in the complex organizational structures. We conclude that bullshit will enable the future management to investigate the imprecise, obscure, deceptive, or nonsensical features of corporate and management discourse. The second study narrates of the elimination of bullshit in the banking industries. Major steps have been taken to exclude bullshit in the banking sector.

The major one noted is based on considering the hiring processes to minimize bullshit. Though the banking industry has tried to share their ideas with other industries, they have encountered barriers due to the differences in structures and culture. We conclude that the C.R.AC.R.A.P.ework should be used by future bank management. The third article has tried explaining why organizations face challenges when trying to implement change. However, the writer comes up with solutions that enhance employees to embrace change. We conclude that the future management ought to know that hiring people with fundamental communication skills and training them in these qualities not only increases the likelihood of maintaining a thriving organization.

The fourth article explains the differences between strategic ambiguity and strategic clarity. They are diffused strategically to enhance communication in the management of organizations and minimizing conflicts. We conclude that the future management should embrace the systematic approach in their organizations so as to avoid confusion between strategic clarity and ambiguity in strategic communication. The final article has addressed conflicts in organizations. The study points out that gaps in market governance are becoming more visible, and differences are arising that the specialized apparatus of conflict domestication is having difficulty reconciling.


Christensen, L. T., Kärreman, D., & Rasche, A. (2019). Bullshit and Organization Studies. Organization Studies, 40(10), 1587-1600.

Contu, A. (2019). Conflict and organization studies. Organization Studies40(10), 1445-1462 Herold, D. M., Dietrich, T., & Breitbarth, T. (2020). Banking on bullshit: Indifferences towards truth in corporate social responsibility. International Journal of Bank Marketingahead-of-print(ahead-of-print).

Hoffjann, O. (2021). Between strategic clarity and strategic ambiguity – oscillating strategic communication. Corporate Communications: An International Journal27(2), 284-303.

McCarthy, L. (2020). Collective action in SCM: S.C.M.all for activist research. The International Journal of Logistics Management.

Salem, P. (2008). The seven communication reasons organizations do not change. Corporate Communications: An International Journal13(3), 333-348.

Annotated Bibliography: Conflict Resolution And Business Communication Sample College Essay

Chatterjee, A., & Kulakli, A. (2015). A Study on the Impact of Communication System on Interpersonal Conflict. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences210, 320–329.

In this article, the authors clearly understand the impact of effective communication on resolving and addressing interpersonal conflicts among people in their respective workplaces. In this journal(Chatterjee & Kulakli, 2015), authors have investigated the various conflict resolution techniques in business organizations.

The intended audience in this journal articles are employers of various organizations that play a crucial role in developing any organization. Business managers are another intended audience that might benefit significantly from the journal; identifying and practicing the various proven effective techniques will increase and boost business productivity.

In another article, it has been clearly illustrated that indeed conflicts in any organization cause more harm than good. Clear evidence has been used to demonstrate how conflicts result in negative consequences in the organization(Wei, 2014); however, the author of this article has also provided various conflict resolution methods.

With the help of this topic, it has been found out that effective communication is key to resolving interpersonal conflicts among employees in any organization. Clear communication of the organizational goals and objectives will help employees set clear and achievable goals that enable organizational success.

Wei, X. (2014). Interpersonal Communication and Conflict Resolution. Understanding Chinese Firms from Multiple Perspectives, 257–279.

The author of this article has a perfect understanding of the various forms of conflicts in an organization; the author also goes ahead and illustrates the advantages and the disadvantages of disputes in a business setting and the importance that effective communication techniques play in mitigating conflicts among workers in a business organization(Wei, 2014).

The intended audience in this paper were communication students, business managers, and employees who would like to improve their communication skills to create a good rapport between them and their employers. Students who want to learn from past mistakes that business leaders made concerning conflict resolution and communication, business managers who would like to improve on their current conflict resolution and communication techniques can significantly benefit from the research in this paper.

On the contrary, in another journal, the main discussion has been based on the impacts of effective communication in resolving interpersonal and professional conflicts among workers and employers(Chatterjee & Kulakli, 2015).

This paper will be of significant assistance to me in identifying the various forms of conflicts in an organization and how those conflicts can be resolved using the different techniques of conflict resolution, understanding the advantages and disadvantages of those conflict resolution techniques in an organization.

Wolfe, A. D., Hoang, K. B., & Denniston, S. F. (2018). Teaching Conflict Resolution in Medicine: Lessons From Business, Diplomacy, and Theatre. MedEdPORTAL.

This article is written to provide the necessary knowledge required by various professionals in business, diplomacy, and medical set to resolve the multiple conflicts they face in their daily experiences in their various fields of expertise(Wolfe et al., 2018). The author has paid apparent attention to mitigating some of the numerous disputes that professionals in business, diplomacy, and medical settings face in their daily endeavors.

The intended audience in this paper are students who have a passion for pursuing courses in either the medical field, business field, or the diplomatic field. The knowledge and content outlined in this article will enable them to deal with future conflict happenings in their fields; it will boost their skills and capability in the area of expertise.

According to Beheshtifar and Zare (2013), conflict management is one of the crucial aspects that promotes the growth of an organization; they talk about the different causes of interpersonal conflict and the various conflict management techniques to resolve such disputes in an organization.

This paper is essential in my research since it will inform me of the various techniques used in conflict resolution. It will help identify the common structured approach that will help individuals approach conflict resolution in a way that emphasizes professionalism and the preservation of relationships in any setting, whether it be business, medical or diplomatic.

Beheshtifar, M., & Zare, E. (2013). Interpersonal conflict: A substantial factor to organizational failure. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences3(5), 400.

The emphasis of this article is on interpersonal conflict in the workplace. The authors go through the origins of interpersonal conflict and conflict management solutions for businesses. Various conflict resolution styles are equally essential in this study paper’s concept.

The intended audience in this paper is business organizations, which have employers and employees who are part of the organization. In this article, the authors discuss how important the proper addressing of interpersonal conflicts among employees and employers can effectively play a role in its growth (Beheshtifar & Zare 2013). In contrast, the lack of appropriate addressing of interpersonal conflicts can play a significant role in the failure of any organization, whether large or small.

In contrast, in another article, the author’s primary intention is to identify the various conflict resolution techniques that can be used by multiple professionals already in the industry to solve interpersonal conflicts that may arise between them and the members of the organizations they work for. In that article, the authors also aim to create conflict resolution awareness among business managers and students pursuing their studies in careers that will require conflict resolution skills(Wolfe et al., 2018).

This article gave me an understanding of the multiple causes of interpersonal conflicts in an organization and how those conflicts can negatively influence the growth of an organization if they are not resolved using effective methods.

Bista, B. P. (2016). Conflict Resolution Through Effective Communication. Tribhuvan University Journal29(1), 15–24.

In this journal article, the author has demonstrated a clear understanding of how conflict resolution can be achieved in any organization through effective communication. Bista claims that all over the world, freedom of speech is an essential aspect of everyday life; in this paper, he tries to illustrate the importance of effective communication skills when it comes to resolving conflicts among different countries all over the world(Bista, 2016).

The intended audience of this paper is diplomats who are deeply in need of this information to establish good and dwelling relationships among their different countries. Through proper communication, nations can develop well-drafted and reflected upon policies that benefit both countries. This author has demonstrated the conflict resolution techniques that can be used to achieve the said objectives in developing sound business policies that can equally benefit the involved nations and has illustrated the importance of effective communication in business growth among countries.

In contrast, Tjosvold, in his article, has illustrated the importance of conflict in any organization and how it helps promote organizational growth through constructive criticism that workers and employers express in any organization(Tjosvold, 2007).

This paper will help understand the application of conflict resolution in a diplomatic setting. Engagements in conflict resolution enable the formulation of policies among different countries that allow the business to run smoothly. As a result of conflict resolution, involved countries equally benefit from each other.

Tjosvold, D. (2007). The conflict-positive organization: it depends upon us. Journal of Organizational Behavior29(1), 19–28.

All organizations should have conflict since it is disagreements that drive new ideas. Hiring people who are all alike would not always result in dispute, but it would also be unlikely to yield inventive results. Conflict resolution is a crucial activity in the workplace and is critical to good leadership-employee interactions. This dispute can lead to constructive criticism, which can help employees perform better. Conflict also questions past thinking, allowing teams to develop unique solutions to propel the company to the next level while saving money(Tjosvold, 2007).

The intended audience of this paper is business managers who are in charge of business entities that can produce massive profits that will benefit the stakeholders and employees. It also gives business stakeholders some insights into the positive advantages of conflicts in an organization and how they can benefit.

On the other hand, Bista has demonstrated how governments positively benefit from conflict resolution in developing policies that equally benefit and improve the business situation among the involved countries(Bista, 2016).

This article will be helpful in this study since it demonstrates the positive impacts of conflicts in any organization. The author illustrates that disputes in an organization can effectively and critically increase constructive criticism, improving performance.

Contributor, C. (2021, July 19). Effective Communication & Conflict Resolution. Small Business – Chron.Com.

Conflict in the workplace is unavoidable, and it frequently stems from communication issues. Ignoring disagreements can lead to complicated relations, low morale, and high employee turnover. Clear and open communication can play a significant role in a company’s success. An objective of management should be to control communication and promote healthy dispute resolution. Adapting conflict resolution tactics for beneficial conflict resolution in business communication can help the company grow(Contributor, 2021).

The intended audience in this article are business owners and business managers who ought to be aware that, indeed, conflicts in their organizations are not there to distract their activities instead to shape and develop the activities in their businesses

According to new research(Kumar et al., 2021), employees need to understand their own emotions and those of their colleagues to promote effective communication between them and their colleagues.

This article has been used to describe conflicts clearly among employers. It has also gone ahead to illustrate the various conflicts resolution techniques that can be applied in an organization to ensure effective communication that will create a conducive environment that will enable business activities to be conducted efficiently.

Kumar, M., Singh, K., Tewari, V., & Misra, M. (2021). Achieving business excellence through workplace conflict resolution: using emotional intelligence as an effective tool. International Journal of Business Excellence24(4), 541.

This article focuses mainly on understanding the role of emotions and emotional intelligence in resolving workplace conflicts. The author has clearly illustrated how emotions and emotional intelligence form and resolve disputes. Emotional intelligence refers to our ability to notice and comprehend our (and others’) emotions as they arise(Kumar et al., 2021). The idea is to use our newfound understanding to better manage our interactions with others, particularly in high-stress situations.

The intended audience of this article are employees who are willing to become more aware of their emotions and how to use emotional intelligence to evaluate conflicts before responding to them. Employers are also a possible audience as they will need to familiarize themselves with the various steps to develop the trait of emotional intelligence that will enable them to make a sound decision when they conflict with their employees

According to Contributor (2021), in the article, the author describes how conflicts must exist in any business entity and the various conflict resolution techniques that can be used to resolve disputes. However, in this article, the main idea is to illustrate how emotions and emotional intelligence enable employers and employees to resolve conflicts in their workplaces effectively.

This article will play a crucial role in informing and illustrating how emotions and emotional intelligence can effectively improve communication in an organization. The concepts outlined in this article provide essential insights that will enable researchers to know the importance of effectively utilizing their emotions and emotional intelligence.

Lacity, M., & Willcocks, L. (2017). Conflict resolution in business services outsourcing relationships. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems26(2), 80–100.

Lacity and Willcocks(2017) have demonstrated a clear understanding of the inter-organizational conflicts in BSO relationships and how the partners can resolve such conflicts in those firms. The authors have illustrated the three types of conflicts in a BSO(Business Service Outsourcing) setting: commercial, service, and relationship conflicts. Because outsourcing relationships are first and foremost commercial transactions—a provider must make a profit, and a client must achieve its economic business case to be possible. Thus commercial conflicts are the most problematic. In this article, the authors have demonstrated the understanding and application of Thomas and Killman’s topology of conflict resolution, which proved helpful in their research.

The intended audience in this article is partners in the BSO business setting aiming to gain insights and new knowledge that can effectively boost their professional understanding and help in their career growth.

In the research conducted by Hartl and Chavan (2016) concerning how culture influences conflict resolution in a transnational organization, the independent variable in the research proposal is unique. It is examined on an individual scale and encompasses a structure of each individual’s cultural values defined by personality, cultural intelligence, life spaces, experience abroad, and the organizational culture of a person’s place of work.

This information displayed in this article will aid in the understanding of the various conflicts cases in Business Service Outsourcing service providers(Lacity & Willcocks, 2017). The conflict types that have been outlined and discussed in this paper do provide an important insight concerning Business Service Outsourcing

Hartl, S., & Chavan, M. (2016). “CULTURE”–The imperceptible influence shaping conflict management and dispute resolution strategies in transnational business relationships: a conceptual framework to improve communication skills with international counterparts. In Yearbook of market entry advisory 2016: communication in international business (pp. 257-288). epubli.

In their research paper, Hartl and Chavan (2016) investigate the impact of “culture” on international business relationships’ conflict management and dispute settlement procedures. The authors demonstrate a keen understanding of how culture can play a significant role in the effective conflict resolution processes in transnational business companies.

The intended audience of this article is the business companies that operate internationally; the employees of those companies will also greatly benefit from this study that aims to understand how to resolve conflicts between their colleagues of different cultures. Transnational companies will gain significantly from this research paper as it contains essential information to enable conflict resolution among employees from different cultures.

Authors in a different article have shown how conflicts among organizations, in this case, the Business service Outsourcing companies, resolve disputes among their employees and conflicts among their partners. In this research, however, the independent variable is unique. It is examined on an individual scale and encompasses a structure of each individual’s cultural values defined by personality, cultural intelligence, life spaces, experience abroad, and the organizational culture of a person’s place of work (Lacity & Willcocks, 2017).

This research paper will help identify the concepts encompassed in resolving conflicts for transnational business enterprises. It will aid in knowledge acquisition and provide an overview of how culture influences conflict resolution.